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deserved to be happy; yet, if a book mer fortune, he was unable to obtain

a were compiled from the calamities of it. Thus, between jealousies, and the painters, as has been done in the his- narrowness of his domestic circumtory of men of literature, no one would stances, he daily pined away, till at excite our compassion more than he. last, struck by contagion, and abanThe poverty of Coreggio was rather doned both by his wife, and others, he exaggerated than true; the misery of died in 1530, in the 42d year of his

age, Dominichino knew its bounds; the and was buried with the most obscure Caracci, though poorly paid, lived be obsequies. yond scarcity ; but Andrea, from the The artists who came nearest to ill-fated day on which he married a Andrea in their style of painting, were certain woman named Lucrezia del Marc Antonio Francia Bigi, called Fede, remained in grief to his last Baldinucci, or Franciabigio, and Ponsigh. Vasari, in his first edition, says, tormo. The first was scholar, for that, for having married this woman some months, of Albertinelli, and af

he was despised by his friends, and terwards, it appears, formed himself => abandoned by his employers; so much upon the best models of the school;

was he the slave of her will, that he nor, according to Vasari, were there

was obliged to leave off succouring his many equal to him in the anato5 own father and mother; and that, on ac- my, in perspective, in the daily excount of her arrogance and ungovern- ercise of drawing from the naked, or able temper, no scholar of Andrea's in his exquisite diligence in every

lacould remain with him for any time. bour. There was already, by him, in i In the second edition, Vasari has either the church of St Pier Maggiore, an repented of what he had told, or been Annunciation, the figures small, and appeased; for he is comparatively si- ' of the highest finish, the architecture lent in such reproaches, though he beautiful, yet the picture was not does not deny that she was to her hus. wholly free from the old dryness. band the source of perpetual sorrow. Andrea, with whom he had contractHe relates, in addition, that Andrea ed a friendship, and formed a compa

was called to the Court of Francis the nionship in study, raised him to a * First of France, where, approved and higher style. Francia, (as he is call{ pensioned, he might have

raised the ed by Vasari,) from an associate beenvy of every artist, had he not, in- came an ardent imitator; and, if not duced by the womanly lamentations inferior in talent, yet he never could of Lucrezia, returned to Florence; add dispositions so sweet, effects so and, breaking the faith which he had true, or so much native grace to his pledged by oath to the king, he un- figures. There is in the cloisters of wisely preferred remaining in his own the Annunziata, a Lunette picture of country. Repenting of this rash step, the Marriage of the Virgin, close by and desirous to re-enter into his for- the works of Andrea; and we there

figures as large as life. On more minute inquiry, he found its merits were quite unknown to the fraternity, and before his departure concluded a bargain for its purchase, at a sum not exceeding L.25 English money. Not anticipating any further difficulty, he was in no hurry to remove his treasure from its old abode, but prosecuted his tour as far as Rome, and then returned to Florence, from whence he issued the necessary directions for its removal to Leghorn for embarkation. In the meantime, however, he had been so unguarded as to mention the circumstance to some of his acquaintance, and it came to the ears of a person employed as a Commissioner, by the Grand Duke, in collecting and preserving the capi d'opera of the art. Application was immediately made to Government, and two peremptory orders obtained, one of which was despatched to che convent, to prohibit the sale of the picture, in the event of its being still there, and the other to Leghorn, to forbid its being shipped, and to authorize its seizure, in possession of whomsoever it might be. It was apprehended in the act of commencing its journey to the ocean, that “highway broad and free,” which would so soon have carried it in triumph to England. It was shortly afterwards brought to Florence, where, clean. ed, re-varnished, and set in a magnificent frame, it now graces an apartment of the Pitti Palace, and is looked upon as one of the chief jewels of that unrivalled collection. In this country it would have been worth two thousand guineas ! We mention the anecdote as a warning to others. Vir supit qui pauca loquitur, says Ruddiman.

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perceive in what manner one painter His style may be said to have been strove to arrive, by effort, at the same somewhat estranged from the natural, degree of excellence which another had and he too easily became dissatisfied attained by his genius. This work is with one manner in order to attempt not yet completed, because, having what he conceived as a better, though been examined by the monks before frequently with an unfortunate result

. due tims, the painter felt so vexed, So it happened likewise to Napi, the that he gave it several blows with his Milanese, and to Sacchi, the Roman, hammer, in order to destroy it, and and indeed to every one else, who, at could never be again prevailed upon too mature an age, has attempted to to give it the last finish, nor did any change his taste. The Certosa of Floone else dare to do so. In the paint- rence possesses a picture by Pontormo, ing of the Scalzo he also competed from which the learned have deduced with Andrea ; and he there executed the three manners ascribed to him. two Histories, wbich certainly suffer The first is correct in the design, and little from the comparison. Thus, too, powerful in the colouring, and may at the Poggio Cajano, in the same spi- be regarded as the most allied to Anrit of friendly rivalry, he undertook to drea. The second is also good in the represent the return of Marcus Tul. design, but the colouringis rather lanlius from exile; and although that guid ; it was this which seems to have work was left unfinished (in tronco,) served as an example to Bronzino, and it exhibits great merit. It is the chief others of an after period. The third praise of Franciabigio's pencil, to have is a true imitation of Albert Durer, not so often coped with Andrea, and to merely in the invention, but even in have kept alive in him that emulation the heads and attitudes, a manner most and industry, as if he had feared the truly unworthy of so beautiful a commpossibility of being overcome. mencement of this style it is, how

Jacopo Carruchi, from the name of ever, difficult to find examples, except his birth-place, called Pontormo, was some histories of the Passion in the a man of rare genius, and admired, cloister of the monastery of Certosa, even in his earliest works, by Raphael seemingly copied from the engravings and Michael Angelo. He had recei- of Albert, and from the effects of which ved a few lessons from Da af- he afterwards spent some years in en. terwards from Albertinetti

, and was deavouring to free himself. We might somewhat-advanced in the art by Pier have added a fourth manner if the de Cosimno; finally, he gave himself great works at St Lorenzo with which as a scholar to Andrea del Sarto. Ha- he was engaged for eleven years, called ving raised the jealousy of his master, the Flood, and the Universal Judgment, and been treated uncourteously, he was had been still in

existence. They induced to take his leave, and soon became rather a competitor than an imi- white-washed for some ordinary pur

were his last labour, and afterwards tator in many labours. In the Visita- pose, without either regret or reunon tion at the cloisters of the Servi, in the strance on the part of the artificers. picture of various saints in the Church He had then wished to imitate Michael of St Michelino, in the two histories Angelo

, and to leave some examples of Joseph, in a cabinet of the Great of what has been called the anatomiGallery, one clearly sees how he fol. cal style, which iri Florence was now lows his master without fatigue, and about to be esteerned beyond every is guided almost in the same path rather by a resemblance in natural ge- very different from the object aimed

other. But the effect produced was nius, than through any principle of at, and he only taught posterity how imitation. It is an error to regard him vain and fruitless it is for a man ada forms and faces. He has always an varying fashion of the day as a copyist, like the settarii, of mere vanced in years to affect to follow the originality by which he may be distin

It was a custom of Andrea del Sar

sacred families in the house of the Marquis others of the age, to conduct his works Carboni Pucci, along with others by with the aid of painters practised in Baccio, Rossi, and del Sarto ; and his style, who were either his scholars or imitated these, he yet possesses a however much he may have resembled or his friends. This notice is not withwell-defined character of his own.

out use to those who, in studying his pictures, may sometimes detect the

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touch of another brush. It is known whom there are three pictures in the that he put the finishing hand to some Church of St Spirito. He also makes paintings of Pontormo, and that he honourable mention of two others who kept in his company Jacone and Do- lived much in France, Nannoccia and menico Puligo, two men born for the Andrea Sguazzella, both of whom held art, quick and docile in imitation, al- a style allied to that of Del Sarto. though desirous of mora substantial From the hands of the above-named rewards than those of honour. A high- painters more than from any other, ly commendable work of Jacone, is proceeded the many beautiful copies on the front of the noble Casa Buon- which, in Florence and elsewhere, so delmonte, done in chiar' oscuro, with frequently are made to pass for origia beautiful design (in regard to which nals; but it does not appear credible he was excellent) and entirely after that Andrea should have repeated so the manner of Andrea ; besides the often or so punctually his own invenpainting in oil which he executed at tions, or should have himself reduced Cortona, and of which Vasari talks them from the great to the small prowith praise. Puligo, on the other hand, portions. I have seen one of his holy excelled less in design than in colour- families, the Saint Elizabeth of which ing. His style was mild, harmonious, may be found in more than ten cabiand clear, though not without an idea niets; and other figures painted by of concealing the contours, and thus him may be found repeated in three or freeing himself from the obligation of four houses. I have observed the picrendering them more perfect. Thecha- ture of St Lorenzo, with other saints, racter of his style of painting may be which is in the Pitti, also in the Galdiscovered in some Madonnas, and lery of Albani, and the Visitation of our other pictures, which, probably de- Lord, in the Palazzo Giustiniani ; the signed by Andrea, appear at first sight Birth of our Lady, as painted at the as if they were also painted by him. Serri, is also in the house of Signor Another intimate friend and scholar

. Pirri at Rome, all most beautified picof Andrea was Dominico Conti, who tures, of a small size, by an ancient became heir to his collection of draw hand, and usually assigned to Andrea ings, and whose memory is eulogized del Sarto. To me it appears not imunder a bust erected to his honour be- probable that the best of so great a side the immortal works of the An- number were at least painted in his nunziata. Vasari makes mention of study, and retouched by himself, as another follower of Apdrea, called Pier- was the occasional custom of Titian francesco di Jacopo di Sandro, by and Raffael.



HOWISON'S CANADA. We have no hesitation in saying, much ornament, we have been able to that this is by far the best book which discover nothing either of superfluity or has ever been written by any British of vanity: In short, it seems to contain traveller on the subject of North Ame- a faithful and unaffected transcript of rica ; and we are quite sure it must not the workings of a mind alike active, only attract a great deal of notice now, reflective, fervid, imaginative, shrewd, but retain its place hereafter, in every upright, and generous. Mr Howison considerable library, both on this and is entitled, by this effort alone, to claim on the other side of the Atlantic. It is no undistinguished rank among the written, as we are informed, by a very English writers of his time ; but noyoung man ; but this is what nobody body who reads his book, can doubt would be likely to guess from the style that it remains with himself to deeither of its opinions, or of its language: mand and obtain, by future exertions, for it displays enthusiasın, without any such a high and eminent place, as it is trace of the green ; and in the midst of probable his own modesty may have

* Sketches of Upper Canada, Domestic, Local, and Characteristic : to which are added, Practical Details for the information of Emigrants of every class ; and some Recollections of the United States of America. By John Howison. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh. 8vo.

hitherto prevented him from concei- the districts through which he travelving to be within his reach.

led. The subject of Emigration is per- Being a Scotsman, and of course achaps the most important to which the quainted with the actual state of his attention of British politicians has late- country, it was to be expected that Mr ly been directed; and we earnestly re- Howison should consider the subject commend this book to the notice of all of emigration, with a particular regard who love their country, and their coun- to the habits and necessities of those try's welfare, because we believe more unfortunate countrymen of his own, practically useful hints in regard to this who, in consequence of many untogreat subject, may be gathered from ward circumstances, are every day comits unpretending pages, than from all pelled to think of seeking the means the treatises and travels that have ap- of existence at a distance from their peared within the last twenty years. native land ; and we shall not affect Totally free from the prejudices which to conceal, that to our view the chief have so offensively characterized the interest and value of his book consist greater part of those who went before in the admirable manner in which he him--totally free, as it appears to us, has thrown together the result of infrom all prejudices, except a few, from quiries instituted and pursued from which we hope English gentlemen the most patriotic of motives. This will never be quite emancipated-Mr is not the place nor the time for invesHowison writes like a man who loves tigating the short-sighted and hearthis country, and respects her religion, less behaviour of certain great propriebutdisplays not the least trace of bigot- tors, whose miserable selfishness has ry, either political or religious. He has been the chief origin of the necessity not gone through a new region wil- of emigration from the mountainous fully blinded. He has seen the good districts of Scotland.

The day will and the evil, and he has told what he come, and that full surely, when these has seen with the calmness of one who persons, or their descendants

, shall be has thought too much of human life, compelled to repent in bitterness and either to expect extravagantly, or to vexation of spirit, of the policy which judge uncharitably. His sagacity has drives away a virtuous and devoted peanot chilled his feelings, nor has his santry, for the sake of rearing a diffewarm-heartedness unnerved his judg- rent species of farm-stock, and therement. Our literature, in a word, has by increasing (perhaps precariously not for a long time witnessed a debut enough) the rental of a few overgrown every way so promising, as this of Mr estates. The whole of this subject is, Howison.

we are well informed, about to be It does not appear with what parti- treated in the fullest and most mastercular views or purposes Mr Howison ly manner, by one whose name will crossed the Atlantic; though, from va- afford the highest pledge, both for the rious passages in his book, we should accuracy of his statements, and the be inclined

to suppose he did not tras liberality of his view sand, therefore, vel purely for amusement, but rather we for the present shall be silent. It that he had entertained some thoughts is sufficient to know, that a necessity of settling either in Canada or in the for emigration does exist


the United States, in some professional si- Highlanders of Scotland, and it is tuation. That he has received a medical education, we think highly pro- a man as Mr Howison, that by emi

most consolatory to be assured by such bable, particularly from the excellent grating to Upper Canada, it is in the style in which he satirizes some of the power of any industrious man to pour transatlantic practitioners

, and the fe- chase, by the labour of three or four licity with which he occasionally dis- years, the certainty of a comfortable cusses topics of chemical, mineralogi- subsistence for himself and the

whole cal, and Zoological inquiry; but with of his family, during all the

rest of Mr Howison's personal views, we have their days. "Mr Howison's precis of nothing to do: It is sufficiently evi- the result of his observations dent, that in the pursuit of them, he head, is too valuable not to be given as sought and obtained very extensive it stands in his own words: opportunities of observing the state of Emigrants ought society, manners, and commerce, in all bound for Quebec or Montreal. If they


on this

embark in vessels





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sail for New York, they will have to pay a quantity under cultivation. AU lands are duty of 30 per cent. upon their luggage bestowed under certain regulations and rewhen they arrive at that port; and, as there strictions. The settler must clear five acres is very little water-carriage between it and upon each hundred granted to him, open a Canada, the route will prove a most expen- road in front of his lot, and build a log. sive one, particularly to people who carry house of certain dimensions. These setmany articles along with them. Those who tling-duties, if performed within eighteen have money to spare, should lay in a quan- months after the location-ticket has been tity of wearing apparel before leaving this issued, entitlc him to a deed from governcountry, as all articles of the kind cost very ment, which makes the lot his for ever ; high in Upper Canada. A stock of broads and are so far from being severc or unreacloth, cotton, shoes, bedding, &c. can be sonable, that he will find it necessary to carried out at a trifling expence, and will perform them in less than the time speci. prove advantageous to the settler. But no fied, if he propose to obtain a subsistence one should take household furniture with from the cultivation of his farm. The fol. him ; and if he cannot sell what he has in lowing is a list of the fees on grants of land this country, he ought to leave it behind exceeding fifty acres :him. The conveyance of tables, chairs, &c.

100 acres

£ 5 14 1 into the back-woods costs far more than 200

16 17 6 their value; besides every thing that is ne- 300

24 11 7 cessary for the interior of a log-hut can be 400

32 procured in the settlements. Good furni

39 19 9 ture is not at all fit for the rude abode that 600

47 18 10 must at first be occupied by those who 700

55 17 11 have newly emigrated.


63 2 0 “A passage to Quebec or Montreal can 909

70 16 0 Es now be procured for about £7, provisions 1000

78 10 2 included. Half price is usually paid for


86 4 3 children. Nothing is charged for luggage,


93 18 4 unless the quantity is very great. Those “ The emigrant must now visit the setemigrants who have but a small sum of tlement, or place, where he feels most inclimoney, should convert it into guineas or ned to take up his residence. Different perdollars, British bank-notes and silver not sons will, of course, recommend different being current in Canada. If the amount is spots. But that tract of land which extends large, it should be lodged in the hands of from the mouth of the Niagara river to the a friend in this country, and such arrange- head of Lake Erie, combines a greater ments made as will enable its owner to ob- number of advantages than any other portain the sum he wants, by drawing a bill tion of the Province; and the emigrant upon his correspondent at home.

will do well to choose his lot in some part “ There are offices, both at Quebec and of it. He may perhaps be told, that it lies Montreal, where persons, by paying a small too far from a market; but this is quite a fee, may obtain some information about temporary defect, and is fully counterbavacant lands, the expence of a grant, and lanced by the richness of soil, comparative the means of proceeding to the Upper Pro- lightness of timber, fine water communica

vince. Emigrants should go to these when- tions, and superiority of climate, which chaLever they get on shore, and make such in- racterize its whole extent. Ancaster, Long 1 quiries as they may think necessary, and Point, Talbot Road, &c. are situated in then immediately set out for York. this fertile region, which contains many

"When the emigrant reaches York, he other settlements equally beautiful and inshould go to the Land Office there, where viting. he will be informed concerning the steps “ Whenever the emigrant has obtained that must be taken, before he can be en- from government a location-ticket, which titled to a grant. It is unnecessary to de- is a sort of certificate that empowers him tail these farther than by stating, that the to take possession of the portion of land he chief object of them is, to make the appli- has selected, he ought to commence operacant prove himself a British subject. tions immediately. But it sometimes hap

“Government gives fifty acres of land to pens, that emigrants are too poor to purany British subject, free of cost ; but, if chase the provisions, stock, and farming he wishes to have a larger quantity, he utensils that new settlers require, when must pay fees to a certain amount. In Ca- commencing their labours. Persons so sinada, fifty acres are considered as a very tuated must hire themselves out, until they small farm, and therefore the emigrarit gain enough to make a beginning. They should procure at least twice as much, if will be paid for their work in money, grain, he can afford to do so ; however, he will cattle, or provisions ; all which articles wili not easily obtain more than one hundred prove equally useful and valuable to them. acres, unless he proves himself possessed They will, at the same time, be acquiring of the means of soon bringing a larger a knowledge of the manners and customs


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