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tion. That the judiciary so established shall have authority to hear and determine, in the first instance, on all impeachments of federal officers; and by way of appeal, in the dernier resort, in all cases touching the rights of ambassadors; in all cases of captures from an enemy; in all cases of piracies and felonies on the high seas; in all cases in which foreigners may be interested; in the construction of any treaty or treaties, or which may arise on any of the acts for the regulation of trade, or the collection of the federal revenue ; that none of the judiciary shall, during the time they remain in office, be capable of receiving or holding any

other office or appointment during the term of service or for --- thereafter.

6. Resolved, That all acts of the United States in Congress, made by virtue and in pursuance of the powers hereby, and by the Articles of Confederation, vested in them, and all treaties inade and ratified under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the respective States, so far forth as those acts or treaties shall relate to the said States or their citizens; and that the judiciary of the several States shall be bound thereby in their decisions, any thing in the respective laws of the individual States to the contrary notwithstanding; and that if any State, or any body of men in any State, shall oppose or prevent the carrying into execution such acts or treaties, the federal executive shall be authorized to call forth the power of the confederated States, or so much thereof as may be necessary, to enforce and compel an obedience to such acts, or an observance of such treaties.

7. Resolved, That provision be made for the admission of new States into the Union.

8. Resolved, That the rule of naturalization ought to be the same in every State.

9. Resolved, That a citizen of one State committing an offence in another State of the Union, shall be deemed guilty of the same offence, as if it had been committed by a citizen of a State in which it was committed.

MR. CHARLES PINCKNEY'S PLAN OF A

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT.

SUBMITTED TO THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION, MAY 29, 1787.

We, the people of New Hampshire, &c. [naming all the States] do ordain, declare, and establish the following Constitution for the government of ourselves and our posterity.

ARTICLE I. The style of this government shall be The United States of America, and the government shall consist of supreme legislative, executive, and judicial powers.

ART. II. The legislative power shall be vested in a Congress, to consist of two separate houses; one to be called the House of Delegates, and the other the Senate, who shall meet on the

day of

chosen every

in every year: ART. III. The members of the House of Delegates shall be

year by the people of the several States, and the qualification of the electors shall be the same as those of the electors of the several States for their legislatures. Each member shall have been a citizen of the United States for

years; and shall be of years of age, and a resident of the State he is chosen for. Until a census of the people shall be taken in the manner hereinafter mentioned, the House of Delegates shall consist of members, to be chosen by the different States, in the following proportions : for New Hampshire &c.; and the legislature shall hereafter regulate the number of delegates, by the number of inhabitants, according to the provisions hereinafter made, at the rate of one for every

thousand. All money bills of every kind shall originate in the House of Delegates, and shall not be altered by the Senate. The House of Delegates shall exclusively possess the power of impeachment, and shall choose its own officers; and vacancies therein shall be supplied by the execu

ness.

tive authority of the State in the representation from which they shall happen.

ART. IV. The Senate shall be elected and chosen by the House of Delegates; which house immediately after their meeting, shall choose by ballot senators from among the citizens and residents of New Hampshire; from among those of Massachusetts; [and so on through the States, to be divided into three classes to go out in succession]. Each senator shall be of

years of age, at least, and shall have been a citizen of the United States for four years before his election ; and shall be a resident of the State he is chosen from. The Senate shall choose its own officers.

Art. V. Each State shall prescribe the time and manner of holding elections by the people for the House of Delegates ; and the House of Delegates shall be the judges of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its members. In each house a majority shall constitute a quorum to do busi

Freedom of speech and debate in the legislature shall not be impeached, or questioned in any place out of it; and the members of both houses shall, in all cases except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be free from arrest during their attendance on Congress, and in going to and returning from it. Both houses shall keep journals of their proceedings, and publish them, except on secret occasions ; and the yeas and nays may be entered thereon, at the desire of

of the members present. Neither house without the consent of the other, shall adjourn for more than days, nor to any place but where they are sitting.

The members of each house shall not be eligible or capable of holding any office under the Union, during the time for which they have been respectively elected, nor the members of the Senate for one year after. The members of each house shall be paid for their services by the States which they represent. Every bill which shall have passed the legislature, shall be presented to the President of the United States for his revision; if he approves it, he shall sign it; but if he does not approve it, he shall return it, with his objections to the house it originated in ; which house, if two thirds of the members present, notwithstanding the President's

objections, agree to pass it, shall send it to the other house, with the President's objections; where, if two thirds of the members also agree to pass it, the same shall become a law; and all bills sent to the President and not returned by him within days, shall be laws, unless the legislature by adjournment, prevent their return, in which case they shall not be laws.

ART. VI. The legislature of the United States shall have the power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises ;

To regulate commerce with all nations and among the several States;

To borrow money and emit bills of credit ;
To establish post-offices;
To raise armies ; — to build and equip fleets;

To pass laws for arming, organizing, and disciplining the militia of the United States;

To subdue a rebellion in any State, on application of its legislature;

To coin money, and regulate the value of all coins; and fix the standard of weights and measures ;

To provide such dock-yards and arsenals, and erect such fortifications as may be necessary for the United States; and to exercise exclusive jurisdiction therein ;

To appoint a treasurer by ballot;
To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;
To establish post and military roads;

To establish and provide for a National University at the seat of the government of the United States ;

To establish uniform rules of naturalization ;

To provide for the establishment of a seat of government for the United States not exceeding miles square, in which they shall exercise exclusive jurisdiction;

To make rules concerning captures from an enemy;

To declare the law and punishment of piracies, and felonies at sea, and of counterfeiting coin, and of all offences against the laws of nations ;

To call forth the aid of the militia to execute the laws of the Union, enforce treaties, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions ;

And to make all laws for carrying the foregoing powers into execution.

The legislature of the United States shall have the power to declare the punishment of treason, which shall consist only in levying war against the United States or any of them, or adhering to their enemies. No person shall be convicted of treason but by the testimony of two witnesses.

The proportion of direct taxes shall be regulated by the whole number of inhabitants of every description; which number shall, within years after the first meeting of the legislature, and within the term of every year after, be taken in the manner to be prescribed by the legislature.

No tax shall be levied on articles exported from the States ; nor capitation tax, but in proportion to the census before directed.

All laws regulating commerce shall require the assent of two thirds of the members present in each house. The United States shall not grant any title of nobility. The legislature of the United States shall pass no law on the subject of religion ; nor touching or abridging the liberty of the press; nor shall the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus ever be suspended, except in case of rebellion or invasion.

All acts made by the legislature of the United States, pursuant to the Constitution, and all treaties made under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land, and all judges shall be bound to consider them as such in their decisions.

ART. VII, The Senate shall have the sole and exclusive power to declare war; and to make treaties; and to appoint ambassadors and other ministers to foreign nations, and judges of the Supreme Court.

They shall have exclusive power to regulate the manner of deciding all disputes and controversies now existing, or which may arise between the States, respecting jurisdiction or territory.

ART. VIII. The executive power of the United States shall be vested in a President of the United States of America, which shall be his style, and his title shall be His Excellency. He shall be elected for years, and shall be reëligible.

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