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circumstances were spies employed ?
“ Tom of Coventry"? Give the story about him. [ See Webster's Dictionary, illustrated edition, page 1581, “ Peeping Tom.”] Who was “ Dian”? Is any one of the heavenly bodies so called ? What two meanings suggested by the word glass”? Meaning of “ogling from his glass," as usually understood ? Point out the jest in the line,“ Tripping with pails, &c.” Who was " Charles the Martyr"? What word rhymes with “ Martyr’s”? What is his “ wain?” Double meaning of the word - stars"? Why are "garters" spoken of? What line in the sixth stanza suggests the explanation ?
Etymology and meaning of professors ? astronomy? adepts? celestial ? economy? cited? justly? intelligence ? custom? observatory? coquetting ? sublunary? forgetting ? matters ? flirtations ? ogling? flame ? exclaim ? stress ?
On what word should the first falling inflection be? [On the word “ Herschel,”— the culminating word of the first positive statement. The word "glove” in the second statement requires the same inflection, and for the same reason. “ Above” should have the rising, because the line ending with it is a limitation
“He is hand and glove.” The words “stop” and “top” are at the ends of conditional clauses, and the main positive affirmation is expressed by “ benighted.” The inflections should be more strongly marked than in grave composition.] In the second stanza, the inflections are mostly falling, because it is chiefly an enumeration of positive particulars. Show the exceptions to this statement. What word requires the rising circumflex ?
Who speaks in this stanza? To whom is he speaking ? What is a comet”? What is meant by “Halley's”? [See “ Halley", in any good biographical dictionary or work on astronomy.] What is meant by its being
“due ?” Whose " fiery trail”? Meaning of the expression , “'Tis a pity”? his coming unreckoned"? What animals are spoken of as caught in the manner here referred to ? What is meant then by his being “caught with scientific salt upon his tail” ?
Etymology and meaning of comet? noble ? sure? view ? due ? magnificent ? zounds ? pity ? unsought ? scientific ! last?
Inflection upon"unsought"? [Repeat carefully this pas. sage of two lines, ending with “ thought,” several times, and with different inflections,-- falling, rising, and the falling and rising circumflex.]
Is it meant that he looked no more for it than he looked for the Great Bear, or than the Great Bear looked for it? What is the Great Bear? Why does he refer to “ Tycho Brahe"? What “is as sure as Tycho Brahe is dead”? What jest in the expression, " It really entered in my head”? What is “Berenice's Hair"? Who was “Heaven's grand inquisitor”? What two meanings in this expression ? Meaning of “thus musing”? What was the “uninvited visitor”? Meaning of " upper regions”? What names have been previously applied to the same thing? Meaning of “honor in this case ?
Etymology and meaning of declare ? really? entered ? musing? grand ? inquisitor ? uninvited ? visitor ? gazing ? regions? please ? honor ? supper ?
Fifth Stanza. What is a “phenomenon ” ? What is it to “ think with consternation” Was this body properly a “star”? What is it to “batten"? What are “ignes fatui”? Why does the poet mention ignes futui ? . What is the singular of this word ? What is the jest in the word “fatten”? Whose
visage seemed to say ” ? What is a "visage”? What is
very odd”? What is meant by “ the same tune ran on”? What does the master mean by saying that he is “ supping with the heavenly bodies" ?
Etymology and meaning of except? phenomenon ? consternation ? starvation ? batten? ignes fatui ? visage ? master ? parlor ? heavenly ?
Inflection on the word "supper”? Does it contain a positive statement or direction ? Inflection on “sup”? “phenomenon "? ["* Except on that phenomenon " is clearly con. ditional or limiting:] Inflection on “starvation "? [It is the emphatic word in a positive statement.] On "ignes fatui”?" "fatten"? [The former is emphatic in a positive statement; the latter is conditional.]
Sixth Stanza. Why is it said that “ John echoed”? What is implied in the expression, "ahem”? Meaning of “ zounds”? Why must "somebody make long arms”? Who was the “knight”? Where has this been previously alluded to? What is a celestial stranger"? In what sense does John take the word “stranger”?
Meaning of “au fait”? In what * affairs”? Meaning of the word "bit"?
Etymology and meaning of echoed ? famishing ? alarms ? zounds ? master ? stomach ? replied ? knight? appetite ? engaged ? celestial ? stranger? affairs ? tone ?
Seventh Stanza. What was the blunder at which the master “smiled” ? Where
it be said that the comet's “ head and tail are joined together"? What are "portentous eyes "? What is called a "fiery tadpole”? Why so called ? Meaning of "spies" ? Why not "sees”
3”? Meaning of “ Vauxhall reminiscence”? What and where is “ Vauxhall”? [See Lippincott's Gazetteer.] What is a "rocket"?
Etymology and meaning of wonder? reasonably? joined ? portentous ? marble ? tadpole ? reminiscence ? rocket?
Eighth Stanza. What two meanings suggested by the word “eccentric"? Who are "sages "? Meaning of perplexes sovereigns of "meteor”? What is meant by “its range”? In what sense does John use the word sovereigns ? What other word is here used in different senses by the two speakers ?
Etymology and meaning of eccentric? meteor? perplexes ? sovereigns? puzzled ? change? flaming?
XXIX.-THE IRISH FAMINE.
1. The year 1847 will be rendered memorable, in the future annals of civilization, by two events; the one immediately preceding and giving occasion to the other; namely, the Irish famine, and American sympathy and succor. Sympathy has, in its own right, a singular power of soothing the moral sufferings of the forlorn and unfortunate. There is no heart so flinty, but that, if you approach it with kindness, touch it gently with the magic wand of true sympathy, it will be melted, like the rock of the wilderness, and tears of gratitude on the cheeks of the sufferer will be the prompt and natural response to those of interest, of pity, of affection, which, in imagination, he will have discovered on yours.
2. Who will say that Ireland is not an unfortunate sufferer ? But since her sufferings have become known to other and happier nations, who will say that she is forlorn ? America offers her, not a sympathy of mere sentiment and feeling, but the substantial sympathy which her condition requires. When the first news of your benevolence, and of your efforts, shall have been wafted across the ocean, it will sound as sweetly in her agonized ear as the voice of angels whispering hope. It will cause her famine-shrunken heart to expand again to its native fullness, whilst from day to day the west ern breezes will convey to her echoes of the rising song, the swelling chorus, the universal outburst, in short, of American sympathy.
3. The bread with which your ships are freighted will arrive too late for many a suffering child of hers; but the news that it is coming will perchance reach the peasant's cabin, in the final hour of his mortal agony. Unable to speak, gratitude will wreathe, in feeble smile, for the last time, his pinched and pallid countenance. It is the smile of hope, as well as of gratitude; hope, not for himself, it comes too late for that, but for his pale wife and famished little ones. He will recline his head more calmly; he will die with yet more subdued resignation; having discovered, at the close of his life, that truth which the whole training and experience of his hard lot in this world had almost taught him ta deny, namely, that there is humanity in mankind, and that
its blessings are about to reach even bis cabin, from a quarter on which he had no other claim than that of his misfortune.
4. Ireland, as you know, is not larger in its geographical extent than two-thirds of the State of New York. An island on the western borders of Europe, its bold coast is iudented with capacious bays and safest harbors. For its size it has many large and navigable rivers, and it is said that no part of the island is inore than fifty miles from tide-water. Its climate is salubrious, although humid with the healthy vapors of the Atlantic; its hills (like its history) are canopied, for the most part, with clouds; its sunshine is more rare, but, for that very reason, far more smiling and beautiful, than ever beamed from Italian skies. Its mountains are numerous and lofty; its green valleys fertile as the plains of Egypt, enriched by the overflowings of the Nile. There is no country on the globe that yields a larger average of the substantial things that God has provided for the support and sustenance of human life. And yet there it is that man has found himself for generations in squalid misery, in tattered garments, often, as at present, haggard and emaciated with hunger; his social state a contrast and an eye-sore in the midst of the beauty and riches of nature that smile upon him, as it in cruel mockery of his unfortunate and exceptional condition.
5. I may be told that the famine in Ireland is a mysterious visitation of God's providence, but I do not admit any such plea. I fear there is blasphemy in charging upon the Almighty what is the result of man's own doings. Famine in Ireland is, and has been for many years, like the cholera in India, indigenous. As long as it is confined to a comparatively few cases in the obscure and sequestered parts of the country, it may be said that the public administrators of social and political economy are excusable, inasmuch as it had not come under their notice; but, in the present instance, it