wanting in resonance, as t and f, are called non-sonant, aspirate, toneless, or atonic.

In the word date are three sounds. The second of these is made with a more open tube than ē, the tongue being kept farther from the roof of the mouth. This sound is called “long a.” Represent it by ā. Pronounce aim, ā; bake, ā.

Utter distinctly each sound in evade, feet, fade, date. [ This is an exercise in Oral Phonic Analysis.] Pronounce each word clearly both before and after analyzing it.

Represent tame, bale, deal, sleep, vain, steal, lief, trade, plate, heal. [This is an exercise in Written Phonic Analysis.]


The sound of p is formed by compressing the lips, forcing the breath against them, then suddenly bursting them apart, and emitting the breath. The sounds of b and p are cognate. Practice with bale and pale as you did with deem and teem. While attempting to form the sound of b, no resonance should be allowed in the nose.

Pronounce ah. This is, perhaps, the very finest sound in the language. Learn to form it with exactness and fullness,—the tongue in its natural position, and the opening of the mouth enlarged from side to side. Do not fear to say ah, star; ah, calm ; ah, father; ah, half. This is “ Italian a.” Represent it by ä.

A sound almost as fine and full as ä, is heard in the words awe, nor, gall, morn ;-the tongue in the same position as for ä, but the opening of the mouth narrower from side to side. Call this “broad 0,” and represent it by ô. Pronounce six words containing the sound ä; six containing ô. Distinguish with perfect clearness between farm and form; also between morn and mourn.

Sound ē, ā, ä, ô, p, b, t, d, f, v.
Analyze be, paid, tape, beef, bought, taught.

Represent ball [ write but one l: you hear but one], barn (single r is never silent], mark, stall, palm, flaw, snarl, half, peat, braid.


When each character used in writing English words is uniformly employed to indicate the same sound, we have no use for c, q, and. x. Study the following forms, and prepare to tell what three values c may represent; what one, 9; what two, x: kat, sirkle, sakrifize, kuill, foks, egzakt. C, when followed by h, as in chin, and when followed by e or i, as in the syllables cion, cean, appears to have still other uses; yet, even in these cases, it has no sound exclusively its own. X, as an initial, has also the sound of Z, as in Xerxes,, xebec, syster.

Represent “long 0," as in zone, by 7, and “long 00," as in moon, prove, by o. In sounding o, contract the opening of the mouth as inuch as possible, and thrust the lips forward and upward : do not depress the upper lip.

Pronounce moose, o; school, 0, 0, prove, moon, soon, root. room, broom, hoop. Sound ē, o, ā, 6, 8, 7.

Analyze deep, boot, vote, food, paid, bead.

Represent awl, tomb, talk, root, mourn, morn, haul, tour, balm, pork.


The sounds of sand z are cognate the former breathed, the latter sonant. S is

very often written, where the sound of is to be given. A good reader will show a difference between trice and tries, price and pries, cease and seas, juice and Jews. The proper sound of s is a hiss, and (unless there is an intention to make the utterance harsh and disagreeable) this element should be made both light and brief, especially at the end of a word.

Sound promptly and forcibly ē, 7, ä, o, o, ā, ā, ä, o, 7, 8, 2, p, b, t, d, f, v.

Pronounce each word containing an s, in Lesson III., p. 78, and tell whether the s is sonant or non-sonant. The words rush and Bishop may be omitted.

Represent behoof, spoon, know, bark, stone, paws [in writing z, make it on the line, like a printed Italic 2], pause, ace, maize, psalms, bestow, seas, cease, half.


The elementary sounds of the language are usually divided into two grand classes, vowels and consonants. A vowel is made through a more open position of the organs than that through which a consonant is produced. Its quality is therefore purer. A vowel, as its name implies, is a perfect vocal; while even the most musical of the consonants, such as are intoned, are only sub-vocal.

Sound each of the following elements, and tell whether it is a vowel or a consonant, and why: b, v, ē, f, o, a, z, d, ô.

Which two of the foregoing vowels are produced with a less open position of the organs than the other two? [The partial closing of the tube may be caused by the tongue as well as by the lips.] Which two, then, are less strictly vowel in their character ? If you

have fixed correctly upon the two imperfect vowels, and have learned to form them well, you may be pleased to notice the effect of pronouncing the word on after each. Do it, in each case, with one impulse of voice; that is, pass from the imperfect vowel to the word on without the least pause : what do you observe? With one impulse, utter the two vowels mā: what do you hear? In like manner examine ēo.

We have called four of the six vowels already given, long ; buc ü and ô are as long as the others. In uttering a syllable containing any one of the six, the vowel is not likely to be dwelt upon too long, especially if under the accent. Pronounce complete', fa'tal, Hindoo', for'ward, grandee', mar'tial, Malay', mamma', daugh'ter, mo'ment, roam'er, home'less.

Represent farce, force, drove, taste, bolt, bees, flows, leased, braced, phase, laugh, routine, lose, loose, born, borne, ought, east, sauce, steak.


Pronounce at, et, it, ot, ut. Now do it slowly and without looking at the syllables. Do this again, omitting the consonant. Practice until you can do it perfectly. You have now formed five short vowels, or, more properly, explosive vowels. These are comnionly marked in dictionaries thus, š, č, i, o, ŭ. We will omit the curve, or breve: let a (unmarked), in our notation, represent the vowel in at; e, that in ell; i, that in it; o, that in on; u, that in up. Remember that a, e, i, o, or u, left unmarked in our written exercises, represents an abrupt vowel.

Analyze dust, top, tub, pit, vat, dost (u), fated, said, delt, sod, dot.

Represent fetlock, arrow [one r], market, railroad, flocd, horse, enough, artist, omit, form, arid, acid, bailiff, sophist, trophy (i), prophet, laughed, emblems, porous, love.


How many sounds in the word thin? By what is the first represented ? Name three other words beginning with the same sound? This element is formed by breathing forcibly, while the tip of the tongue is placed against the upper

teeth. Do you

hear the same sound in the word this? What is the difference ? Represent the sonant by th; the non-sonant

by th.

The abrupt sound of oo in good, frequently represented also by u, as in full, pulpit, we will represent by ų. This sound must not be mistaken for

0. Observe the difference: mood, o; foot, ų. Use “long 00” in food, roof, hoop, truth, brute; but "short 00" in book, full, pullet, hook.

Utter abruptly a, e, i, o, u. Now, with smooth tones, utter such of the following as are long; the short, as before : ā, ē, i, o, 7, ô, a, u, ä, a, ô, e, ä, u, e.

Analyze this, that, both, food, thieves, soothe, sooth, puss, buzz, bathe, put, took.

Write the foregoing list, also thenceforth, breathe, truth, beneath (th), with, playful, war-whoop, fulfill.


Study the first element in the word jar; in gem. You find the initial sound the same in the two words. Is it sonant? Represent it by j. Do you have the tongue in the same position in beginning to speak the words jay and day? Try them. [Place the tongue as for speaking one of the words, and then, at the instant of beginning to speak, utter the other. 7

If, in uttering the word jar, you simply breathe the first element, you pronounce char. The sound of ch is as simple as that of j, and is its cognate. Denote this by ç. In uttering the sonant j, the resonance should be clear and unmistakable.

Pronounce jar, char; chin, gin; large, larch; Jane, chain; rich, ridge; etch, edge.

Observe how you form the first sound in gute. Is it res. onant ? If you breathe this element in speaking the word gate, you say Kate.

Pronounce lag, lack; call, gall; cot, got; brig, brick.

Write charm, liege, ledge, porches, jarred, scorched, en. gulfed, resonant, bilged, arched, charged, giddy (i), stoical, north, sorrows, badge, lathes, acorn, orthoëpy, ached.


A vowel sound more frequently met with, perhaps, than any other, is heard before r in her, fir, murmur, word, myrrh. In how

different ways


here find this sound represented ? Some writers have thought that r of itself denotes this sound; but if you will place the tongue in position to say rose, and then, without moving it, attempt to give the initial element in earth, you will perceive that a more open position of the organs is required for commencing the latter word. In the formation of the consonant sound denoted by r, the sonorous breath is driven over the vibrating tip of the tongue, which is raised to the roof of the mouth ; but the first sound in earth issues through an open tube. Represent this long vowel by ē. The mark over the e is called a til-ide: we will call this vowel 66 tilde e." It has sometimes been called the neutral vowel, as having "no strongly marked distinctive character."

Practice sounding ē, r, th. That you may be sure to do it well, recall what has just been said of the position of the tongue in sounding r.

Pronounce and Analyze, with much care, bird, further, birth, turbid, therefore, church, Turk.

Write the foregoing list; also myrrh, journey, fertile, current (not ē), rehearse, mermaid, Herbert, curled, cracker, zenith, nadir, northern, southern.

LESSON XII. You would write player plāēr, and pray-er, one who prays, prāěr; but prayer, a petition, has a different sound of

Call this “long flat a," and let â represent it. This sound enters no word except when immediately followed by r, as in air, heir, hair, ere, e'er, care, where, there, their. Although not very much like ā, it is, by some speakers, made to give way to it. We ought to distinguish between layer and lair, stare and stayer, flayer and flare.

Though no English word contains the digraph zh, yet, the sound of the z in glazier, and of the s in leisure, is known


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