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have not escaped this censure; and that might perpetuate his fame as one of the wifeit of them is said a sovereign.' Sensible also of their to have suffered severely, 'and to own weakness, their councils were have lost great power and proverty, guided by contioual fear and dirby incurring it. Under such a trust; so that their system seemed mode of government, it is pro- to be rather to keep the illand de. bable that the Corficans had fre- folate and barbarous, in hope of se. quent and sufficient causes of com- curity in the posleflion, than to plaint.
suffer any improvement that could It was the peculiar unhappiness make it beneficial either to the na. of the inhabitants of this island, tives or themselves. that they were in all ages a prey to The Corsicans were far from be. foreigners; doomed to feel the ing pasfi ve during this long course iron hand of oppression from every of oppresion. In the 16th century comer, they never seem to have had they carried on a bloody and dela fixed or permanent government perate war, which continued se. of their own. This continual state veral years, and in which they were of oppression depended in a great very near succeeding against the measure upon their central litua. Genoefe ; and when at last they tion; ir a manner surrounded by were overcome, they offered to great, warlike, and powerful na- submit themselves to the Turks, tions.
rather than return under the yoke This island, after a continued of their old masters. series of revolutions, if passing. The present troubles began a. from the hands of one tyrant to bout the year 1729: it is true, another may be called fo, was at there have been some intervals of length granted by one of the tranquillity, but they were only popes to the republic of Pisa, of a short continuance, and peace which was then a very confiderable has never since been thoroughly maritime state. In the long wars established in the island. The which ensued between this repub. Genoese, after several encounters, lic and that of Genoa, Corfica finding their own force insufwas a particular object of their ficient to reduce the malecontents, contention; and, after a tedious were obliged to call in an impestruggle, was conquered by the rial army under General WachGenoefe about the beginning of the tendonck to their assistance; but fourteenth century. The conduct this army being also unable to of the Genoere in the govern. reduce the Corsicans, a stronger ment of this island, seems in ge- was obliged to be brought in under neral to have been cruel, arbi. the command of the Prince of trary, and impolitic. So large a Wirtemburgh. The Corsicans, una. nomber of nobles, who looked ble to resist so superior a force, were upon themselves as joint monarchs obliged to come into a treaty under of an island, which increased their the emperor's guarrantee. The vanity by having the name of a gaining of this point is said to have kingdom, wanted each, in his own coft the Genoese thirty millions individual person, to fhew some of French livres : the troubles extraordinary exertion of power, arose from the cruel treatment of
a poor woman, for a single paolo, tend the detection of his falsehoods, about five pence English, which and the imposition he had put upon was her share of a tax that she was the people, he prudently withdrew unable to pay.
from his kingdom, under pretence The peace was but of short du. of going to haften the succours ration: Soon after the departure which he had so long promised. of the imperial troops, the Geno. The republic of Genoa was at ele are said to have broke through length obliged to enter into a
every article of the treaty, treaty with France, to reduce the 1734. and hostilities were again Corsicans to obedience. It was in
renewed with as much rage vain that the malecontents re. as ever. The Genoese, now left monstrated to his moft Chriftian to their own strength, carried on majesty, against the cruelty and the war with little success ; there injustice of this procedure ; a was a great deal of blood spilt, and detachment of French much mischief done, but no effec- troops were sent to Cor- March, tual service performed; and while fica, under the command 1738. the country was continually wasted of the Count de Boisseaux. by both parties, its mountainous Though these troops did a great nature greatly befriended the na- deal of mischief in the island, yet tives. At this time Giafferi, who they were insufficient to subdue the was the chief of the Corsicans in invincible spirit of the islanders. both these insurrections, chose for Upon this the French court sent, his colleague, Giacinto Paoli, fa. the following year, the Marquis ther to the present General of that de Mallebois at the head of a connation,
fiderable army to reduce them enThe Genoese were greatly em- tirely to obedience.. barrassed; they hired a body of This general executed, the de. Swiss and Grisons, who, from the signs of his court effectually ; the mountainous nature of their coun: Corsicans were every where overtry, they thought might have been powered, and laughter, ruin, and fitter for the Corsican service than destruction were. Ipread through their own troops. They also pub- every part of the island. He cut lished an indemnity to all their down the standing corn, the vines, assassins and outlaws of every sort, and the olives, let fire to the vil. upon condition that they would lages, hanged numbers of monks fight the battles of the republic in and others who were most forward
in the revolt, and spread such ter. . It was during these transactions, ror and desolation in every quarthat the famous Theodore Baron ter, that the natives were once
Newhoff arrived in the more obliged to submit to their 1736. island, and was declared ancient bondage. The unpre
king of it. The history of cedented and terrible Naughter this adventurer is well known. which had been committed, with After about eight months enjoy. the dread of still greater vengeance ment of his royalty, being seized from so formidable a nation as with a consciousness of the fatad France, effaced every idea but dangers which would probably at. that of immediate safety. The
two generals, Giafferi and Paoli, cia and San Fiorenza, which they were obliged to quit the island, to delivered up to the Corsicans. which they never returned ; they They however loft these cities foon retired to Naples, where they got after, in consequence of the difregiments, and spent the remain- fentions produced by the ambition der of their lives.
and disagreement of their leaders Among many other proposals and principal men. In the year which the republic of Genoa made 1746, they sent porposals to the at this time to France, one was, British embassador, at Turin, to to assign over a great number of put themselves under the protecthe inhabitants of Corsica, who iion of the crown of Great Britain; were to be sent to people the dif. which proposals it appears were tant French colonies : upon which not accepted. In 1753, their lea. a French writer remarks, "that der Gaffori was assassinated by the Genoese would have been fatis fome ruffians, who were supposed fied to be sovereigns of the bare to be set on by the republic, as rocks of Corsica, without subjects.” they had pensions allowed them in
The French troops be- its territories. 1741. ing at length withdrawn During these transactions, Gia
from Corsica, the spirit of cinto Paoli led a retired life in the inhabitants began again to ap. Naples; his whole time was de. pear in its full vigour. They had vored to the education of his son been obliged to deliver up their Pascal, whose genius and disposi. arms by the last capitulation; their tion were so happy that no part exiled country men, in the different of it was mispear. The father towns of Italy, supplied them with seemed to have a pre-sentiment of some; they stript the Genoese fol. what his son would arrive at; the diers of others, which they were course of education he prescribed not very willing to use, but which was calculated to form a prince were afterwards effectually em- and a legislator; and the young ployed againft themselves. man made so excellent an use of
No spirit was ever more gene the instructions which he receivral than that which appeared in ed, that he became the admiration this insurrection; men, women, of strangers, as well as of his counand young boys, and even the trymen. clergy, bore arms. They elected The Corsicans, tired of the contwo new chiefs, under the title of tinual diffenfions among their prin. protectors; and having foon over. cipal men, and of the confequent run the open country, they then evils that attended them ; charmbesieged and took the capital city ed besides with the character and of Corte, together with its strong manners of young Paoli, sent a castle. A defultory kind of war deputation to invite him to Corhas been carried on, with some in- fica, and to offer him the supreme termiffions, ever since.
government of the island. In the year 1745, the English, This offer was gladly ac. 1755. as allies to the King of Sardinia, cepted." sent some men of war, who bom. There was much to be reformed barded and took the cities of Baf. in Corsica: all forms of legal justice
had bcen long laid afide ; he found with great honour to pofterity. neither subordination, discipline, He established an university at nor union, amongst the people ; Corte ; he had proper schools fix. all feuds and disputes were termic ed in all the villages in the kingnated by assassinations, every one dom; and by these means he openof which begot a number of new ed the minds of the Corsicans, and ones ; the people, trained up in gradually prepared them for the continual war, despised agricul. reception of laws. ture, and every species of industry; In the mean time, the republic in a word, Paoli seemed in many of Genoa finding herself incainstances to have more difficulties pable of defending the few fortifito contend with, than the legisla. ed places which remained in her tors of the moft early ages. hands, entered into a negociation
The happiness of his genius, with France ; in consequence of and the reverence that was paid which the latter sent fix to his virtues, enabled him how. battalions to secure them, 1764. ever to triumph over all these dif. according to treaty, for ficulties. His persuasion and ex. four years. These troops were ample had such force in forming restrained, by the conditions, from the people, that he soon drove the acting offensively against the Cor. Genoese to the remoteft corners of ficans. the island ; nor had they any secu. This measure having, in a great rity but in the few fortified towns degree, circumscribed Paoli's opewhich they possesed upon the sea. rations by land, it also served coast. He then attended to the to direct his activity to another civil part of the adminiftration, in fphere. He had for some time past which he shewed such abilities and taken great pains to form fome. constancy, as were little to be ex. thing like a marine force; he now pected in fo young a man. He attended to it with greater dili. new modelled the government ; gence, and was so fuccessful as but instead of taking advantage of greatly to incommode the Genoese the influence which he had on the trade, as well as their conveyance people, to establish a tyranny, he of troops and stores, &c. to Cor. founded a democracy. He form fica. In the course of this year, ed a great council of the nation, he formed a successful defign, by which every person in it was which was as unexpected by bis represented by two members for enemies, as it was surprising to the every paris, who were elected an- rest of Europe. nually. He formed good laws, The Hand of Capraja, on the and had them ftri&ly executed; coast of Tuscany, belonged to the so that, in a little time, he almost Genoese ; it is about fix miles in entirely eradicated the practice of length, and from two to three assassination, as well as many other broad; it is very rocky and mounenormities.
tainous, but fertile in vines, of He made many other regula- which it produces a great quantions, which, if he pursues the city. The inhabitants are comsame virtuous course in which he puied to be about 3000, and the set out, will perpetuate his name men are said to be the best failors
in the Mediterranean ; the island the principal fort, which was cal. is ro guarded and surrounded by led the Citadel, where they were rocks, that it affords but one land. immediately besieged by the Cor. ing place ; the harbour is however ficans, who guarded the land. a very good one, and a common ing-place so well, that the Ge. place of shelter to the ships that noese were several times repulsed navigate that quarter.
in the attempts they made to rePaoli conducted an embarkation lieve the fort. At length, they for the conquest of this place, with however effected a landing, but so much secresy, that the first ac. were totally repulsed with the lofs count which the Genoese received of 150 men ; and the garrison beof it, was the successful landing ing reduced to the greatest necefof his troops. The republic used fity for want of provisions, they every effort to prevent the loss of were at last obliged to the place, and fent out a conside- surrender the fortress May 29th, rable naval force, with a body of after a defence of 102 1767. troops, which were continually re. days, during which inforced for that purpose. In the they had lived upon bread and mean time, the small garrison of water. Genoese in that island retired to
CH A P. VII.
Great distresses of the poor from the high prices of provifions ; riots and
tumulis thereupon; several of the rioters taken ; Apecial commiffions isued for their immediate trial. A proclamation against forestalling ; the parliament prorogued ; an embargo laid on sips loaded with wheat, The fate of the East India company ; great disputes between the mem. bers of it; their affairs become a subjea of general discussion. Melage from the ministry to the court of India directors ; a great increase of dividend carried by a numerous majority of proprietors. The parliament meet; notice taken, in the speech from the throne, of the neceffity that 06ccafioned the late exertion of authority, for the prejervation of the public Safety.
COON after the formation of the populace only set up to regu.
the new ministry, he diftref. late and lower the markets, and ses of the poor from the high prices to punish some individuals, who of corn, and every other species they imagined had contributed to of provision, became very urgent, their calamities by engrossing, and and caused great and general com- other practices for enhancing the plaints through every part of the price of provisions beyond their - kingdom. These complaints were juft rate. But they did not long followed by riots and tumulis, in confine themselves to these objects. which, as usual in popular com. When they were heated by being motions, great irregularies were together in large bodies, they procommitted. In the beginning, ceeded to the most enormous ex