ART. X. The committee of the States, or any nine of them, shall be authorized to execute, in the recess of Congress, such of the powers of Congress as the United States in Congress assembled, by the consent of nine States, shall from time to time think expedient to vest them with ; provided that no power be delegated to the said committee, for the exercise of which, by the Articles of Confederation, the voice of nine States in the Congress of the United States assembled is requisite.

Art. XI. Canada acceding to this Confederation, and joining in the measures of the United States, shall be admitted into, and entitled to all the advantages of this Union; but no other colony shall be adınitted into the same, unless such admission be agreed to by nine States.

Art. XII. All bills of credit emitted, moneys borrowed, and debts contracted by, or under the authority of Congress, before the assembling of the United States, in pursuance of the present Confederation, shall be deemed and considered as a charge against the United States, for payment and satisfaction whereof the said United States and the public faith are hereby solemnly pledged.

Art. XIII. Every State shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this Confederation is submitted to them. And the Articles of this Confederation shall be inviolably observed by every State, and the union shall be perpetual; nor shall any alteration at any time hereafter be made in any of them ; unless such alteration be agreed to in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the legislatures of every State.


Sunday, July 21, 1782. Resolved, That it appears to this legislature, after full and solemn consideration of the several matters communicated by the honorable the committee of Congress, relating to the present posture of our affairs, foreign and domestic, and contained in a letter from the secretary for foreign affairs respecting the former, as well as of the representations from time to time made by the superintendent of the finances of the United States, relative to his particular department; that the situation of these States is in a peculiar manner critical, and affords the strongest reason to apprehend, from a continuance of the present Constitution of the continental government, a subversion of public credit, and consequences highly dangerous to the safety and independence of these States.

Resolved, That while this legislature are convinced by the before-mentioned communications, that, notwithstanding the generous intentions of an ally from whom we have experienced, and doubtless shall still experience, all possible support, exigencies may arise to prevent our receiving pecuniary succors hereafter, in any degree proportioned to our necessities. They are also convinced, from facts within their own knowledge, that the provisions made by the respective States for carrying on the war, are not only inadequate to the end, but must continue to be so, while there is an adherence to the principles which now direct the operation of public measures.

Resolved, That it is also the opinion of this legislature, that the present plan instituted by Congress for the administration of their finances, is founded in wisdom and sound policy. That the salutary effects of it have already been felt in an extensive degree; and that after so many violent shocks sustained by the public credit, a failure in this system, for want of the support which the States are able to give, would be productive of evils too pernicious to be hazarded.

Resolved, That it appears to this legislature, that the present British ministry, with a disposition not less hostile than that of their predecessors, taught by experience to avoid their errors, and assuming the appearance of moderation, are pursuing a scheme calculated to conciliate in Europe, and seduce in America. That the economical arrangements they appear to be adopting are adapted to enlarging the credit of their government, and multiplying its resources at the same time that they serve to confirm the prepossessions and confidence of the people; and that the plan of a defensive war on this continent, while they direct all their attention and resources to the augmentation of their navy, is that which may be productive of consequences ultimately dangerous to the United States.

Resolved, That it is the opinion of this legislature, that the present system of these States exposes the common cause to a precarious issue, and leaves us at the mercy of events over which we have no influence, a conduct extremely unwise in any nation, and at all times, and to a change of which we are impelled at this juncture, by reason of peculiar and irresistible weight; and that it is the natural tendency of the weakness and disorders in our national measures, to spread diffidence and distrust among the people, and prepare

their minds to receive the impressions the enemy wish to make.

Resolved, That the general state of European affairs, as far as they have come to the knowledge of this legislature, affords, in their opinion, reasonable ground of confidence, and assures us, that with judicious and vigorous exertion on our part, we may rely on the final attainment of our object; but, far from justifying indifference and security, calls upon us by every motive of honor, good faith, and patriotism, without delay to unite in some system more effectual for producing energy, harmony, and consistency of measures than that which now exists, and more capable of putting the common cause out of the reach of contingencies.

Resolved, That in the opinion of this legislature, the radical source of most of our embarrassments, is the want of sufficient power in Congress, to effectuate that ready and perfect coöperation of the different States, on which their immediate safety and future happiness depend. That experience has demonstrated the Confederation to be defective in several essential points, particularly in not vesting the federal government either with a power of providing revenue for itself, or with ascertained and productive funds, secured by a sanction so solemn and general, as would inspire the fullest confidence in them, and make them a substantial basis of credit. That these defects ought to be without loss of time repaired; the powers of Congress extended, a solid security established for the payment of debts already incurred, and competent means provided for future credit, and for supplying the future demands of the war.

Resolved, That it appears evident to this legislature, that the annual income of these States, admitting the best means were adopted for drawing out their resources, would fall far short of the annual expenditure ; and that there would be a large deficiency to be supplied on the credit of these States, which, if it should be inconvenient for those powers to afford, on whose friendship we justly rely, must be sought for from individuals, to engage whom to lend, satisfactory securities must be pledged for the punctual payment of interest, and the final redemption of the principal.

Resolved, That it appears to this legislature, that the aforegoing important ends can never be attained by partial deliberations of the States separately; but that it is essential to the common welfare, that there should be, as soon as possible, a conference of the whole on the subject; and that it would be advisable for this purpose, to propose to Congress to recommend, and to each State to adopt the measure of assembling a general convention of the States, specially authorized to revise and amend the Confederation, reserving a right to the respective legislatures to ratify their determinations.


21st JANUARY, 1786.

Resolved, That Edmund Randolph, James Madison, junior, Walter Jones, Saint George Tucker, Meriwether Smith, David Ross, William Ronald, and George Mason, esquires, be appointed commissioners, who, or any five of whom, shall meet such commissioners as may be appointed by the other States in the Union, at a time and place to be agreed on, to take into consideration the trade of the United States ; to examine the relative situations and trade of the said States; to consider how far an uniform system in their commercial regulations may be necessary to their common interest and their permanent harmony; and to report to the several States such an act relative to this great object, as, when unanimously ratified by them, will enable the United States in Congress assembled effectually to provide for the same: that the said commissioners shall immediately transmit to the several States copies of the preceding resolution, with a circular letter requesting their concurrence therein, and proposing a time and place for the meeting aforesaid.

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