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interesting: While our humanity is deeply, engaged in the cause of the D flidents, we cannot but lament the fatality by which a great nation is surrounded in its capital by a foreign army; and the fenators of a republic, that was once free and independent, carried off by a military force for a discussion of their own affairs. This is a fubject, that, notwithstanding the rectitude and integrity of the motives which guided those transactions, affords a full opportunity for the most deep and ferious reflection.

Our home affairs have not been deficient in matters sufficiently interesting. Of these we give such an account as we hope will be agreeable to our readers ; and have endeavoured to preserve that impartiality, which it will be always so much our wish to support.' And it shall ever be our greatest happiness to have any opportunity of shewing the grateful fense we entertain of the repeated indulgence which we have so con. Itantly experienced from the Public,

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* HISTORY

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CH A P. I.

General apped of affairs. Prefent appearances pacific. Some ancient canses

of contention removed. France., Holland. General fate of the North. Germany. Italy. Expulsion of the Jesuits from Naples and Parma. The Interest of the court of Rome declining in Italy. Portugal. Scarcity of corn. Friendly intercourse fubfting between the learned.

TXTE observe, with pleasure, while at least, of that rage of con-
V that the event has hap. queft, which had for so many centu. ;

pily justified our prog- ries plunged the different parts of noftication of last year; and that the great European commonwealth the general tranquillity of Europe into all the calamities of devastais not in any immediate danger of tion and war. That martial difpofi. being disturbed. A spirit of im- . tion, which foentirely possessed the provement in the arts of peace, in people of thofe ages, was the natu." manufacturés, commerce, and the ral consequence of the hardy bo, elegant embellishments of life, dies, the active and intrepid minds, seems to have taken place, for å of the western and northern na. Vol. X

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tions, when not otherwise engaged other's bodies, for the falration of by a close attention to the useful, their fouls, is not only worn out, or mellowed by a knowledge of the but almost forgotten. Successions, fine arts.

boundaries, and rights of govern. It may now appear late to look ment, are fixed upon a more known back to the subversion or change of and settled foundation than ever the feudal system, and from thence they were before ; and commercial to derive reasons for prognosticat. nations have discovered a more ing the approach of a less mariial successful and happy method of age. This change was not indeed . procuring gold, than by digging it immediately productive of so hap. themselves from the mine, or forc. py an effect. Many, however, of ing it from those that do. the causes of ancient quarrels were Many other sources of conten. certainly removed, by the different tion of a later date, together with modifications which that system fome mistaken notions in politics, underwent in moft of the countries which have had their day and done of Europe. The two last centuries sufficient mischief, are exhausted. were (partly through accident, and Some juft causes of contention are partly from those epidemic par. also removed. The ideas attend. fions, which have been observed at ing a balance of power, feem to be particular æras to possess the minds at present very different from what of great bodies of mankind) so pe. they have been formerly. The culiarly fertile in producing new dread of universal monarchy, apcauses of diffenfion, that the con- pears to be much abated, if not {equences naturally to be expected entirely at an end. With regard from the decline of the feudal go to England, to our happiness, the vernment could not be perceived causes of those fears which were amidst the continual din of fresh once so prevalent, with respect to disputes. It may be unnecessary to the protestant succeffion; the dan. recapitulate those causes of diffen. ger of rebellions within, or invasi. fion; many of them are generally ons from without, from that cause, known. Religion, or the pretence are so entirely vanished, that they to it, had its full share amongst only serve to endear to us our prethem. The uncertain rights of suc- sent security. cellion in moft countries, together These circumftances seem in with the avidity with which all some sort pledges of a greater tranmankind were seized to grapple at quillity to our pofterity, than we or the treasures of the new world, were our ancestors have enjoyed. Howsuch seeds of contention, as served, ever, it must be confessed that all along with many others, to keep speculations of this kind, however Europe in continual agitation. plausible, are in their nature ex.

Several of the principal of those tremely uncertain. The natural causes, and, happily, some of those inconstancy of mankird, the sport which occafioned the greatest mis. which fortune seems at some times chief, are now no more. The vio. to make of every system, destroy. lence of religious animosity; that ing in a day, or an hour, the best bitterness of zeal, which set man. laid foundations, and trampling kind to the deftruction of each the labour of ages, and the wifett

infti. ground; yet it must be owned, not the two nations, is in some degree in such a degree, but that her great wearing off; and it is observable, natural resources, and the very that more Freneh of diftinction valuable and improveable colonies have visited England since the last The is still possessed of, will always war, than at any other period fince make her very respectable, if not the English lost their great posses. formidable. At present she is load. fions in that country. ed with a very heavy debt, which The most interesting event which will require length of time, joined the past year has produced in Holwith strict economy and close land, has been the marriage of the attention to her finances, to dife Prince Stadtholder with the Princharge. Nor will her commerce, cess Royal of Prussia. Nothing though greatly recovered, fudden- could be more pleafing to the ly forget the shocks it received in whole republic than this marriage, the last war. Agriculture has, nor could any thing happen of a through a series of mismanage. more interesting nature; the pubment, been long on the decline in lic and private rejoicings they that country ; it was the error of made, and the marks of respect the famous Colbert, that he want. and regard which they shewed the ed to form the French into a nation princess upon every occasion, fuf. of manufacturers, and forgot that ficiently teftified the fenfe they had agriculture is the principal strength of it. By this marriage the comof a state. The French ministry, as monwealth has entered intoa nearer well as the nation, seem now fully connection with a great, a powersensible of this error; and agricul. ful, and a neighbouring prince, ture meets with all that encou. whose difpoficion, if not a certain ragement and attention which it friend, was always to be dreaded ; so justly merits. It will, however, and the vicinity of whose territo. require length of time, and all the ries to those of the states, would leisure of peace, to bring it to any always furnish sufficient matter for degree near the perfection to which altercation, whenever he chose to it is capable of arriving. : seek for it. At the same time this

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institutions in the dust; all these declared Queen of Naples; but upmay forbid the hopes of a lasting on this occafion it made no great permanency to any fyftem of tran- change, and che young Prince has quillity, let the present appear been fince contracted to her next ances be ever fo ferene.

filter the Archduchess Caroline, It must be admitted that this age who is about a year younger. seems to have a cause of contention Unnatural as the present friends more particularly its own, and thip and alliance between those an, which cannot fail to supply, in cient and hereditary enemies, the fome degree, those which are now houses of Bourbon and Austria, by time and change of manners may appear, and dangerous as the extinguished. The desire of naval effects of it might at first seem to power, which at present acts so many of their neighbours; it is not Itrongly upon many of the nations perhaps impossible, but it may cona in Europe, will generate daily dif. tribute to preserve that tranquil. pates, and must become a fruitful lity, which seemed to be so much Tource of diffenfion. The spirit of endangered by it. This will apcommerce will not be confined to pear the less problematical, if we the acquisitions of industry. The reflect on the many wars in which new adventurers in this field will the bickering, and enmity of these encroach upon the old, while the two families have engaged for near same passion will act as powerfully two centuries che reit of Europe. with the old pofTeffors, not to re. Neither does this alliance appear linquish any of those profits which so very formidable to its neighusually came into their hands, and bours, as it might have done in to which they will think that long another situation of things. The prescription has given them a right. great weight which has accumu.

With respect to other matters, lated in the northern balance of the general state of affairs in Eu. late years, may well prevent the rope has suffered no material change scale from preponderacing excelfince the conclusion of our last vo. fively in their favour. lame. The same close union and It does not at present appear, alliance ftill fubfifts between the that any of the three powers in different branches of the house of question are disposed, or indeed in Bourbon. The friendship and union a condition to disturb the public between that family and the house repose, France has been long a of Austria, is still more closely ce. loser by her wars, nor do the late mented by a marriage between the trials she has made of her strength, young king of Naples, and a comparatively with that of her daughter of the Empress Queen. neighbours, give the least encou. The hopes of this alliance might ragement to her seeking for new. indeed have been frustrated in a less The fyftem of Europe is much

numerous family, by changed since those victorious 15th Oct. the death of the Archio days of Lewis the XIV th, when 1767. duchess Maria Josepha, he was so much the terror of it.

who was seized with Other nations have gained great the small-pox in a few days after additional itrength, whilft France her being married by proxy and has without question rather loft

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Upon the whole it is evident, marriage is juftly to be looked upthat nothing can be fo essential to on in a very interesting light with the interest of France, as the con respect to the Protestant system in tinuation of peace; and that they general, and to connect that chain must be the most pernicious poli. of union which it will always be tics, which could at present urge' so much the common interest to it to enter wantonly into a war. preserve between the maritime and

With respect to England, France northern powers, and the Protesseems at present to be in a state of tant princes of Germany. perfect good neighbourhood ; nor In the north, affairs at present is there any apparent cause of quar. wear the moft benign, aspect. The rel likely to disturb this harmony. great disputes in Poland about the It may not perhaps be quite vili. Diffidents, which seemed pregnant onary to imagine that the violent with so much danger to the gene. animosity and national prejudice, ral repose, are, through the weighwhich has so long subfifted between ty and effectual mediation of the

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