noise or disturbance; the inhabi.' ing to the society are to have small tants of Madrid were in their life annuities. The foreign brobeds, and knew nothing of what thers, which were pretty numerpassed till they beard it, to their ous, were entirely excluded from great surprise, in the morning, the benefit of these alimentary anwhen the affair was entirely over. nuities, which were confined to

On the third day after, in the native Spaniards. morning, the Jesuits' college at It was declared by this ordiBarcelona was invested by the civil nance, that if any of the expelled and military power; the members Jefuits should quit the ecclefiafti. were fent off guarded for tranf. cal state, into which they were to portation, as those at Madrid had be transported, or should, by their been; and their effects were seized actions or writings, give the court upon and sealed up. The same any just cause of resentment, such measures were put in execution at perfons Mould be immediately de. the same hour in every part of prived of the pensions afligned Spain. The packets which con- them. But the feverest injunction veyed the orders upon this subject of all, and which made their hopes to the governors, were inclosed in of a livelihood entirely precarious, letters which gave directions, that was, that if the company caused, they should not be opened till a or permitted any of its individuals certain hour; after which no per- to write any thing contrary to the fon, to whom any part of the or. respect and submission due to the ders were communicated, was to king's resolution, under title or quit the governor's fight till they pretext of apologies, or justifica. were executed. In the mean time tjons, tending to disturb the peace orders were sent to the fea-ports, of his kingdoms, or should, in any to examine all persons who should other manner, by their private attempt to take their passage to emissaries, make attempts of that any part of the Spanish Indies, nature ; in such case, which was and to keep the stricteft watch, however said to be unexpected, the that no Jeluit in any disguise whole pensions are to cease and should pass that way. Ships were determine. also provided, and the prisoners By the other articles, no part were, by different embarkations, nor body of the company, nor no conveyed to Italy.

individual belonging to it, are The king then published his ever to be re-admitted under any pragmatic sanction, or royal ordi. pretence, or for any cause whatso. nance, for the expulsion of the Je. ever; nor is the council, or any suits. By this ordinance, the tem- other tribunal, ever to admit of poralities of the company, in every any application upon that fubject. part of the Spanish dominions, are On the contrary, the magiftrates seized to the king's use. In the are to exert the most rigorous mea. temporalities are included all their fures, and to punish, as disturbers goods, chattels, and estates of of the public peace, all the abetevery sort, but without prejudice tors of such an attempt. All cor. to the real incumbrances affecting respondence with Jefui's is for. such estates. The priests belong- bidden under the severett penalties.

Silence crimes.

That as


Silence is Atrictly enjoined to all the holy church, I acquaint its fu. the king's subjects upon this oce preme head. I recommend your cafion; and any person who ven- holiness to the divine keeping." tures to write, declaim, or make These reasons not appearing any ftir, for or against these mea. satisfactory, two couriers were fures, is declared guilty of high sent to Madrid, who it is said treason. This law is extended to made the following representaall the king's dominions, as well tions: That if the Jefuits are guilty, in the Indies, as in Europe and they are not sufficiently punished; elsewhere.

but too much so if they are inIn the mean time, the news of nocent. That the laws' feem to this event was received at Rome require, that citizens hall not be with the greatest astonishment; driven from their country, till and before it could in any degree they have undergone a trial, to wear off, fourteen transports, un- make evident the proofs of their der convoy of three Spanish men

the rest, of war, arrived at Civita Vecchia, though it is in the power of his with 970 Jesuits on board. The Catholic majesty to treat his subgovernor refused to let them land jects in such a manner as may seem till he had received instructions, fit and convenient to him; yet he and immediately dispatched an cannot oblige any other sovereign express to Rome. The arrival of to give them

an asylum in his dothis express threw the people into minions. That if the Catholic a great ferment, and the pope powers should all think, proper to immediately summoned a congre- suppress the different religious orgation of cardinals to consult upon ders in the countries under their the occasion. The result of this dominion, and consign them to council was absolutely to forbid the disposal of his holiness, not the reception of the Jesuits in the only the ecclefiaftical state, but ecclefiaftical dominions; and or- the whole country of Italy, would ders were given to the governor be too small to contain such a of Civita Vecchia, to take such number of new inhabitants. methods, as should effe&tually No notice was taken of these prevent their being landed.

representations. In the mean time, About this time the King of the convoy at Civita Vecchia, afSpain was said to have wrote the ter lying some time in the harfollowing laconic letter to the bour, received orders to proceed pope, as an explanation of the to Bastia ; and the French court motives of his procedure against made use of its influence with the the Jesuits :

republic of Genoa, to receive the • Holy father,

Jesuits in the towns that remained All my tribunals having judged in its hands in the island of Corsi that the fathers Jesuits are of no ca. At length she em. service to my kingdoms, I could barkation from Civita May 22d. do no less than conform to their re. Vecchia arrived presentations. Of this, as a son of Baltia ; here they were as un




fortunate as before; matters were consequence of banishment from not yet brought to a conclusion their native country, from friends, between the French and Genoese, relations, and those ties so dear to and they were obliged to remain mankind, and in that situation, on board, in the harbour. Three obliged to undergo hardships, other embarkations took at dif. which prove so fatal to the hardieft ferent times the same rout as the and best-seasoned troops. The first to Civita Vecchia ; where consequences were what might meeting with the fame fate, they have been naturally expected; afterwards proceeded to Corfica, they died in great numbers; and where they lay in the harbours of the general calamity was increased Baftia and San Fiorenza, but upon individuals by some of the were not admitted to land. The thips being separated in storms, conditions being at last settled with and tossed about the isands of the the republic, the different 'em- Archipelago for several weeks.

barkations receivedor. As if all this had been only a July 8th. ders to fail to Calvi, prelude to the misfortunes of the

Algaiola, and Ajaccio: Jefuits, the parliaat which ports the transports were ment of Paris pub- May 13th. disburthened of their unhappy lifhed an arret against freight; and the surviving Jesuits, them, wherein they were de. to the number, it is said, of two clared enemies to sovereigns and thousand three hundred, the public tranquillity of kingJanded.

doms; and all those who had Without considering the re. been indulged with the liberty of ligious or political tenets of this staying in the kingdom by the society, (which appear to have edict of Nov. 1764, were or. been dangerous, from the general dered to quit it in 15 days, under persecution raised againit them pain of criminal prosecution. By in so many countries of their own

this arret, they are forbid ever to persuasion,) we are obliged, as return, under any pretence what. men, to sympathize with them in soever; and the king is to be the miseries which they underwent fupplicated to apply to the pope, in their exile. The lying crowd and to allotherCatholic sovereigns, ed for three months aboard tranf. and engage them to abolish a ports, in the hottest seafon of a society, so dangerous to chrifti. hot climate, would be reckoned a anity and government. The other severe trial to land-men of the most articles of this arret seemed to be sobuft conftitutions. In this case, a transcript of those published in we see a number of men of all the ordinance at Madrid. ages, and in every state of health, The King of Spain's orders re. not in used to hardships, bred up lative to the Jesuits were as well to letters and a sedentary life ; executed in the Spanish colonies the conftitutions that naturally at. as they had been at home. In the tend that course of life farther month of July the Jefuits of Meximpaired by the grief, anxiety, ico, to the number of 700, were and horror which most be the suddenly arrested, without the least previous notice, and strongly there is scarcely an instance in hissecured till ships could be provided tory of any body of menso entirely to convey them home. The same cut off and separated from the rest measures were as effectually pur- of mankind. “When affairs were sued in other parts of the Spanish entirely settled in Spain, and the foreign dominions; and ships have novelty of the transactions began since continually arrived in the to wear off, the storm, which had ports of Old Spain, with cargoes been for fome time expected, fell of prisoners on board.


at last upon the Jesuits in Naples., It is said that the confiscated The different houses belonging to estates and effects of the Jesuits, in the society in that capital were 'the provinces of Mexico only, suddenly invested by the civil and were computed to amount to the military power, their effects seizimmense value of 77 millions of ed, and the mempiafters, or 385 millions of French bers made prison- Nov. 20th. livres. It is also said that the ers. The garrison effects which were found in their in the mean time patrolled the warehouses, in the different ports city under arms, and prevented all of Old Spain, were valued at a pro- disturbances. digious fum; and that the Jefuits The same measures were taken of Peru, and the southern pro- in every part of the kingdoms of vinces of the Spanish West Indies, Naples and Sicily, where the Jewere richer than those of Mexico. fuits had possessions ; and the priIf these facts are truly stated, we soners were, without ceremony or may, perhaps, be able from them leave being asked, all convoyed to form a more just conclusion of into the Pope's dominions; the the causes that brought on the de- vicinity of whose territories made ftraction of this fociety, than everyscheme of oppofition fruitless. those that have been already af- The court of Rome complained figned. Immense property in pri- loudly at this outrage, and prevate hands, whether communities fented memorials to all the foor single persons, has even in free reign ministers in that city. In countries been always attended these memorials the Pope comwith imminent danger to the pos- plains, that the King of Naples fessors. In arbritary governments, has violated, in the first place, the only security that can attend the divine right, by the manner such property, depends upon the in which his foldiers entered into wants, the difpofition, or the ca- holy places, and by the feques. price of a king or a minifter; a tration of the ecclesiastical revetenure of all others the most pre- nues, without confulting the carious and dangerous.

bishops ; fecondly, the right of Most of the Catholic powers in mankind, by forcibly depositing Europe had published ediêts, du. some of his subjects in the domiring these transactions, to forbid, nions of his holiness, and by under severe penalties, the recep marching his troops into a coun. tion of the expolsed Jesuits in any try that was not his own; and part of their dominions; so that laitly, the right of good neighVoL, X



bourhood, in not communicating aftical state, since the kingdom of his design to the Pope, both as the Naples had no other frontiers ; head of the church, and as a tein- and that, as to the confiscation and poral prince, who has the supreme management of the effects of the lovereignty over Naples. society, it no less belonged, by the

These memorials produced the same right of sovereignty, to the fame effect, which the remon- royal treasury. ftrances of weak princes to their It is said, that the number of Je. powerful neighbours generally do; suits transported from the kingdom they were carelessly answered, and of Naples, exclusive of those from no farther notice taken of them. Sicily, to the papal dominions, The cardinal Orfini, the Neapo. amounted to fifteen hundred. This litan minister at Rome, made a inundation offtrangers was the more verbal declaration to the following sensibly felt, as there had been fo purport; “ That every fovereign great a scarcity of corn for some having a right to drive from his years in the ecclefiaftical state, that dominions persons convicted of it was with the greatest care and difbeing enemies thereof," no other ficulty that they could guard againft means could be found of getting a famine, besides that eight hundred rid of those fathers, than causing of the Portugal Jesuits were still them to be escorted to the eccleíi- alive, and unprovided for there.

[blocks in formation]

Of Corfica; 'its ancient fate; granted by a Pope to the republic of Pija; conquered by the Genoese ; oppressive and impolitic government of it.

T'be Corpcans offer to submit themselves to the Turks. The beginning of the prefent troubles in that island; the Prince of Wirtemberg wiib an imperial army compels the malecontents to submit. The troubles begin again. Theodore proclaimed king. French army subdue the island; but upon their departure, the malecontents renew the war with more fury than ever. Paschal Paoli declared general of the Corsicans ; he drives, the Gencese to the fortified towns upon the coasts; and establishes a regular govornment. The conquest of the island of Capraja. CHE ftrenuous efforts which seem disposed to establish a regu.

lar and permanent form of governber of years, by the natives of the ment; a measure which the Genoifland of Corsica, to recover their ese, without foreign alliftance, liberty from the Genoese, have, in are in no degree capable of prea considerable degree, attracted the venting. attention of the other nations of Eu. Republics, though fond of boastrope. This seems now to be more ing of the great advantages of freeparticularly the case; as under the dom, yet seem to think it too conduct of their present chief, great á blessing to be communi. they not only bid fair for being cated to others, so they are looked entirely independent, but they upon to be the worst masters in have drawn the outlines, and the world. The Italian republics

« ForrigeFortsett »