concluded. She replied, that if the war continued it would be necessary.

4. She said she thought there would be no need of this article, and read another which she herself had drawn in Latin to this effect—" That if any hereafter should commit treason, or be rebels in one country, they should not be harboured in the other." Whitelocke said, the article was already to that purpose, and he thought it necessary for the good of both nations. She said, it would be too sharp against divers officers who had served her father and herself, and were now settled in Sweden. Whitelocke offered that amendment which he before tendered to the Chancellor, which when she read, she told Whitelocke, that might include all those men whom she mentioned before. Whitelocke said, that, upon inquiry into it, he found not one excepted by name from pardon. She said, for anything to be done hereafter, it was reasonable, and she would consent to it. Whitelocke said, that if any hereafter should come into her country, who were excepted from pardon, it was also reasonable to include them in this article. •

5. She said that this and the second article would require further consideration; because if she should consent thereunto, it would declare her breach of the neutrality which she had hitherto kept. Whitelocke told her, if the peace were concluded with the Dutch, that neutrality would be gone; and if the war con tinued, he presumed she would not stick to declare otherwise then that neutrality. She said that was true, but she desired that this and the second article might be let alone until the issue of the Dutch treaty.

6. The sixth article, she said, was reasonable.

7. She took exception to the words " bona a suis

cujusque inimicis direpta," which, she said, was a breach of her neutrality. To that Whitelocke answered as before upon the fifth article; and she desired it might be passed over as the second and fifth articles, till the issue of the Dutch treaty were known. She said she would desire the liberty of fishing for herrings. Whitelocke told her that upon equal conditions he presumed his Highness would consent to that which should be fit. She asked what conditions he would demand. Whitelocke said, those matters of commerce would be better agreed upon with the advice of merchants.

"8. The eighth article she said was equal.

9. There was no difference upon it.

10. She judged fit to be agreed upon.

11. She made some short observations, which by explanation Whitelocke cleared, and she agreed.

12. The like as upon the eleventh article.

13. To this article she read in Latin an objection to the proviso, and said it was reasonable that, if they

. did break bulk, they should pay custom for so much only as they sold. Whitelocke told her that objection showed that there were great men merchants in Sweden, and that the objection was more in favour of the merchants than of herself. She said the merchants were crafty indeed; and she did not much insist upon it.

14. The last article which Whitelocke had given in. To this she said it was fit that the men-of-war that should come into the other ports should be to a number ascertained, to avoid suspicion. Whitelocke said he would agree thereunto, with a caution, as in the first article, to be added: if they should be driven by tempest, force, or necessity, then to be dispensed with.

Whitelocke desired her Majesty to give him a copy of her objections. She told him, they were only a few things which she had written with her own hand, upon her apprehension of the articles, and that he should have them in writing; but she desired him not to acquaint any person here with this conference.

March 10, 1653.

Upon yesterday's conference with the Queen, Whiteto locke wrote the passages thereof at large to Thurloe, to be communicated to the Council in England, and to pray their direction in some points which are set down thus in his letters :—

"I shall desire to know the pleasure of my Lord Protector and Council, whether, in case I shall conclude those articles of amity and commerce, omitting the second, fifth, and seventh articles, if his Highness will be pleased to approve thereof. I confess my humble opinion is (unless I receive commands to the contrary) that in case the peace be concluded between us and Holland, and Denmark included, it will be no disadvantage to us to conclude the alliance here, omitting the second, fifth, and that part of the seventh article against which her Majesty objected, if she shall insist upon it.

"Another point wherein I pray direction is upon the sixteenth article of your treaty with the Dutch, that either Commonwealth shall be comprehended, if they desire it, in treaties with other Princes, and notice to be given of such treaties; whether in case your treaty with the Dutch shall be agreed, that then notice ought to be given to them of the treaty with the Queen of Sweden, and the Dutch to be offered to be comprehended therein; or whether, the treaty here being begun before that with the Dutch concluded, there will be any cause to give such notice to them, or to give notice to the Queen of your treaty with the Dutch; which you will be pleased to consider.

"I am very willing to hasten homewards when I may obtain my Lord's order; and that it will be no prejudice here to your service, as I conceive such a conclusion would not at all be.

"I presume you have heard of the news at Antwerp, which is very fresh here this week, that the Archduke hath imprisoned the Duke of Lorraine in the castle of Antwerp, which caused the gates of the town to be shut; and that hath occasioned to your friends here the loss of the comfort of this week's letters from England, the post being stayed there, as I was certified from your Resident at Hamburg."

Many despatches were made by Whitelocke to his friends in England, as his constant course was.

March 11, 1653. The Ricks-Admiral visited Whitelocke. He dis- Admiral


coursed of the treaty here, and said that the Queen visits

... . White

had not yet informed the Council of it in particular. iocke.

He much inquired of the nobility of England, of the Earls and Barons, and of their privileges, and what rank their children had, and of the several orders of knights, and of their original; in which matters Whitelocke was able to give him some satisfaction. He told Whitelocke that the Duke of Lorraine was imprisoned for conspiring with the Count de Bassigni to betray three strong towns to the King of France.

Whitelocke visited Prince Adolphus, who also dis- ^hTwe coursed of his business, as others did. Whitelocke AdolPhu»told him of his long being here without any answer. The Prince said, the Queen's designs to introduce a

mutation might cause it. Whitelocke said he believed that the amity of England deserved so much regard as to be embraced; and that it would be all one whether the treaty should be agreed upon by the Queen or by her successor, for it concerned the people and State of both nations; and he presumed that if the Queen should consent to it, that his Highness's brother would have the like good opinion of it. The Prince said it would be most agreeable to his brother, who very much respected the English nation, as generally the Swedish people did. He said that he never was present at the Council, nor did meddle with any public business; but he doubted not but that Whitelocke would receive contentment. Whitelocke said he promised himself so much, being the Protector had sent him hither to testify his respects to the Queen and to the kingdom of Sweden, and to offer them the amity of England.

The Prince also discoursed of the late King of England, and of the proceedings between him and the Parliament, with great dislike thereof; to which Whitelocke gave him an account, and a modest answer declining that argument with the Prince, and telling him that every nation had their particular rights and laws, according to which they were governed. He testified great respect to Whitelocke; and when he took his leave the Prince conducted him as far as the great court, which he used not to do to others of Whitelocke's quality.

March 12, 1653. The treaty ^lr. Bloome—who had been formerly a servant to

delayed by •

reason of the old Duke of Buckingham in England, and after abdication, that coming to Sweden, was entertained by the Chan

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