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which the soul of Addison responded, and which resounds through the first number of this part. From his political moderation flowed his moderation in religion and ecclesiastical affairs, placing him at an equal distance from the 'compelle intrare' of Laud, and the revolutionary speculations of Tindal.

This spirit of religious moderation will be found largely illustrated in the Fourth Part, in which I have also placed a number of papers on moral questions and superstitious beliefs. The moral side of Addison's nature, which finds expression in these papers, and others of which our limits compelled the exclusion, has received such delicate appreciation at the hands of M. Taine, that I cannot deny myself the gratification of here quoting some of his words. He says:

'He [Addison] was noble by nature, and he was so also on principle. He deemed that honesty was also good sense. His first care, as he tells us, was to range his passions on the side of truth ?." He had sketched beforehand in his own mind the likeness of a reasonable being, and by this he shaped his conduct, as much from reflection as from instinct. He rested every virtue on a series of principles and proofs. His logic fed his morality, and his intellectual rectitude crowned the uprightness of his heart. His religion, altogether English, was of a similar kind. He rested his faith on a regular series of historical discussions; he proved the existence of God by a chain of moral inductions; minute and solid demonstration was everywhere the guide and the source of his beliefs and his emotions. With this disposition of mind, he loved to conceive of God as the reasonable ruler of the world; chance and necessity were transformed for him into calculation and direction; in the clash and conflict of things he beheld order and Providence, and felt himself externally begirt by that wisdom which he desired to harbour within his breast. He trusted himself in God's hands, as one good and just being may freely place himself in the hands of another; in the thought and presence of Him it was his delight to live,-and to meditate on that unknown future which will consummate human nature, and integrate the moral order of the world 2.'

Most of the numbers printed in this part were originally among

1 There is a slight error here; it was Pope who said of Addison that he 'set the passions on the side of truth.'

? Taine, Litterature Anglaise, Liv. iii. ch. 4, $ 2.

2

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the famous 'Saturday papers' of the Spectator, that day having been usually devoted by Addison and Steele to the discussion of some serious topic, so as to wind up the speculation or satire of the week well, and dispose the reader's mind to the reverential observance of the following day.

To the Fifth Part I have assigned a selection from those very numerous papers on manners, which, in the Spectator, as previously in the Tatler, were the fruit of Addison's close, but mostly silent and shy, observation of human life. In many of these papers the purpose of the moral reformer is indeed apparent, but the artist or the humourist predominates;—the things observed, and the mode of describing them, assume an importance higher than that of the moral remarks connected with them; just as we sometimes see in reverend explorers the tastes of the geographer and the naturalist overpowering those of the preacher and the missionary.

The Sixth Part imperfectly represents the critical vein of Addison, as exercised (1) on questions of taste and wit, (2) on the stage and the drama, (3) on books and authors. The series of papers on the Paradise Lost, and that on the pleasures of imagination, have been unavoidably excluded, but may perhaps appear in a future volume of selections.

In the Seventh Part most of the tales, fables, and allegories which Addison wrote for the Spectator have been brought together. The Eighth Part contains a few papers of more than average merit on miscellaneous topics, which it was not easy to classify under any of the preceding heads; finally, the Ninth Part consists of the five hymns, or sacred poems, which Addison contributed to the Spectator at various times.

The original mottos have been retained; but with regard to the translation of them no uniform procedure has been adopted. They are never translated in the original publication; but considering that the present volume might come into the hands of many to whom Latin and Greek were not familiar, we have freely added translations, when English poets had supplied us with a good one, but have excluded a large number of the versions of Creech, Francis, Tate, &c., that are printed in the ordinary editions of the Spectator.

With regard to the orthography, we have as a rule conformed it to that of the present day, being unable to see that anything is

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gained by substituting for the anomalies of our present spelling, which are sufficiently deplorable, a set of anomalies which were in use among our forefathers a hundred and sixty years ago, besides reproducing typographical absurdities, and solecisms in punctuation, from which we have in a great measure delivered ourselves. Professor Morley, in his recent edition of the Spectator, has reproduced, he tells us,—and his industry and painstaking in the procedure cannot be too much applauded,— both the original texts of the Spectator'; the text of the daily sheets, and that of the volumes as revised and first published by the authors; and he prides himself on reprinting ‘for the first time in the present century the text of the Spectator as its authors left it.' Such exact reproduction, however, is difficult of attainment; we think that it would be worthless if attained; at any rate, Professor Morley has not succeeded in his task. Though the matter is not of the slightest importance, yet, as Professor Morley has noticed that a recent edition contains ‘eighty-eight petty va

iations from the proper text' in the first eighteen numbers, which is at the rate of 3000 errors for the whole work, it may surprise the reader to learn that, whereas he claims that by taking the readings in brackets at the foot of his page, 'the text becomes throughout that of the Spectator as it first came wet from the press to English breakfast-tables,' a single paper, as printed by Professor Morley, No. 35, is found on examination to contain no fewer than fifteen slight variations from the text ‘as it first came wet from the press, &c.'; although his foot-notes, if the above claim were tenable, ought to supply the means of exactly reproducing it.

Nevertheless, no one will deny that it is a legitimate subject of curiosity to inquire how English was spelt and written at the beginning of the last century; and we have gratified this curiosity by printing the first number in the Critical section, No. 35, exactly (errors excepted!) as it originally issued from the press. The copy of the original sheets that we have used is that in the Hope Collection of Newspapers in the Bodleian Library.

A chronological summary of the principal memorabilia in the life of Addison, together with a list of the chief editions of the Spectator, and other works composing the literature of the subject, has been prefixed to the Selections.

CHRONOLOGY OF ADDISON'S LIFE.

:

1672. May 1. Birth of. Joseph Addison, eldest son of Lancelot Addison

and Jane Gulston, at Milston parsonage, Wilts. 1683. Addison removed to Lichfield, on his father becoming dean of the

cathedral; placed at Lichfield Grammar School. 1684 or 1685. Entered at the Charter-house. 1687. Entered at Queen's College, Oxford ; his Latin verses soon after

gained for him admission into Magdalen College as a demy. 1693. Took his M.A. degree.

Wrote Verses to Mr. Dryden': Dryden introduced him to

Congreve, through whom he became acquainted with Lord
Somers and Charles Montague, then Whig leader in the House

of Commons. 1698. Elected full Fellow of Magdalen. 1699. He leaves England with a travelling pension of 300l. a year,

obtained through Somers and Montague. Resides at Blois;

then at Paris; travels in Italy; makes a long stay at Geneva. 1703. Returns to England ; elected member of the Kit-cat club. 1704. He writes · The Campaign’; is appointed by Lord Godolphin a

commissioner of appeals.

Publishes his . Remarks on several parts of Italy.' 1706. Appointed under-secretary of State under Sir Charles Hedges. 1707. Publishes his opera of 'Rosamond.'

Accompanies Lord Halifax to Hanover, on the mission of pre

senting the Act for the naturalization of the Princess Sophia, and investing the Electoral Prince with the order of the

Garter. 1709. Appointed in February or March chief secretary for Ireland,

under the Marquis of Wharton. Crossed to Ireland in April.

Returned in October.

Commenced to write for the Tatler in May. 1710. Again in Ireland between May and August.

On the final fall of the Whig ministry, after the elections in

October, Addison loses all his employments.
Writes the Whig Examiner in September and October.

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1711. March 1. Publishes the first number of the Spectator.

Purchases the house and lands of Bilton in Warwickshire for

10,000l. 1713. The tragedy of Cato brought upon the stage.

Addison writes for the Guardian between May and September. 1714. Appointed secretary to the Council of State, which carried on the

government between the death of Queen Anne and the arrival
of George I. Nominated a second time chief secretary for

Ireland, under Lord Sunderland.
Writes for the new issue, or eighth volume, of the Spectator

between June and September.
1715. His comedy of the Drummer brought on the stage.

Returns to England and obtains a seat at the Board of Trade.

December 23. Commences the Freeholder. 1716. Marries the Dowager Countess of Warwick. 1717. Appointed secretary of State; has the charge of the southern

province. Resigns in a few months from ill health, on a pension of 15001.

a year. Writes a treatise on the evidences and early extension of the

Christian Religion. 1719. Writes in the Old Whig against Steele in the Plebeian.

June 17. Dies at Holland House, of asthma, complicated by a

dropsy.

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