ratified by them, will enable the United States in Congress, effectually to provide for the same.”

As the result of this movement, delegates from five States assembled at Annapolis, on the 11th day of September, 1786. This convention, like its predecessor, finding its powers too restricted to accomplish any valuable purpose, and that less than half the States were represented, declined to attempt the execution of the task assigned to it; but, instead of attempting to frame a navigation act, to be submitted to the several States, they adopted a report from the pen of Alexander Hamilton, recommending the appointment of commissioners from all the States, “to meet at Philadelphia on the second Monday in May next, to take into consideration the situation of the United States; to devise such further provisions as shall appear to them necessary to render the Constitution of the federal government adequate to the exigencies of the Union.” When this report reached Virginia, it found the legislature in session. The proposition was favorably received; and on the 230 November an act was passed for the appointment of the delegates as recommended. This act authorized the deputies from Virginia “to meet such deputies as may be appointed and authorized by other States, to assemble in convention at Philadelphia as above recommended, and to join with them in devising and discussing all such alterations and further provisions as may be necessary to render the federal Constitution adequate to the exigencies of the Union; and in reporting such an act for that purpose to the United States in Congress, as when agreed to by them, and duly confirmed by the several States, will effectually provide for the same."

On the 30th of December, the legislature of Pennsylvania passed an act appointing delegates from that State, with power to join" in devising, deliberating on, and discussing all such alterations and further provisions as may be necessary to render the federal Constitution fully adequate to the exigencies of the Union.” All the other States, except the State of Rhode Island, appointed deputies, with powers nearly identical with those above described. The delegates from Delaware were, however, restrained from agreeing to any modification of the fifth article of Confederation, which secures to each State an equal vote.

The Convention accordingly met in the city of Philadelphia, on the 14th day of May, 1787; but a majority of States did not appear, by their delegates, until the 25th, on which day the Convention was organized, by the unanimous election of George Washington, as its President.







Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union between the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.

ARTICLE I. The style of this Confederacy shall be “ The United States of America."

Art. II. Each State retains its govereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled.

Art. III. The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defence, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretence whatever.

Art. IV. The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and intercourse among the people of the different States in this Union, the free inhabitants of each of these States, paupers,


vagabonds, and fugitives from justice excepted, shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the several States; and the people of each State shall have free ingress and regress to and from any other State, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions, and restrictions as the inhabitants thereof respectively, provided that such restriction shall not extend so far as to prevent the removal of property imported into any State to any other State of which the owner is an inhabitant; provided also that no imposition, duties, or restriction shall be laid by any State, on the property of the United States, or either of them.

If any person guilty of, or charged with treason, felony, or other high misdemeanor in any State, shall flee from justice, and be found in any of the United States, he shall upon demand of the governor or executive power of the State from which he fled, be delivered up and removed to the State having jurisdiction of his offence.

Full faith and credit shall be given in each of these States to the records, acts, and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates of every other State.

ART. V. For the more convenient management of the general interest of the United States, delegates shall be annually appointed in such manner as the legislature of each State shall direct, to meet in Congress on the first Monday in November, in every year, with a power reserved to each State, to recall its delegates, or any of them, at any time within the year, and to send others in their stead, for the remainder of the year.

No State shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor by more than seven members; and no person shall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years in any term of six years ; nor shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the United States, for which he, or another for his benefit receives any salary, fees, or emolument of

any kind.

Each State shall maintain its own delegates in any meeting of the States, and while they act as members of the committee of the States.

In determining questions in the United States, in Congress assembled, each State shall have one vote.

Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any Court, or place out of Congress, and the members of Congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests and imprisonments, during the time of their going to and from, and attendance on Congress, except for treason, felony or breach of the peace.

ART. VI. No State without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, shall send any embassy to, or receive any embassy from, or enter into any conference, agreement, alliance, or treaty with any king, prince, or State; nor shall any person holding any office of profit or trust under the United States, or any of them, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind whatever from any king, prince, or foreign State ; nor shall the United States in Congress assembled, or any of them, grant any title of nobility.

No two or more States shall enter into any treaty, confederation, or alliance whatever between them, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, specifying accurately the purposes for which the same is to be entered into, and how long it shall continue.

No State shall lay any imposts or duties, which may interfere with any stipulations in treaties, entered into by the United States in Congress assembled, with any king, prince, or State, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by Congress, to the courts of France and Spain.

No vessels of war shall be kept up in time of peace by any State, except such number only, as shall be deemed necessary by the United States in Congress assembled, for the defence of such State, or its trade; nor shall any body of forces be kept up by any State, in time of peace, except such number only, as in the judgment of the United States, in Congress assembled, shall be deemed requisite to garrison the forts necessary for the defence of such State; but every State shall always keep up a well-regulated and disciplined militia, sufficiently armed and accoutred, and shall provide and have constantly ready for use, in public stores, a due number of

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