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of affairs will lead unto. In the meantime you may assure the Queen of the constancy and reality of my intentions to settle a firm alliance with her. I commend you to the goodness of God.

"Your loving friend,

"oliveb P.

"Whitehall, 3rd February, 1653."

Marc A 3, 1653.

Grave John Oxenstiern, eldest son of the Chancellor, The son of came to visit Whitelocke; a Ricks-Senator, and had fomeriyTM been Ricks-Schatz-master, or High Treasurer, a place England, next in honour to that of his father. He had been formerly ambassador from this Crown to England; but because he was sent by the Chancellor his father, and the other Directors of the affairs of Sweden in the Queen's minority, which King Charles and his Council took not to be from a sovereign prince; and because his business touching the Prince Elect's settlement, and the affairs of Germany relating to Sweden, did not please our King; therefore this gentleman was not treated here with that respect and solemnity as he challenged to be due to him as an ambassador; which bred a distaste in him and his father against the King and Council here, as neglecting the father and the good offices which he tendered to King Charles and this nation, by slighting the son and his quality.

The discourse between this Grave and Whitelocke was not long, though upon several matters; and he seemed to be sent to excuse the delay of the treaty with Whitelocke, for which he mentioned former reasons, as his father's want of health, multiplicity of business, the expected issue of the Dutch treaty, and the like; and the same excuses were again repeated by Lagerfeldt, who came to Whitelocke from the Chancellor for the same purpose.

Whitelocke had occasion to look into his new credentials and instructions from the Protector, which were thus.

white- "Oliver, Lord Protector, etc., to the Most Serene and Potent

"God, who is the great Disposer of all things, having been pleased in His unsearchable wisdom to make a change in the Government of these nations since the time that the noble B. Whitelocke, Constable, etc. went from hence, qualified and commissioned as Ambassador Extraordinary from the Parliament of the Commonwealth of England unto your Majesty, to communicate with you in things tending to the mutual good and utility of both the nations, we have thought it necessary upon this occasion to assure your Majesty that the present change of affairs here hath made no alteration of the good intentions on this side towards your Majesty and your dominions; but that as we hold ourself obliged, in the exercise of that power which God and the people have entrusted us with, to endeavour by all just and honourable means to hold a good correspondence with our neighbours, so more particularly with the Crown of Sweden, between whom and these nations there hath always been a firm amity and strict alliance; and therefore we have given instructions to the said Lord Whitelocke, answerable to such good desires, earnestly requesting your Majesty to give unto him favourable audience as often as he shall desire it, and full belief in what he shall propound on the behalf of these dominions. And so we heartily commend your Majesty and your affairs to the Divine pro

locke'a new credentials and instructions.

"Most Serene and Potent Queen,

Prince Christina, etc., health and prosperity.

tection. Given at Whitehall this 23rd of December, Old Style, 1653.

"Your good friend,

"oliveb P."

The following instructions were under the hand and private seal of the Protector :—

"An Instruction for B. TVhitelocke, Constable, etc., Ambassador Extraordinary from the Commonwealth of England to the Queen of Sweden.

"Whereas you were lately sent in the quality of Ambassador Extraordinary from the Parliament of the Commonwealth of England unto her Majesty the Queen of Sweden, for the renewing and contracting an alliance and confederation with that Queen and Crown, according to the commission and instructions you received from the said Parliament and the then Council of State; And whereas, since your departure hence, the then Parliament hath been dissolved, and the Government is settled and established in such a way that you will understand by letters from Mr. Thurloe, Secretary of the Council, who is directed to give unto you a full account hereof: Now lest the work you are upon (which is so necessary in itself to both the nations, and so sincerely desired on our part) should be interrupted or retarded by reason of the said change of affairs, and the question that may arise thereupon concerning the validity of your commission and instructions, I have thought fit, by advice of the Council, to write unto her Majesty new letters credential, a copy whereof you will receive herewith, which letters you are to present to the Queen. And you are also, by virtue of these presents, to let her Majesty know that the alteration of the Government here hath made no change in the good intentions on this side towards her Majesty and her dominions; but that she shall find the same readiness in me to maintain and increase all good intelligence and correspondence with that Queen and Crown as in any the former governors of these nations. And to that end you are hereby authorized to proceed in your present negotiation, and to endeavour to bring the treaty with her Majesty to a good conclusion according to the tenour and effect of the commission, powers, and instructions you have already received, and which I shall by any further act ratify and confirm according as the nature of the business shall require.

"Before your Lordship deliver these letters credential to the Queen, or make any addresses to her, you are to inform yourself fully of the reception you are like to have, and whether her intentions be to come to a treaty of amity with this State as the Government is now established, that no dishonour may befall us or these dominions in your addresses upon these letters and instructions. Given at Whitehall this 23rd of December, 1653.

"Oliver P."

Whitelocke made many despatches this day to England.

March 4, 1653.

The Queen Whitelocke waited on the Queen and showed her tuning the Part of the letters which he received from England, Protector. whereupon she again asked him if the Protector were sacre? Whitelocke said, No, and that his letters mentioned only a solemnity of entertaining the Protector by the City of London. Whitelocke also communicated to her Majesty the Protector's letter to him, and the expression that Whitelocke should assure her Majesty of the Protector's constant and real intentions to settle a firm alliance with the Queen; which, she said, she was also most ready to make with the Protector.

Whitelocke then said it might be fit to make some progress in his treaty upon his articles, and particularly in those which concerned amity and commerce, and had no dependence on the issue of the treaty with Holland, and therefore might be had in consideration before the other were fully concluded, and the rest of the articles might be considered afterwards; which the Queen said should be done, and that she would send an ambassador to the Protector. She was very inquisitive concerning London and our Universities; by her discourse gave him to imagine she had thoughts of travelling into France, Spain, Italy, and into England; and asked Whitelocke if he thought the Protector would give way to her coming thither. Whitelocke answered, that the Protector would bid her Majesty very welcome thither.

He was alone with her near two hours, and at his taking leave she desired him to come to her again on Monday next, and that then she would read over with him his articles, both in Latin and English, which they would consider together; and such things as she could consent unto she would tell him, and what she could not consent unto he should then know from her, and they might mark it in the margin as they went along. Yet she said she would have him to proceed in his conference with her Chancellor as before, and that nobody should know of that conference between her and Whitelocke; but she would so order the business that what they consented unto should be effected afterwards, and that in two hours they might go over all the articles. Whitelocke told her Majesty he presumed that she would admit of a free debate upon any of them. She said, by all means, that was reasonable; and in case the peace between England and Holland did not take effect, that then the ambassador, whom

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