that his father was very sick of an ague, and he believed the Queen would depute some other to confer with him, in case his father's health would not permit him that liberty.

Whitelocke. I am very sorry for the indisposition of our father, and for the delay of my business. I have been here about three months, and nothing is yet concluded.

Gr. Eric. The uncertainty of your Dutch affair, and the Queen's desire to know the issue of it, hath occasioned this delay.

JFIi. As the points of amity and commerce, they concern not our Dutch treaty.

Gr. Eric. You will be sure to receive all satisfaction and contentment on that subject; but there are many particulars of the commerce to be considered.

Wh. I cannot say much upon those particulars; but I was sent hither by my Lord Protector to testify his respect to the Queen and kingdom of Sweden, and to offer to them the amity of England, which I suppose that wise and experienced persons as you are will accept of; and for commerce my proposals are general.

Gr. Eric. I confess the particulars thereof may more conveniently be treated on by merchants; and we do not so much desire a confederation with any nation as with England.

It was supposed by Whitelocke, that by the deferring of his business here, the Hollanders would be in the more suspense and doubt of the issue of it, and might thereby come on the more freely in their treaty with England; whereas, if the issue of his business here were known, it might perhaps seem less to them than it was now suspected to be. Upon this ground,

VOL. II. c

though he spake of the delay, yet he did not so much press for a positive answer, but that he imagined the Dutch treaty might be brought to an issue; he intended to put on his business here, and the default hitherto rested on their part, as was acknowledged by their own excuses. Discourse Whilst Eric was with Whitelocke, the Chief Justice

with the . . .

Chief came in. And after Grave Eric was gone the Chief s' Justice discoursed much concerning the Protector and his family, his extraction and pedigree, his former quality and condition, and his present state and manner of living: to which Whitelocke answered truly, and with honour to the Protector; and as to his present post, attendants, and ceremonies of his Court, he could not give so punctual an account, it being altered since his coming from England. He also inquired particularly concerning the Parliament, the forms of their summons, sitting, debating, voting, power, and authority; in all which Whitelocke was the better able to satisfy him, having been a Member of Parliament for almost thirty years together: and then the Chief Justice inquired further:—

Chief Justice. What opinions of Calvin are most in estimation in England? and what is the state of your religion there?

Whitelocke. Neither Calvin's opinion nor Luther's are esteemed in England further than they are agreeable to the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, which are the rules and contain the state of religion professed in England. But by what state of religion is the profanation of the Lord's Day, and of images and crucifixes in churches, permitted?

Ch. Just. No recreations or works are permitted on Sundays till after divine service ended, and then Calvin permits them; and Luther is of opinion for the historical use of images and crucifixes, but not to pray to them.

Wh. Herein both the opinion of Calvin and that of Luther are expressly contrary to the Holy Scripture, and therefore not esteemed in these points in England.

The Chief Justice eagerly asserted these opinions not to be contrary to the Scripture, but alleged no proof, either from thence or out of human authors, to make good his assertion. After much argumentation hereupon, the Chief Justice offered to Whitelocke that he would move the Queen for a speedy despatch of his business; and said, he did not doubt but that satisfaction would be given him therein.

Whitelocke was the more desirous to get a conclusion of his business while Piementelle was here, because of his great favour with the Queen; which, with her respects to Montecuculi, both great Papists, caused Whitelocke to have the more doubt of her inclinations.

Prince Adolphus made a great entertainment for Montecuculi, Piementelle, and most of the grandees in town; but Whitelocke was omitted, his humour and principles as to their jollities and drinking of healths not being agreeable to theirs; and he held this neglect no affliction to him.

March 9, 1653.

Whitelocke visited the Ricks-Admiral Oxenstiern, the Chancellor's brother, who received him with great civility; and they discoursed very much of Whitelocke's business to the effect as others did. whiteiockc He also visited Grave John Oxenstiern, the Chan

visits the

chancel- ccllor's eldest sou, whose carriage was elated. Two of son!cldest his pages were sons of Earls, and had the title of Earls; his servants were some of them set at his outer door to receive Whitelocke; himself vouchsafed to meet him at the inner door, and, with supercilious reservedness of state, descended to say to Whitelocke that he was welcome. They discoursed of England, where this Grave had been, as is before remembered, and the distaste he there received, which possibly might cause his greater neglect of Whitelocke, who took little notice of it. He took upon him to be fully instructed in the affairs of England, and of the laws and government there; wherein Whitelocke presumed to rectify some of his mistakes.

When he offered to move the Queen for despatch of Whitelocke's business, he answered, that he had done it himself already, and there would be no need to trouble any other. This occasioned some discourse about the treaty, to which, with great gravity, this General declared his judgement concerning contraband goods, that great care was to be taken therein, not to give any interruption to trade. Whitelocke said, that concerned England much more than Sweden. Then he took care that the English rebels and traitors might have favour in his country; but Whitelocke, knowing that he was neither employed nor versed in the business of his treaty, spent the fewer words in answer to his immaterial objections, whitelocke in the afternoon Whitelocke attended the Queen, the Queen who excused her not having conferred with him about

on the articles.


his treaty. Whitelocke told her, that, if it were now seasonable, he had them ready, and they might read them over together; whereunto she consented, and he read them to her.

She took out a paper of notes, written with her own hand in Latin, her observations upon the articles.

1. After Whitelocke had read the first article, she said there was nothing therein which needed explanation.

2. The second, she said, would require consideration, and read out of her notes the words "communis interesse," which she desired Whitelocke to explain what was meant by them. He told her those words included matter of safety and matter of traffic. She then demanded why the Baltic Sea was named as to free navigation, and not other seas likewise. Whitelocke said the reason was, because at present navigation was not free in the Baltic Sea; but if she pleased to have other seas also named, he would consent to it. She asked if he would consent to freedom of navigation in America. Whitelocke told her he could not, and that the treaties of the Commonwealth were comprehended within the bounds of Europe. She asked him what he thought the Protector would do in case she demanded that liberty. He said, his Highness would give such an answer as should consist with the interest of England, and show a due regard to her Majesty.

3. This third article she said she would agree unto, but she thought it necessary that a form should be agreed upon for certificates and letters of safe-conduct, that ships might pass free upon showing of them. Whitelocke said, he thought there would be no need of them, especially if the peace with the Dutch were

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