berds gilded in their hands; they stood in a fixed posture, more like images than men. When they came to the audience-chamber, there was scarce room for any of Whitelocke's gentlemen to come in; but by the civility of the Queen's servants room was made for them, and they made a lane from the. door of the chamber to the upper end near the Queen, who was upon a footpace covered with carpets, and a rich canopy over her head. Her habit was black silk stuff for her coats, and over them a black velvet jippo, such as men use to wear; she had upon her breast the jewel of the Order of the Knights of Amaranta; her hair hung loose as it used to do, and her hat was after the fashion of men. A great number of senators and of civil and military officers and courtiers,—many more than ordinarily did appear at any audience,—stood all bare about her, and a few ladies were behind her. She stood upon the carpets before the state with her hat on; and when Whitelocke came first into the room, and pulled off his hat, the Queen presently pulled off her hat; and when Whitelocke made his honours, she answered him, though at that distance, with a short curtsey. After his three obeisances, being come up to the Queen, he kissed her hand; then the Queen put on her hat, and Whitleocke put on his'hat, and after a little pause, with high silence and solemnity in all the company, Whitelocke took off his hat, and the Queen took off her hat likewise, and all the time of his speaking both of them were uncovered. Whitelocke, having made his ceremonies, spake to the Queen thus:—

"Madam, White"I confess that the time of my absence from my relations farewell aud concernments in my own country would have seemed speech. very tedious, had I not been in the public service and honoured with admittance into your Majesty's presence, whose favours, answerable to your greatness though above my merit, have been enlarged towards me during the whole time of my residence under the just and safe protection of your Majesty; the which,—with the civilities of those most excellent persons with whom I treated, and of those who have been pleased to honour me with their acquaintance in your Court,—I shall not fail to acknowledge with all respect.

"But, Madam, to your Majesty I shall not presume to return any other acknowledgment than by the thanks of my Lord the Protector, who is able to judge of the aifection shown to him, and to the Commonwealth whereof he is the head, by the honour done unto their servant.

"Madam, it is your great judgement in the public interest, and your desire to advance the good of your own State and that of your neighbours, and the particular respect that you bear to my master, whereby the business trusted to my care by his Highness is brought to such an issue as I hope will be a solid foundation of great and mutual prosperity to both these nations.

"I have nothing to add on my part, but to entreat that my failings and errors, not wilfully committed, may be excused; to take my leave of your Majesty, and to assure you that there is no person who honours you more than I do, and who shall be more ready to lay hold on any opportunity whereby I may endeavour, to the utmost of my power, to contribute to the happiness and prosperity of your royal Majesty and of your people."

As it was done at Whitelocke's first audience, so he now ordered it, that Monsieur De la Marche, one of his chaplains, did, at the end of every sentence, as Whitelocke spake, interpret the same to the Queen in French. During all the time of his speaking to the Queen she looked him wistly in the face and came up very near unto him, as she had done at his first audience,—perhaps to have daunted him, as she had done others, but he was not daunted; and when he had made an end of speaking, after a little pause the Queen answered him in the Swedish language, which was then interpreted in Latin to Whitelocke, to this effect:—

"My Lord Ambassador, The


"It may well be that your stay in this place, where you reply, have been so ill accommodated, and your absence from your near relations and native country, hath been tedious to you; but I can assure you that your residence in my Court hath been a contentment to myself and to those who have had the honour to converse with you in this place; and it would have been a blemish to me and to all under my government if in this time anything of injury or danger had fallen out to your person or to any of your people. I hope I may say that there hath been no such thing offered to you, and I am glad of it.

"I do not know that your judgement hath deceived you in anything but this, that you have too great a value of my understanding of public affairs. It hath been your prudent management of the business committed to your trust by the Protector, and my particular respects to him and to your Commonwealth, with the good inclinations of the people of this country towards you, and the general interests of the Protestant party, which have brought your business to effect, and which, I hope, will occasion much good and happiness to these nations and to all the Evangelical party. And truly, Sir, your demeanour on all occasions requires from us this testimony, that we have found much honour and great abilities to be in you; and I should be very unwilling to part with so good company, were it not in order to your own satisfaction for your return to England.

"I know no errors committed by you here, but desire your excuse of the want of those expressions of our respect which this place would not afford. The thanks are due to you for your patience, and for the affection which you have testified to me and to this nation, from whom you may depend upon a firm friendship and amity, with a true respect to the Protector and Commonwealth of England, and an honourable esteem of yourself in particular, to whom we wish a safe and prosperous return to your own country."

After the Queen had done speaking, Whitelocke had some private discourse of compliment with her in French, to give her Majesty thanks for her noble treatment of him and many favours to him; then, according to the usage of this Court, he delivered to Mr. Lagerfeldt, standing by, a copy of his speech, in English, signed by him with his hand, and another copy of his speech in Latin, not signed by him, to be presented to the Queen. Then Whitelocke took his leave, and kissed her Majesty's hand, who gave him the adieu with great respect and civility. He was conducted back to his coach with the same ceremony as he was brought to his audience; and the same two senators, with the master of the ceremonies, returned with him to his house, and after usual compliments passed between them, they returned to the Court.

The trouble of the day was not yet ended; but after Whitelocke had come from the Court, Lagerfeldt brought to him the articles touching Guinea which were agreed upon and signed and sealed by the Queen's Commissioners, as the other part of them was by Whitelocke.*

* " I, the subscribed Bulstrode Whitelocke, Constable of the Castle of Windsor, and one of the Keepers of the Great Seal of the Commonwealth of England, Commissioner, Procurator, Deputy, and Extraordinary Ambassador of the Most Serene and Most High Lord Oliver, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the dominions thereof and the said Commonwealth, do make known and testify, that whereas by the treaty of alliance between the said Most Serene and my Most High Lord Oliver, Lord

After the great toil of this busy day, a yet greater toil must be undergone by Whitelocke to make his despatches for England. By his letters to Thurloe he again acquainted the Council with the good conclusion of his treaty, and with his taking leave of the Queen in his last audience; and sent him copies of the speeches, and gave an account of the business of Guinea, with all material passages since his last letters, and his resolution and way of return home. He also answered the letters of every one of his friends, which were very many; but that to his wife, as he was afterwards informed, caused much trouble and passion, that by this date of the letter, 12th May, she perceived that he was not removed from Upsal in his journey to return homewards.

Protector, and the Moat Serene and Most Potent Prince and Lady the Lady Christina, by the grace of God Queen of the Swedes, Goths, and Vandals, etc., a firm peace and friendship is established: and I have judged it chiefly consonant thereunto to find out means to remove certain grievances of the people and citizens of either State, and to take away all grounds and occasions thereof which may arise in time to come. Therefore, upon some differences moved, I have agreed with the most illustrious and most excellent Lords, Plenipotentiary Commissioners and Senators of her said Royal Majesty and of Sweden, the Lord Axel Oxenstiem, Chancellor of the kingdom, etc., and the Lord Eric Oxenstiem, son of Axel, President of the General College of Trade, ete., in manner as by the following articles is expressed and explained.

"First, whereas a certain company of English exercising merchandise in Guinea have complained of one Henry Carelove, who, being Governor of the Swedish Company in that country, did take away from the English certain places inhabited by them, and did other injuries to them; but the said Swedish Company not only took upon them to prove that the before-named Governor did commit no fault, but likewise made complaint of grievances against the officers of the said English Company; but these particular differences of merchants at this time could not for certain reasons be wholly determined, and therefore it seemed most counselable to both parties that in a friendly VOL. II. R

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