federation, shall be deemed and considered as a charge against the United States, for payment and satisfaction whereof the said United States and the public faith are hereby solemnly pledged.

Art. XIII. Every State shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which, by this Confederation, are submitted to them. And the Articles of this Confederation shall be inviolably observed by every State, and the Union shall be perpetual; nor shall any alteration at any time hereafter be made in any of them, unless such alteration be agreed to in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the Legislatures of every State.

And whereas it hath pleased the great Governor of the world to incline the hearts of the Legislatures we respectively represent in Congress to approve of, and to authorize us to ratify, the said Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union, KNOW YE, that we, the undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that purpose, do by these presents, in the name and in behalf of our respective constituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm each and every of the said Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union, and all and singular the matters and things therein contained. And we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that they shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congress assembled on all questions which by the said Confederation are submitted to them; and that the Articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the States we respectively represent, and that the Union shall be perpetual. In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands in Congress. Lone at Philadelphia, in the State of Pennsylvania, the ninth day of July, in the year of our Lord 1778, and in the third year of the Independence of America.

Josiah Bartlett, JohnWentworth, jun. ) On the part and behalf of the

Aug. 8,1778, j State of New Hampshire

John Hancock, Francis Dana,

Samuel Adams, James Lovell,

Elbridge Gerry, Samuel Holton,

) On the part and
( State of Massa

behalf of the Massachusetts Bay.

}On the part and behalf of the
State- of Rhode Island
Providence Plantations.

\ On tl._ ......

„ „ , _A John Collins. V State of Rhode Island and

) Pr.

Roger Sherman,

Samuel Huntington,
Oliver Wolcott,
Jas Duane,
Fras Lewis,

Jn° Witherspoon,

Rob* Morris,

Daniel Roberdeftu,

Jon* Bayard Smith,

Tho. M'Kean, Feb. 12,1779,

John Dickinson, May 5, 1779,

John Hanson,

March 1,1781,
Richard Henry Lee,
John Banister,
Thomas Adams,
John Penn,

July 21,1778,
Henry Laurens,
"William Henry Drayion,
Jn° Matthews,
Jn*» Walton,

24th July, 1778,

Titus Hoamer,
Andrew Adam,

William Duer,
Govr Morris,

Nath1 Scudder,

William Clingan,
Joseph Reed,

22d July, 1778,
Nicholas Van Dyke.

Daniel Carroll,
March 1, 1781,
Jn° Harvie,
Francis Lightfoot Lee,

Corns Harnett,
Jn° Williams,
Richd Hutson,
Thos. Heyward, jun.

EdW» Telfair,
Edwd Langworthy,

[On the part and behalf of the
State of Connecticut.

I On the part and behalf or the
I State of New York.

[On the part and behalf of the
State of New Jersey Nov.
26, 1778.

On the part and behalf of th(
State of Pennsylvania.

!On the part and behalf of the
State of Delaware.
I On the part and behalf of the
( State of Maryland.

On the part and behalf of the
State of Virginia.

On the part and behalf of the
State of North Carolina.

On the part and behalf of the ,' State of South Carolina.

iOn the part and behalf of the State of Georgia.



Note. — A large figure is placed on the left margin of each paragraph of the following copy of the Constitution, so that the paragraphs may he referred to by nunber$. This will be found a convenience in studying the Analysis of the Constitution, as the corresponding figures are used there.

We, the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of lib erty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

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1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

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1. The House of Representatives shall be composed

3 of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature.

2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

* 3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, threefifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; and, until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, RhodeIsland and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Caro lina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

4. When vacancies happen in the representation froir /> any State, the executive authority thereof shall issue "writs of election to fill such vacancies.

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their

7 Speaker and other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment. * Modified so far as relates to representation by the 14th Amendment. See p. 74.




11 12 13


1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided, as equally as may be, into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the second class, at the expiration of the fourth year; and of the third class, at the expiration of the sixth year; so that one-third may be chosen every second year: and if vacancies happen, by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the executive thereof may make tempory appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

4. The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore in the absence of the VicePresident, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the con durrence of two-thirds of the members present.

7. Judgment in oases of impeachment shall not ex







tend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit, under the United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.


1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year; and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.


i. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members; and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each House may provide.

2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.

3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

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