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boards, 21 boards of highway commissioners, 16 boards of village trustees, four boards of aldermen (under various titles at different times), two park boards and one dock board; and each of these various franchise-granting bodies kept their own minutes and records. The sources of franchise grants to railroad companies, other than the franchise to be a corporation, include:

1. The legislature;

2. The counties, through their Boards of Supervisors;

3. The cities, through their legislative boards,— such as

Board of Aldermen, Common Council, and the Board of Estimate and Apportionment,— and permits from special boards, such as Parks and Docks, the Board of Electrical Control, etc.

4. The towns, — through their town boards, and through

their Commissioners of Highways.

5. The villages, — through their trustees.

The various municipalities and sources of franchise grants which have existed within the territory of Greater New York since the establishment (largely by continuation) of the political divisions of the State of New York, April 1, 1789, together with the term during which they held the franchise-granting power, are:

1. The legislature — exclusively until April 2, 1850; then

concurrently until January 30, 1860; then exclusively as to New York City only, until January 1, 1875, when the right of the legislature to enact laws granting special franchises was prohibited — and with the qualifications implied above.

2. In The Bronx:

Westchester County, from April 1, 1789, to June 6, 1895;

Town of Yonkers, from April 1, 1789, to December 16,1872;

Town of Kingsbridge, from December 16, 1872, to

January 1, 1874;
Town of West Farms, from May 13, 1846, to January

1, 1874;

Town of Morrisania, from April 1, 1789, to January 1,1874;

Town of Eastchester, from April 1, 1789, to June 6,
1895;

Village of Wakefield, or South Mount Vernon, from
August 8, 1889, to June 6, 1895;

Village of Eastchester, from March 25, 1895, to June 6, 1895 j

Town of Westchester, from April 1, 1789, to June 6, 1895;

Village of Williamsbridge, from November 23, 1888,

to June 6, 1895; Town of Pelham, from April 1, 1789, to June 6, 1895.

In Manhattan:

New York City, from 1732 to January 1, 1898. In Brooklyn:

Kings County, from April 1, 1789, to January 1, 1896;

Town of Bushwick, from April 1, 1789, to January 1, 1855;

Village of Williamsburgh, from April 14, 1827, to April 7, 1851;

Town of Williamsburgh, from March 16, 1840, to April 7, 1851;

City of Williamsburgh, from April 7, 1851, to January 1, 1855;

Town of Brooklyn, from April 1, 1789, to April 8, 1834;

Village of Brooklyn, from April 12, 1816, to April 8, 1834;

City of Brooklyn, from April 8, 1834, to January 1, 1898;

Town of Flatbush, from April 1, 1789, to April 25, 1894;

Town of Gravesend, from April 1, 1789, to May 3, 1894;

Town of New Utrecht, from April 1, 1789, to July 1, 1894;

Town of Flatlands, from April 1, 1789, to January 1, 1896.;

Town of New Lots, from February 12, 1852, to August 1, 1886.

In Queens:

Queens County, from April 1, 1789, to January 1, 1898;

Town of Newtown, from April 1, 1789, to January 1, 1898;

Village of Astoria, from April 18, 1839, to July 18, 1870;

City of Long Island City, from July 18, 1870, to

January 1, 1898; Town of Mushing, from April 1, 1789, to January 1, 1898;

Village of Flushing, from April 15, 1837, to

January 1, 1898;
Village of College Point, from April 5, 1867, to

January 1, 1898;
Village of Whitestone, from April 15, 1869, to

January 1, 1898;
Town of Jamaica, from April 1, 1789, to January 1,

1898;

Village of Jamaica, from April 15, 1814, to

January 1, 1898;
Village of Richmond Hill, from September 28,

1894, to January 1, 1898;
Town of Hempstead, from April 1, 1789, to January

1, 1898;

Village of Far Rockaway, from September 19,

1888, to January 1, 1898; Village of Arverne by the Sea, from June 9, 1893,

to January 1, 1898; Village of Rockaway Beach, from June 11, 1897, to January 1, 1898. 6. In Richmond:

Richmond County, from April 1, 1789, to January 1, 1898;

Town of Oastleton, from April 1, 1789, to March 27, 1872;

Village of New Brighton, from April 25, 1866,
to January 1, 1898;
Town of Southfield, from April 1, 1789, to January
1, 1898;

Village of Edgewater, from March 22, 1866, to
January 1, 1898;
Town of Middletown, from April 18, 1860, to January
1, 1898;

Town of Northfield, from April 1, 1789, to January
1,1898;

Village of Port Richmond, from April 24, 1866, to January 1, 1898; Town of Westfield, from April 1, 1789, to January 1, 1898;

Village of Tottenville, from April 28, 1869 (and re-incorporated) — December 30, 1893, to January 1, 1898.

Of these various municipalities practically all changed their boundaries during the period of their autonomy, as follows:

Counties — Westchester — twice;

New York — twice;

Queens — twice;
Cities — New York (prior to consolidation) — twice;

Brooklyn — nine times;

Williamsburgh — once;
Towns — Yonkers — once;

Westchester — once;

Flatbush — twice;

New Utrecht — twice;

Gravesend — once;

Flatlands — twice;

Newtown — once;

Jamaica — twice;

Hempstead — twice;

Castleton — once;

Southfield — once;
Villages — Williamsburgh — once;

Astoria — once;

Flushing — twice;

Jamaica — once;

Castleton — once;

Edgewater — twice;

Port Richmond — twice;

Tottenville — once.

The historical summaries are particularly full as to charter and franchise routes. In all cases the exact route is stated as given in the certificate of incorporation and the various amendments thereto filed with the secretary of state. The exact route covered by each special franchise is also given. In some cases this franchise has been secured by a special act of the legislature, but in most cases it is in the form of a consent granted by the local authorities.

Statements in regard to franchise rights are a summary of the records at hand, and are not intended to go into the question of the present validity of such grants. Many of these grants may be forfeited, under the self-executing clause of the Railroad Law, for failure to construct and operate within a specified time. Other grants may be forfeitable for non-user or for failure to comply with franchise provisions. The validity of other franchises may be called into question owing to irregularities of procedure.

Statements in regard to "intercorporate relations" index or summarize the various documents on file with this Commission, or with the secretary of state, and also the data referred to in reports of the state engineer and of the State Railroad Commission. In most cases it is believed that they present quite a full statement of intercorporate contracts and agreements. In order to show the inter-relations between the companies graphically and concisely, historical charts have been prepared. These charts include only companies that are represented in the present operated systems. By referring to the charts an outline history of the incorporation and intercorporate relations of each company may be easily ascertained. The charts also present graphically the extreme complexity of the existing inter-corporate relations. Thus, in the Brooklyn Rapid Transit System no fewer than 83 companies are represented. Of these 83 companies, 67 have lost their identity through absorption, leaving but 16 distinct companies. Of these 16 companies, 9 are operated under lease or agreement by other companies, thus leaving but 1 operating companies. These 7 operating companies are subject to a common control through a single company, the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company.

Under "construction and operation" available information has been included relative to the time of construction of various portions of the route and the time when operation was begun. This information has been obtained for the most part from the reports of the state engineer and of the Railroad Commission, and is in many cases incomplete and unsatisfactory. The statements in regard to "stocks and bonds " have been obtained from the same sources and are even less complete and satisfactory.

Following the written histories there is a brief analysis of the main provisions of the Railroad Law as they particularly affect railroads within the First District.

This analysis is followed by three lists: First, of operated companies, showing at a glance all the companies operated in Greater ISTew York, either by themselves or through successors, and indicating the character of the relation of each to its successor, Second, an analysis of the operating companies, which ex

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