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force, and the pretences of an af. Having met again on the next fiftance that ruled with the great day, the affair of the Diffidents elt degree of despotism. In some was carried on with great warmth. places the Russian officers, who This induced Prince Radzivil to attended at all the dietines, were adjourn the diet to the 12th, in insulted; however their oppofi. hopes that some of the present tion shewed rather their discontent heat would wear off, and that a than their power. It was evident better method of treating the af. that the diet was only a form; fair might be concerted in the in. and that the Empress of Russia was terval. During this time every the only governing power in Po- expedient was used, to qualify land. The most refractory of the heat of the opposite party, and these nobles were sufficiently pu- to bring them into a difpofition nished; the Russian troops being favourable to a happy accommosent to live at free quarter upondation. A plan was also concerttheir estates. In mean time, ed, which it was thought would
the tribunal of the general be the most effectual one to anSept. confederacy was opened fwer the desired purposes; which agih. with great folemnity, in was, that the diet mould appoint
the palace of Prince Rad- a certain number of commissioners, zivil; where the re-union of the out of the three orders of the state, confederacy of the Dissidents, and to whom it should grant full pow. of the general confederacy of the ers to settle with the Russian em. Malecontents, was declared. bassador, and finally to conclude October
At length, the so much upon all matters relative to the sth.
wished and hoped for Dillidents.
event took place, and All the attempts to introduce the diet met at Waifaw. The good temper, or even moderation, king began, by addresling the af. proved fruitless; and this third fembly with a most pathetic speech, meeting of the diet proved more in which he strongly recommend turbulent and tumultuous than the ed concord to the numbers. This others. The bishops of Cracovia, was followed by a speech from the Kiovia, and some other prelates, Bishop of Cracow, much to the together with several of the magfame purpose as that he had made nates, spoke with more vehe.. last year; he inveighed warmly mence than ever, against all the againft the pretensions of the Dil. pretenfions of the Dillidents; and fidents, and reminded the king in declared they never would consent the strongest terms of the oath he to the establishment of a commif. had taken to support the Catholic fion with full powers to enter into faith; and concluded by observ. conferences with the Russian em. ing, that it was not sufficient for bassador upon that subject. Seve. his Majefty to bear the title of an ral of the deputies answered them orthodox prince, but that he with great warmth ; and the ani. fhould be fo in reality. The diet, mofity among them rose to such a without proceeding to the election degree, that the marlhal was obof a marinal, agreed, that prince liged to prorogue the meeting to Radzivil should perform the func. the 16th. tions of that office.
The Russian troops, who had vered himself in the following for some months nearly surround- terms, in a conference he had ed, as well as intersected the king- upon this situation of affairs : dom of Poland, had now closely “There is little knowledge requirinvested the city of Warsaw, and ed to govern'a vessel when the were in possession, and kept strict winds are favourable. A skilful guards upon all the avenues lead- pilot should know how to withing to it. The day after this tu- itand the form without abandon. mult in the diet, some detach- ing the helm. I have several times ments of their troops entered the intertained the design, as I still city, and having seized the Bi. do, of abdicating the crown, the shops of Cracow and Kiovia, to- burthen of which I feel, but that gether with Count Rzewuski, the my love for my country made me Waywode of Cracovia, and his alter my resolution.
You ought fon, and some other deputies, they all, gentlemen, to consider the carried them off prisoners. As no- melancholy circumstances which body knew at first the destination you have drawn upon us. I have of these grandees, nor even where constantly employed all my enthey were carried to, this affair dezvours for the good of the state ; caused a great and general confter. but few among you have aslifted nation. But though it intimidat- me with your support: and I find cd some of the deputies belonging myself abandoned by the greater to that party; yet it only served part : yet I can assure you, that to inflame others. Many people if I had taken the course of aban. blamed the noble prisoners for doning you in my turn, you the virulent and unguarded ex., would now have found yourselves preffions they had made use of, in in a miserable situation.” fpeaking of some of the great pow
The fourth meeting of October ers who had interefted themselves the diet, notwithstanding 16th. in favour of the Dissidents. On the the absence of the most other hand it was alledged, that turbulent members, was extremely cvery deputy at the diet ought to tumultuous, and great heat and ani. speak his sentiments freely, and mofity was shewn by the different that if he exceeded the bounds of parties. 'The King, the Prince decency, with respect to any fo- Primate, and the Nuncio of Poreign power, it belongs to the tri- dolia, made very pathetic and bunals of the kingdom to pro- conciliating speeches; but it seem. ceed against him judicially for it. ed as if nothing could calm the
In this critical fituation, the violent fpirit which poflefled the king seemed to have need of the members. However, the diet hav. greatest wisdom, and of the ut. ing again met the following day, most extent of capacity, to devise it was at last concluded, after long means to guard againt the dan. debates, to adopt Prince Radzi. gers with which the state was vil's proposal, and to appoint a furrounded; the hope of which, commission to settle the affairs of from the turbulence of the diet, the Diffidents. This commission grew every day more precarious. consisted at first of fourteen memHis majesty is said to have deli. bers, but was increased to about fixty; their meetings were in the both clergy and laity, with re. house of the Russian embassador, spect to worship and all other matand the diet, to give them time ters, are to possess equal rights, finally to settle, and thoroughly privileges, and immunities, with to examine into the important fub- the Roman Catholics. And that ject in which they were engaged, a superior tribunal, consisting of was prolonged to the first of Fe- an equal number of members of bruary.
the three religions, is to be formTo this commission the republic ed ; the president of which is to of Poland is indebted for the pro- be a Roman Catholic, a Greek, spect of a lasting harmony be- or a Protestant, alternately; and tween the different parts of which that all disputes whatsoever, reit is composed, and the Dissidents lative to the Dillidents, are to be for the restoration of their juft judged by it. rights and privileges, and their During these transactions, seve. future security in the enjoyment ral applications were ineffectually of them. The commissioners, made for the enlargement of the
after many meetings, at grandees who had been seized by Nov. length figned their re- the Ruffians : Prince Repnin, 20th. solutions, which were then however, fatisfied the minds of the
transmitted to Muscow, people, by declaring they were for the approbation of the Em- not in close confinement, but were press; after which they are to be at large under the care of a de. passed into a law, and considered tachment at Wilna, where they as one of the fundamental consti- were treated with all the respect tutions of the republic.
due to their quality. The EmThough these resolutions are not press of Ruffia, upon an applicaauthentically published, yet they tion that was made on this fub. are known to be founded upon the ject, is said to have made answer, following basis: That the Ca- that these nobles were possessed tholic is to be considered as the with so turbulent a spirit, that predominant religion in Poland ; their liberty would destroy all the of which profession the king is al. pains she had taken for the peace ways to be. That the Dissidents, and happiness of the republic.
Spain. Meafures relative yo the expulfion of the Jesuits; the causes that
are assigned for that proceeding. The houses of that fociety in every part of Spain seized by the king's troops; the members arrested, and their effects fequeftered. Th: King of Spain's ordinance again the society. The fefuits transported to Civita Vecchia ; but are not suffered to be landed: from thence they are carried to Corsica. The Jesuits in Mexico, and all the other Spanish colonies arrested, and their property seized. Similar
measures pursued in Naples and Sicily. THE CHE expulsion of the Jesuits most remarkable incidents that
this year from the Spanish has happened in the course of the dominions, is perhaps one of the present century. This event was
not more extraordinary in its na- tempt of the same nature might ture, than it was unexpected at have overturned the best founded the time, and unforeseen by the government in Chriftendom. sufferers. Mankind have beheld This event sufficiently shews with amazement a nation not only the great latitude that a freedom the most violently attached to the of thought and enquiry has gained Roman Catholic religion, but also in countries that were hitherto the to the principles, interests, and most wedded to particular forms views of the court of Rome, sud and opinions.
It also evidently denly destroy, and almost totally shews, that bigotry is not the annihilate a religious order, which reigning vice of the present age ; had its birth and nurture in itself, whatever complaint may with too and that had been long looked much justice be made of the proupon as the principal strength and gress of infidelity. support of the papal power.
The real motives of this extra. This order, which had so long ordinary expulsion have not been roled the cabinets, and guided the declared; those general ones that confciences of kings; which had have been given out, are found. extended its power and influence ed only upon uncertain furmises. into every quarter of the world; The king, in the ordinance which and which had great possessions, he issued for their banishment, and still greater connections, in talks only in general terms of the very country from which it keeping his people in due subordi. was proscribed ; now beheld its nation, of tranquillity, justice, &c. unhappy members, fugitives, out- but profefl'es other juít, urgent, cafts of all mankind, refused ad. and necessary causes, which he mittance by every nation in Eu. reserves within his own breast, rope, even by the sovereign pon. This compendious method of con. tiff, to whom they were so zea- demnation, for causes reserved in lously attached ; and after wan the judge's breast, and only known dering about the seas, failing from to him, who is at once the accu. port to port, enduring numberless fer, judge, and avenger of crimes, hardships, and finding every port which he does not specify, may, fhut against them, were at last upon many occasions, be very use. happy to meet an asylum, which ful to sovereigns. But however was procured for them with great this order may have merited the difficulty in the barren island of rigorous treatment which they Corsica.
met on this occasion, the mode Such is the uncertainty of hu. and circumstances of the proceed. man affairs, and such the influence ing against them furnish a triking that time has upon opinions, that initance of the miserable insecurity this mighty blow was struck with. of private property, and the conout the least disturbance ; with tinual danger which all the natuscarce a murmur from the suffer- ral rights of mankind are in of be ers, and scarcely a remonftrance ing violated, under a despotic go. in their favour from those they vernment. might have thought their friends, Some are of opinion, that the The time has been, when an at. Jesuits had been the secret infti
gators of all the late tumults that conducted, and the filence with had happened in Spain; and con- which they were put in execution, sequently of the banishment of the were circumstances as remarkable Marquis de Squillacci, the king's as any that attended it. The Jefavourite minister. Others attri-, suits, notwithstanding their extenbute to them schemes ftill deeper five correspondence and conneclaid, and more dangerous, which, tion, and their usual good intellithey say, the king fortunately dif- gence, were surprised in their beds, covered in time. It is possible without the leaft time to avert the that the example set by France and danger, or the smallest warning of Portugal, together with the pow. the impending blow. This will erful influence which the former appear the more extraordinary, as power has upon the court of Ma. the king's ordinance, which was drid, might have had its full weight published upon the occasion, shews upon chis occasion. The Spaniards that these measures were the rein general are much averse to this sult of a council, held the 29th of French influence; and it is affert- the preceding January; and that ed that the Jesuits, probably from the king's commission to the count resentment of the sufferings of their de. Aranda, for the execution of brethren in France, had taken them, was issued on the 27th of great pains to encourage and heigh. February. ten this dislike.
Between eleven and Many other causes have been twelve at night, the Mar. 3 ift, afligned, which might have con- six different houses of 1767. tributed to the extirpation of this Jesuits in the city of society. Their conduct in Para. Madrid, were surrounded by large guay, with respect to the kings of detachments of regular troops ; Spain and Portugal; the contu- who, having got open the outmacy with which they not only fide doors, the bells' were immerefused to submit to their edicts, diately secured, and a sentry but even opposed their troops in placed at the door of each celí. the field ; might have given juft Whenevery necessary measure was grounds for the court of Spain to taken, the Jesuits were ordered to free itself from a body full of am. rise, and being assembled, they bition and of power. They are were acquainted with the king's also said to have monopolized, in commands, and were then aslifted a great degree, the commerce in in packing up such things as were the Spanish West Indies, to the requisite for their journey. In the great prejudice of the state, as mean time, all the hired coaches well as to the detriment of indi. and chaises in Madrid, together viduals; and they are charged with several waggons, had been with holding opinions, and pub. fecured, and distributed in proper lifhing tenets in their writings, places; fo that, without any loss which were not only deftructive to of time, they began their journey religion, but subversive of all to Carthagena very early in the kingly government.
morning, and were escorted by a The fecrefy with which all the strong and numerous guard.
All measures leading to this event were this was effected without the least