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astronomers from every part of This Augean stable the empress Europe are preparing to go to be.' has determined to clean; to which hold that remarkable event. purpose the fummoned deputies

We observe with pleasure, upon from every province in the empire this occasion, that English artifi- to attend her at Moscow, there cers preserve the rank they have to form an entire and new code hitherto held in the mechanics of laws for the government of the fubfervient to this science. The whole. The success, attending acamedy at Petersburgh has ap- this patroric attempt, will, we plied to a member of the royal hope, make a part of the subject society of London, to procure the of our future observations. necessary inftruments for the pur. We have already had an oppor. pose of proceeding successfully in tunity of taking notice of the good that important observation. Mr. qualities of the present Grand Seig. Ramousky, who was the writer nior; his humanity to his bro. upon this occafion, candidly ac- thers, and the perfect and friendly knowledges the great joy of the good neighbourhood he has ob. academy, and their obligations to served in all the troubles of Po. Mr. Short, for procuring them. land, are much to his honour. He those instruments, and confesses continues to give fresh opportuni. their doubts of being able to an. ties of extolling his character, and swer the views of the Empress, till has in a recent instance again de. they had received his letter. Our parted from the rigid policy of the readers will see two letters upon Portc, by admitting the young this occafion, in the Appendix to prince of Wallachia to succeed his the Chronicle,

father in that office. He has had With respect to internal policy; also an opportunity of thewing the Empress of Russia has under his humanity and benevolence, on taken a great and arduous taik, occafion of one of his men of war and worthy of an exalted mind. which took fire in the harbour of The laws of this vast empire were Conftantinople, and was the cause voluminons to a degree of the of a great many ships belonging greateft abfurdity, were perplex- to his subjects being consumed. ed, insufficient,' in many cases Upon this occasion, though it was contradictory, and so loaded with after midnight, he attended in precedents, reports, cases, and o. person, and gave his orders with pinions, that they afforded an ihe greatest activity, to prevent eternal scene of altercation, and the farther dreadful effects of the were scarcely to be reconciled or conflagration; and gave directions understood by the very professors that the unhappy lufferers should of them. The particular laws of be paid their full losses out of his the different provinces were also treasury. continually interfering and clash. But the particular circumstance ing, and caused fuch confufion, of his life, which may possibly that the whole presented an end. preserve his name with great hó. less chaos, and effaced almoft e- nour to pofterity, when even the very trace of original system or cruel and ferocious conquests of defign.

his predecessors are lost in oblivion, is the encouragement he has consequence of this refusal, either given to the introduction of the to enforce the demand, or to resent art of printing in his dominions. the contempt thewn to its authoHe has also issued orders for the rity; nor is it probably that the translating of several of the most present state of its marine will ad. valuable books from the European mit of such an attempt. languages into the Turkish. It

In a government constituted like will not require the aid of a very this it is not easy to say what ef. warm imagination, in fome degree fects, caufes, even in appearance to conceive the great revolutions' the most trifling, may produce. in the manners of the people, and Many symptoms of weakness ma. in the policy of the ftate, which nifelt themselves in this great em. the introduction of learning into pire. A little prince of Georgia that mighty empire might proba. has been capable of giving it a bly occasion. Upon the whole, confiderable alarm. The piratical this prince's reign has been hither. ftates of Barbary do not think it to marked with a lenity, gentle worth while, as we have feen, to ness, and cquity, which have been purchase its protection. An in. till now but little experienced un- surrection of peasants in a frontier der the Ottoman'line.

province, which would in fome The piratical states of Barbary countries be little more than an have entirely thrown off that de. object of police, may have there fc. pendance which, ever fince the rious consequence on the state. days of the famous Barbarossa, for An insurrection of this kind has above two hundred years, they happened this year in the province have had on the Turkish empire. of Montenero, which is tributary to A Seraskier, who was sent by the the Grand Seignior, but which borPorte to Algiers, to demand ders upon the Venetian Dalmatia. twenty years tribute, which was The country is rough, mountainous then due, was answered by the and in a great measure inaccessible; Dey, that he was firmly resolved the inhabitants partake of the na not only to refuse to discharge the ture of the soil and fituation, and arrear, but also to pay any tribute are rude, ferocious, and warlike, for the future; that the state of These people are of the Greek reAlgiers was absolutely free and ligion ; and though they have at independent of the Porie ; that it different times paid tribute, both stood in no need of the Porte's to the Turks and Venecians, yet, protection; and that he, the Se- from their situation and other cirraskier, might reiurn to Constan- cumstances, they have escaped tinople with that answer. The that total state of subjection and Seraskier was not more fortunate fervitude, to which the neighbourin the execution of his commiffioning possessors of a happier foil, to the rest of those states, on each and more accessible country, were of whom he had demands of the subject. fame nature, and received answers Å foreigner, who exercised the from them all nearly to the same profession of a physician, and went purpose. We do not find that the by the name of Stefano, has for Porte has taken any measures in some time refided amongft these

people, people. This adventurer, who is it is usual to magnify such matdescribed to be a man of fine figure ters, to have money in great plenand great address, taking advan. ty, and to distribute it among his tage of their ignorance, and of a soldiers with the utmost profufion. violent attachment which, from The province contains, it is said, religion and some former benefits, 30,000 men able to bear arms. they have to the Muscovite name This affair, not only giving fome and nation, has publicly declared .alarm to the Porte, but also to the himself to be the Czar Peter the state of Venice, their troops in Third ; and pretends that the re- Dalmatia have been ordered to afport of his death was designedly semble upon the frontiers, under spread at the time by his friends, the command of a general. After to favour his escape, which he hap: all, it is probable that this infur.' pily effected.

rection will not be attended with Under the favour of this name, any other consequences, than its and by the assistance of the Calo- being a fresh instance of the ease yers (Greek monks) who have with which a daring impostor warmly seconded his pretences, may for a short time delude an and who have a great influence ignorant people, and of the almost over the inhabitants, he has got certain destruction to the underhimself received and acknowledged taker which finally concludes the as the Czar, not only by the peo- attempt.

This is not a suitable ple, but by the bishop and all the period of time for the revival of other orders ; and is said to be al. counterfeit Demetrius's; nor could ready at the head of some thousand they now fet capital cities in foldiers.

flames, lay nations waste, and wade This adventurer is said, though through torrents of blood as here. probably without foundation, as tofore.

CH A P III.

State of affairs in Poland. Original causes of the late disputes. Ancient ftate of that country. Conversion to the Christian religion. Accession of the great dutchy of Lithuania, and other provinces of the kingdom of Poland. Ancient state of the conftitution, of religion, &c. Remarkable law.pased by Sigismund Auguftus, in favour of Christians of all denominations, Final union of the kingdom of Poland and the great dutchy of Lithuania. The kingdom modelled into a republic, upon the death of Sigismund Auguftus. The first diet of the republic. A perpetual peace agreed upon between the Disidents. The original meaning of that

term,

THE THOUGH we gave a short kingdom of Poland, yet, as these sketch in our last volume disputes have become

every day of the causes of dispute that sub- fince more interesting, both in refifted between the Roman Catho. spect of the consequences to the lic and the Dillident parties in the parties principally concerned, and

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of the high powers who are medi- reigns of Lithuania. The inhabiators on the occasion, we imagine tants of all these provinces were of a clear but concise account of the the Greek religion, as well as nature and origin of them will not those of Moldavia, Wallachia, be unacceptable' to many of our and the Ukraine, which were addreaders.

ed to the kingdom by the successPoland, properly so called, was fors of Jagellon; so that by these originally circumscribed within great accessions the members of very narrow bounds ; the inhabi. the Greek church became at that tants, between the gth and roth time vaftly fuperior, both in numcenturies, were converted to the bers and power, to those of the Chriftian religion, as it was then Roman Catholic persuasion. It professed by the church of Rome. seemed a felicity peculiar to PoAbout the same time a conversion land, that this difference of opiwas begun in many of the neigh- nion in religious matters, between bouring provinces, which were the members of the same nation, then independent ftates, and who had produced none of those ill conat different æras embraced the sequences, those animofities and Chriftiani religion according to the disputes, which other countries had Greek mode of worship. In pro. fo fatally experienced from the cess of time many of these neigh- fame causes. bouring states, by conqueft, by It is to be obferved that the right of succession, by marriage, conftitution of Poland was orior by compact, became united to ginally very different from what the kingdom of Poland ; upon all it is at present. While her kings which acceflions the new provinces succeeded to the kingdom by hewere upon an exact equality with reditary right, she had no share of the old in every respect, and each that boasted liberty, which she has observed their own particular aspired to fince ; by the extinction modes of worship:

of the Jagellonic line, in The greatest and most remark- the person of Sigusmund Anno able of these accessions was that Auguitus, she has assum. 1572.

which took place upon the ed the form of a republic, Anno marriage of Jagellon, great and made the crown entirely elec. 1386. duke of Lithuania, to the tive. Under the kings of the Ja

daughter and heiress of gellonic, as well as the more anLewis king of Poland. By this cient races, the inferior nobility marriage the great duchy of Li. had no power; the prerogatives thuania, together with the pro- of royalty were almost the only le. vinces of White Ruffia, Podlachia, gislative power, and formed the Volhinia, Podolia, and soon after- code of laws. To give an exact wards Red Russia, became annexed sidea how much the liberty of the to the kingdom of Poland; with 'nobility was limited, it is fuffithis distinction, that the union be- cient to remark, that the security {ween the kingdom and the great of their persons was not allowed dutchy depended only upon the them, but by a privilege from Jacontinuance of the Jagellonic line ; gellon, by which he promised that that family being the natural sove. no person should be imprisoned, till he had been convicted of some whether of Lithuanian or Russian erime by a court of judicature. extraction, in every part of his do

Upon occasion of the difturbó minions, even thoagh their ancefances which were caused by the tors had not gained the rights of Huslites, in Germany and Bohe- nobility in the kingdom of Poland, mia, Uladislaus Jagellon, who fall, provided that they profess the

was brother-in-law to the Christian religion, be entitled to, Anno emperor Sigismund, caused and enjoy, all the rights, privileges, 1424. some sanguinary laws to be and liberties, to which they are nas

passed in Poland, to pre- turally intitled by their rank and vent the introduction of these doc- nobility. Likewise that they are trines, considered as heresies, into to be admitted to the honours and his dominions. At this period, dignities of the senate and crown, and for many years after, the epis. and to all noble trusts; that they copal courts had great powers, hall be promoted, each according which proved very uneasy to the to his merit and dignity, to all dig. Polish nobility, and kept them in nities and considerable trufts; and fome respects' in a kind of servi. no one shall be excluded from them tude; as excommunications diveft. for the sake of religion, provided ed them of the power of acting he be a Christian. in the diets and dietines. This The same prince, five years af. grievance was at length removed, terwards, at the diet of Grodno, in with great joy to the nation, 1568, granted letters of confirmathough with no small difficulty, tion on the same subject, wherein by that great prince Sigismund the fame articles are recited word Auguftus.

for word; and, to prevent the con The reformation began very ear- ftruction in their own favour, which ly to make a great progress in some prevailing de nomination of Poland, insomuch that the majo. Chriftians, in prejodice to the rest, rity of the senators and nobility might put upon the word s--probecame members, either of the vided he be a Christian-he made Lutheran or Reformed communi. use in the letters of confirmation ons. We are to observe that the of the following memorable ones word Reformed, in the writings of whatever Christian communion upon this subject, always signifies or confeffion frever be be. the Calvanists, in contradiftinction It is to be remarked with atten. to those of the Lutheran profeffion. tion, as an observation upon which To prevent all the mischiefs and much of the knowledge of the subdangers that might arify among ject depends, that these conceffions the citizens on the score of relic and declarations are stated to have gion, Sigismund Auguftus passed a been made during the great tranflaw at the diet of Vilna, on the action of an union between the king16th of June, 1563, which law is dom of Poland and the great dutchy still preserved among the archives of Lithuania. This was the greatof the supreme tribunal of the eft and most consequential event, grand dutchy of Lithuania; where. with respect to the two nations, that by it is declared, that all those of ever happened, and. was happily the equestrian and noble orders, accomplished by this prince , lo

that

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