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The electric current may also be employed substance. T and T are the terminals to for heating purposes. It will light a lamp or which the current is brought, and the corrent boil an egg with very little trouble. Fig. 4, for an ordinary for example, represents an electric lamp- incandescent lighter, of a very simple and handy sort. lamp passed The wires conveying the current are brought through the to the terminals TT, and when the lamp L is circuit of this pushed home against the press-button B, the little boiler inelectric circuit is thereby completed, and the stead of the current flows through the fine spiral of pla- lamp, will boil tinum wire w, heating it to whiteness, and a pint of water lighting the lamp. On withdrawing the lamp in ten or fifteen again, the press button breaks the circuit, minutes. and the wire w cools, but the lamp, of
The passage course, remains lighted.
of the current
Fig. 5. By using a larger wire of German silver through carbon instead of platinum, and bending it into a rods is also a source of heat as it is of light; hollow coil surrounding a sheet-iron pan, the and an electric kettle can be made by proincandescence of the wire produced by the viding it with a stout copper bottom, and electric current overcoming the internal re- causing a pointed carbon rod to abut against sistance to its passage through the metal, can it. The current is then passed through the be made to develop a sufficient amount of heat rod to the metal bottom of the kettle, from to boil a quantity of water placed in the pan. which it is led away, and in traversing the Fig. 5 is a water-boiler of this kind, with part junction between the carbon point and the of the outer side removed to show the coil copper it heats the carbon red-hot, and of incandescent wire w surrounding the inner makes, as it were, a fire beneath the kettle. pan, or water vessel. The wire w is care- Gridirons on the same principle have also fully insulated from the sides of the vessel, and been constructed.
The intensely high temperature of the voltaic arc produced between two carbon points, kept a little apart, has been employed by Dr. C. W. Siemens to fuse the most refractory substances, such as cold steel, platinum, and fireclay. Siemens' “ electric furnace " is illustrated in Fig. 6. Although not a household apparatus, at least in its present form, it shows what can be done in the way of electric heating. It consists of a plumbago crucible c, into which are inserted two carbon rods A B, the upper of which, A, is suspended from a balance beam G, while the lower B is let in through the bottom of the crucible. The current brought to these rods by the wires w w forms.the luminous arc by vaulting across the air-space between them and vaporising the carbon. The temperature of the arc so obtained is the hottest known on earth, and reaches over 2,000° centigrade. Hence if cast steel or other refractory substance is put into the crucible, it is rapidly melted. Inasmuch, however, as the upper carbon wastes away, and the air-gap,
or arc, becomes wider, the current each turn is insulated from the rest, either falls off, and the temperature would be by air or plaster of Paris, or other infusible lowered, were it not for the correcting
device shown on the right of the figure. This beam G. Part of the current is “shunted” consists of a hollow bobbin of wire or sole- through the solenoid by wires w w, and when
the arc becomes too wide and resisting, more current seeks the bye-path through the solenoid, and the result is that the iron core e is sucked up by magnetic attraction into the solenoid, and then the balance beam is tilted, and the carbon a dipped farther down into the crucible, re-establishing the old width of the arc, and preserving the high temperature within the crucible. To make the action of the regulator easy, the core e is partly plunged in a well F of viscous liquid, such as glycerine.
With such a furnace Dr. Siemens melted eight pounds of cold platinum in fifteen minutes, and nearly the same quantity of broken files were fused in a like time. The current was derived from an ordinary Siemens machine, such as is used for feeding electric
lamps. Fig. 6.
In another paper we shall give some further noid D, in which a core of soft iron e is sus- details of the employment of Electricity in pended from the other end of the balance our Homes.
Or, the Tuorld after an Esland. By M. BETHAM-EDWARDS, AUTHOR OF “KITTY,” “A WINTER WITH THE SWALLOWS," ETC.
The curate's visits, in consequence of the CHAPTER XI. -THE SUITORS.
rector's advanced age, were too frequent to IT T happened that, immediately after the din call for comment; and Pearla encouraged
ner party, Garland was summoned away him to come to the house oftener, perhaps, on business, the nature of which he did not than was prudent. She liked him for his disclose to his children, and remained absent unpretending goodness, his fellow-feeling for for several weeks. Pearla and her son were the poor, his resignation. To his appeals for therefore left more completely to themselves aid she ever gave ready response. than they had as yet been. To Geoff it Hardly had her visitor seated himself than was a superlatively happy time, and no won- he began in a rather dejected voice. der; he had plenty of money at command, “Your son, Lady Auriol-will you permit material gratification in abundance, and little me to have a little confidential talk about to be called a check upon his own inclinations. Geoff?” The lad was, indeed, going through an “Oh," Pearla cried with inexpressible disordeal from which the finest
, strongest natures may in look and voice, “I hope you bring could hardly escape unharmed. He still me no evil report of my boy!" worked daily under a tutor, it is true, but there “Of the young, madam, we must expect are tutors and tutors, and Geoff's present in- evil rather than good report,” said the curate structor too readily condoned shortcomings sadly. “Your son may be even less predisand offences in the son of a rich, beautiful, posed to the infection of wrong-doing than and amiable lady, who must, he reasoned, other lads, but he is unhappily much more wish him to be happy above everything. beset by temptation"
One day as Pearla sat alone thinking of her “I feel—I know that I cannot guide him boy, wondering how she could make him as I ought to do,” Pearla said, greatly disgrow up good, and strong, and wise, like tressed. "Oh! why did Mr. Durham leave us?" Durham and Garland, the curate's card was “Mr. Durham's authority being withdrawn, brought in, with a request that he might see the boy naturally takes undue advantage of her on business.
his newly acquired liberty. Permit me to “By all means, show Mr. Ashleigh in," was say, Lady Auriol, that you give him too much. Pearla's prompt reply.
In your over-anxiety for the satisfaction of
the body you do not take sufficient thought panions who by virtue of their very inferiority for the soul.” And the curate spoke so can be lorded over. I perfectly understand solemnly, so sorrowfully—that Pearla felt that Geoff should prefer amusing himself awed.
with young roughs of the town to a hum“ He is over-indulged," she replied bitterly, drum tête-à-tête with myself.” almost despairingly self-reproachful. “He “But something must be done,” Pearla will grow idle, effeminate, dissolute. Oh, cried, rousing herself. “ Geoff shall not be may God forgive me!" And tears streamed left to himself a day longer than I can help. down her cheeks as she added, “Mr. Ashleigh, I will write at once to Mr. Durham, and enwhat have you to tell me about my boy? treat him to return.” Whatever it may be, the blame is mine." Mr. Ashleigh was silent for a moment, his
"Say not so, dear lady," said the clergy- face saying that such a step would be hardly man, now speaking soothingly, encouragingly; necessary. “You have but acted as any other fond “Mr. Durham is my son's trustee, and was mother would do, similarly placed ; and the his father's most valued friend and adviser," mischief is not past cure. Geoff is a mere Pearla added explanatorily. “If I can only child as yet, and, in spite of juvenile pecca- induce him to come back to us, for a time, dilloes, may grow into the Christian gentle- all would yet be well." man. I pray constantly for him."
“And if not, madam,” said the clergyman “I am sure you do,” Pearla said very timidly, pensively, but nevertheless with a gratefully. “But conceal nothing. I am certain dignified sincerity that went to Pearla's bound to know all. I am his mother !" heart;“ if not, there are others equally, I may
"It grieves me to pain you,” Mr. Ashleigh still say, more, devoted to your son's interest went on;
but there are duties not to be and your own, who would esteem it the shirked, however arduous. I must then in- proudest privilege of their lives to be taken form you that upon the last occasion when into your confidence—their greatest earthly you supposed your son to be taking tea and happiness to become your best friend-proinnocent recreation at my house he absented tector-husband.” himself-of this I have substantial proof- "I am more than grateful,” Pearla cried, for the company of less reputable associates." | rising from her seat, thrilling at the sound
Pearla listened with a pale face and a of the front-door being opened and shut. growing wonderment of sorrow in her sweet It must be Geoff, she thought, all her eyes. Was this the measureless, matchless senses abnormally alert, all her nerves highly filial love of which she had dreamed in her strung. Oh, to be alone with him—to get island home—this the chrysolite without a the next quarter of an hour over! “Pray flaw, the unpurchasable treasure she had by believe how beholden I am to you for such anticipation hugged to her heart, saying with kind interest in us both. But I live for my a mother's proud passion, “Mine, all and boy only,” she said, and he felt that it was solely mine!"
the mother, not the woman, who spoke thus She looked at the interlocutor imploringly, with tears on her pale cheeks and anguish silently urging him to say what else he had in her voice. He went away, meekly and to say, and begone-to leave her to her sadly, wondering what manner of men shame, her tears, her sorrows.
were those who obtained the affections of But the best friends can often ill measure such women as Pearla, yet with that mixture each other's words; how then should the of pride and resignation that even lent digmerest acquaintances and ordinary frenity and pathos to his uncomely looks and quenters together? The curate had still shabby appearance. He was habituated to much more to discourse of, and was wanting disillusions and disappointments-here was in that fine, rare tact which tells one human | but one more added to the sum. being when another would fain be rid of his Pearla sank into a chair, thinking of him company, or, in other words, alone.
no longer, Geoff filling her heart, her inner "Remember," he went on, feeling a natural vision, her expectancy. But a second time she desire to improve the occasion and venture was doomed to feverish delay. A card was on an allusion to his own interest in Geoff now handed in bearing the colonel's name, as Pearla's son,“ such offences as these are with the pencilled request of a few minutes' but too common in lads of Geoffrey's age. interview. Restriction even within just limits is irksome Certainly," was the
careless answer, to them, and the society of those they most Pearla's thoughts being entirely centred upon love and respect is neglected for those com-Geoff and Geoff's future.