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said one to another, We are verily guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the anguish of his soul, when he besought us and we would not hear. Therefore is this distress come upon us.
15. And they knew not that Joseph understood them, for he spake unto them by an interpreter. And he turned himself about from them, and wept; and returned to them again, and communed with them; and took from them Simeon and bound him before their eyes. And they returned unto Jacob their father, in the land of Canaan, and told him all that had befallen them.
16. And Jacob their father, said unto them, Me ye have bereaved of my children. Joseph is not, and Simeon is not, and ye will take Benjamin away also. But my son shall not go down with you; for his brother is dead, and he is left alone. If mischief befall him in the way in which ye go, then shall ye bring down my grey hairs with sorrow to the grave.
17. But the famine continued sore in the land; and when they had eaten up the corn, which they had brought out of Egypt, Jacob said unto them, Go again and buy us food. And, if it must be so, now take also your brother Benjamin, and arise and and go unto the man. And they brought presents unto Joseph, and bowed themselves to him to the earth.
18. And he asked them of their welfare; and said, Is your father well? Is he alive? And he lifted up his eyes and saw Benjamin his brother; and he was moved with compassion; and he sought where to weep, and he entered his chamber and wept there. And he washed his face, and went out and refrained himself.
19. Then he commanded the steward of his house, saying, Fill the men's sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put my cup, the silver cup, into the sack of Benjamin the youngest. And the steward, did according to the words that Joseph had spoken. As soon as the morning was light, the men were sent away, they and their asses. 20. But Joseph commanded his steward to follow them, and to search their sacks, and to bring them back. And when Juda and his brethren were returned into the city, Joseph said unto them, What deed is this ye have done?
the man in whose hands the cup is found, shall be my servant; and as for you, get you in peace unto your father.
21. But they said, our father will surely die, if he seeth that the lad is not with us; and we shall bring down the grey hairs of thy servant, our father, with sorrow to the grave. Then Joseph could not refrain himself before all them that stood by him; and he cried, Cause every man to go out from me; and there stood no man with him, whilst Joseph made himself known unto his brethren.
22. And he wept aloud, and said unto his brethren, I am Joseph; doth my father yet live? and his brethren could not answer him, for they were troubled at his preAnd Joseph said unto his brethren, Come near to 'me, I pray you; and they came near. And he said I am Joseph your brother, whom you sold into Egypt.
23. Now therefore be not grieved, nor angry with your selves, that you sold me hither; for God did send me before you to save your lives by a great deliverance. Haste, you, and go up to my father; and say unto him, Thus saith thy son Joseph, God hath made me lord over all Egypt. Come down unto me; tarry not.
24. And thou shalt dwell in in the land of Goshen; and thou shalt be near unto me, thou, and thy children, and thy children's children, and thy flocks, and thy herds, and all that thou hast. And there will I nourish thee; for yet there are five years of famine; lest thou and thy household, and all that thou hast come to poverty.
25. And behold your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin, that it is my mouth which speaketh unto you. And you shall tell my father of all my glory in Egypt, and all which you have seen; and ye shall haste, and bring down my father hither.
26 And he fell upon his brother Benjamin's neck and wept; and Benjamin wept upon his neck. Moreover, he kissed all his brethren, and wept upon them; and after that, his brethren talked with him. And the fame thereof was heard in Pharaoh's house; and it pleased Pharaoh well, and his servants.
27. And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, Invite hither thy father and his household; and I will give them the good of the land of Egypt; and they shall eat the fat of the land, 28. And
28. And the spirit of Jacob was revived when he heard these tidings; and he said, My son is yet alive; I will go and see him before I die. And he took his journey, with all that he had. And Joseph made ready his chariot, and went up to meet Israel, his father, to Goshen; and presenting himself before him he fell on his neck, and wept for some time.
29. And Joseph placed his father and his brethren, and gave them possessions in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, as Pharaoh had commanded.
30. This interesting story contains a variety of affecting incidents; is related with the most beautiful simplicity; and furnishes many important lessons for instruction.
31. It displays the mischiefs of parental partiality; the fatal effects of envy, jealousy, and discord amongst brethren; the blessings and honors with which virtue is rewardthe aimiableness of forgetting injuries; and the tender joys which flow from fraternal love, and filial piety.
ON THE INSTINCT OF ANIMALS.
THE arguments for Providence, drawn from
the natural history of animals are, in my opinion, demonstrative. The make of every kind of animal is different from that of every other kind, and yet there is not the least turn in the muscles, or twist in the fibres of any one, which does not render them more proper for that particular animal's way of life than any other texture would have been.
2. It is astonishing to consider the different degrees of care that are shown by parents to their young, only so far as is necessary for leaving a posterity. Some creatures cast their eggs as chance directs them, and think of them no further; as insects and several kinds of fish.
3. Others of a nicer frame, find out proper ber's to deposite them in, and there leave them; as the serpent, the crocodile and ostrich; others hatch their eggs and tend the birth, until the little one is able to shift for itself. What can we call the principle, which directs each different kind
of bird to observe a particular plan in the structure of its nest, and directs all of the same species to work after the same model?
4. It cannot be imitation; for though you hatch a crow under a hen, and never let it see any of the works of its own kind, the nest it makes will be the same, to the laying of a stick, with all the nests of the same species. It cannot be reason; for were animals endued with it to as great a degree as man, their buildings would be as different as ours, as their conveniences might require.
5. Is it not remarkable that the same temperature of weather which raises this genial warmth in animals, should cover the trees with leaves and the fields with grass for their security and concealment, and produce such infinite swarms of such creatures as are the support and sustenance of others?
6. But notwithstanding that natural love in brutes is much more violent than in rational creatures, providence has taken care that it should be no longer troublesome, to the parents, than it is useful to the young; for so soon as the wants of the latter cease, the mother withdraws her fondness, and leaves them to provide for themselves.
7. And, what is a very remarkable circumstance, we find that the love of the parent may be lengthened out beyond its usual time, if the preservation of the species requires it; as we may see in birds who drive away their young as soon as they are ab e to get their livelihood, but continue to feed them if they are tied to the nest, or confined in a cage.
8. This natural love is not observed in animals to ascend from the young to the parent, which is not at all necessary for the continuance of the species. Take a brute out of his instinct, and you find him wholly deprived of understanding. We will give an instance which comes under the observation of every one, and will show the distinction between reason and instinct.
9. With what caution does the hen provide herself a nest in places free from noise and disturbance. When she has laid her eggs in such a manner that she can cover them, what care does she take in turning them frequently, that all parts may partake of the vital warmth!
10. When she leaves them to provide for her necessary sustenance, how punctually does she return before they have time to cool, and become incapable of producing an animal? In the summer you see her giving herself greater freedoms, and quitting her care for above two hours together; but in winter, when the cold would chill the principle of life, she is more constant in her attendance, & stays away but half the time.
11. When the birth approaches, with how much nicety and attention does she help the chick to break its prison. How does she cover it from the weather, provide it proper nourishment, and teach it to help itself, not to mention her forsaking the nest, if after the usual time of sitting, the young one does not make its appearance.
12. But at the same time, the hen with all this seeming ingenuity is considered in other respects, without the least glimmerings of thought or common sense. She mistakes a piece of chalk for an egg, and sits upon it in the same manner, and she is insensible of any increase or dimunition in the number of those she lays.
13. She even does not distinguish between her own and those of another species; and when the birth of ever so different a bird appears, she will cherish it as her own. In all those circumstances, which do not carry an immediate regard to the subsistence of herself or her species, she is a very idiot.
14. There is not in my opinion, any thing more mysterious in nature, than this instinct in animals, which thus rises above reason, and falls very far short of it. It cannot be accounted for by any properties in matter, and at the same time, works after so odd a manner, that one cannot think it the faculty of intellectual being.
15. For my own part I look upon it as upon the principle of gravitation in bodies, which is not to be explained by any known qualities inherent in the bodies themselves, nor by any laws of mechanism, but according to the best notions of the greatest philosophers, is an immediate impression from the first Mover, and the divine energy acting in the creatures.