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property for taxation, and making correction of returns so as to include property which should have been returned, but had been omitted, by some person charged by law with that duty.

Was it the duty of the insurance company or any one acting for it to return these municipal bonds for taxation? They were required to be deposited under section 3660, Rev. Stat. of Ohio, as amended, which reads as follows:

"SEC. 3660. [Certain companies must make deposit.]-A company incorporated by or organized under the laws of a foreign government shall deposit with the superintendent of insurance, for the benefit and security of the policyholders residing in this State, a sum not less than one hundred thousand dollars in stock or bonds of the United States, or the State of Ohio, or any municipality or county thereof, which shall not be received by the superintendent at a rate above their par value; the stocks and securities so deposited may be exchanged from time to time for other like securities; so long as the company so depositing continues solvent and complies with the laws of this State, it shall be permitted by the superintendent to collect the interest or dividends on such deposits; and for the purpose of this chapter the capital of any foreign company doing fire insurance business in this State shall be deemed to be the aggregate value of its deposits with the insurance or other departments of this State and of the other States of the United States, for the benefit of policyholders in this State or in the United States, and its assets and investments in the United States certified according to the provisions of this chapter; but such assets and investments must be held within the United States and invested in and held by trustees, who must be citizens of the United States, appointed by the board of directors of the company and approved by the insurance commissioner of the State where invested, for the benefit of the policyholders and creditors in the United States; and the trustees so chosen may take, hold and convey real and personal property for the purpose of the trust, subject

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to the same restrictions as companies of this State. [91 v. 40; 70 v. 147, § 21; (S. & S. 212).]"

This section is part of the chapter of the Ohio statutes regulating insurance companies other than life. In the same chapter may be found other sections regulating the manner of doing business in Ohio by insurance companies, and in section 3637 we find a provision as to how the capital of domestic insurance companies shall be invested, and such companies are required to invest their capital in certain United States, state, county and municipal bonds, etc. These domestic companies are in like manner required to deposit such securities with the commissioner for the benefit of their policyholders (Rev. Stat. of Ohio, §§ 3593, 3595), and without such deposit are not authorized to do business within the State. As a condition of doing business in Ohio companies organized under the laws of foreign governments are, by section 3660, required to invest a portion of their capital in the stock or bonds of the United States or of the State of Ohio, or some municipality or county thereof, and make deposit of such bonds with the superintendent of insurance for the benefit of local policyholders. Subsequent provisions of the section further show that this deposit is to be regarded as a part of the capital of such foreign insurance company which may be considered in determining the aggregate capital of the company required by law. The companies are permitted to collect the interest or dividends on the securities. These deposits constitute a fund primarily for the benefit of such policyholders, and after their claims are satisfied may be turned over to an assignee or devoted to other purposes. Falkenbach v. Patterson, 43 Ohio St. 359; State v. Matthews, 64 Ohio St. 419.

This statute, therefore, provides for the manner of investment of a portion of the capital stock of a foreign insurance company within the State of Ohio for the protection of the policyholders within the State. It is more than a mere "investment in bonds." It is also a part of the capital stock required to be deposited as a condition of doing business

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within the State and devoted to the benefit of local stockholders.

The authority to enact laws for the imposition of taxes is found in the constitution of the State, Article 12, section 2, which provides: "Laws shall be passed, taxing by a uniform rule, all moneys, credits, investments in bonds, stocks, joint stock companies, or otherwise; and also all real and personal property according to its true value in money."

Section 2731 provides, in language similar to that used in the constitution, for the taxation of all property, real and personal, in the State, and all moneys, credits, investments in bonds, stock, or otherwise, of persons residing in the State. This section is found in the first chapter of Title 13, "Taxation," of the Ohio Statutes, and is in part in the following language:

"SEC. 2731. All property whether real or personal in this State, and whether belonging to individuals or corporations; and all moneys, credits, investments in bonds, stocks, or otherwise, of persons residing in this State, shall be subject to taxation, except only such as may be expressly exempted therefrom; and such property, moneys, credits, and investments shall be entered on the list of taxable property as prescribed in this title."

The argument for the insurance company is, that this preliminary section, read with the other sections of the Ohio law upon the subject, excludes "investment in bonds" from being embraced in a general description of personal property, and limits their taxation to persons residing in the State, or (under section 2730) where they are held within the State for others by persons residing therein.

Section 2730 of the same chapter is a section giving definitions of terms used in the title. So far as it is pertinent in this connection, that section is as follows:

"SEC. 2730.


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The terms investments in bonds,' shall be held to mean and include all moneys in bonds, or certificates of indebtedness, or other evidences of indebted

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ness of whatever kind, whether issued by incorporated or unincorporated companies, towns, cities, villages, townships, counties, States or other incorporations, or by the United States, held by persons residing in this State, whether for -hemselves or others."

If these sections embrace all the statutory laws of the State, together they tax investments in bonds held by residents, because of jurisdiction over the person of the owner, and those held by residents for other owners, and if such reside out of the State, because of jurisdiction over the property held within the State.

Section 2744 undertakes to make provision for the taxation of corporations generally, and is as follows:

"SEC. 2744. [Corporations generally; their returns.]—The president, secretary, and principal accounting officer of every canal or slackwater navigation company, turnpike company, plank-road company, bridge company, insurance company, elegraph company, or other joint stock company, except banking or other corporations whose taxation is specifically provided for, for whatever purpose they may have been created, whether incorporated by any law of this State or not, shall list for taxation, verified by the oath of the person so listing, all the personal property, which shall be held to include all such real estate as is necessary to the daily operations of the company, moneys and credits of such company or corporation within the State, at the actual value in money, in manner following: In all cases return shall be made to the several auditors of the respective counties where such property may be situated, together with a statement of the amount of said property which is situated in each township, village, city or ward therein. The value of all movable property shall be added to the stationary and fixed property and real estate, and apportioned to such wards, cities, villages, or townships, pro rata, in proportion to the value of the real estate and fixed property in said ward, city, village or township, and all property so listed shall be subject to and pay the same taxes as other prop

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erty listed in such ward, city, village or township. It shall be the duty of the accounting officer aforesaid to make return to the auditor of State during the month of May of each year of the aggregate amount of all property by him returned to the several auditors of the respective counties in which the same may be located. It shall be the duty of the auditor of each county, on or before the first Monday of May, annually, to furnish the aforesaid president, secretary, principal accounting officer, or agent, the necessary blanks for the purpose of making aforesaid returns; but no neglect or failure on the part of the county auditor to furnish such blanks shall excuse any such president, secretary, principal accountant, or agent, from making the returns within the time specified herein. If the county auditor to whom returns are made is of the opinion that false or incorrect valuations have been made, or that the property of the corporation or association has not been listed at its full value, or that it has not been listed in the location where it properly belongs, or in cases where no return has been made to the county auditor, he is hereby required to proceed to have the same valued and assessed: provided, that nothing in this section shall be so construed as to tax any stock or interest in any joint stock company held by the State. [73 v. 139, § 16; (S. & C. 1446).]"

This section is broad in its terms, and requires the return of the property, among others, of insurance companies, whether incorporated by the laws of Ohio or not, and such companies are required to list for taxation "all the personal property, which shall be held to include all such real estate as is necessary to the daily operations of the company, moneys and credits of such company or corporation within the State, at its actual value in money."

The Supreme Court of Ohio has expressly held that this section applies to foreign as well as domestic corporations. Hubbard v. Brush, 61 Ohio St. 252; Lander v. Burke, 65 Ohio St. 532, 542.

This section, therefore, requires of both foreign and domestic


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