The beds of peat or turf must like. often 1000 feet high, it is impoffiwise be considered as new beds, ble to fink wells therein, and con. produced by the successive accumu. fequently to have water. There lation of half.rotted trees and other are likewise prodigious tracts of vegetables, which were no otherá land, where water is absolutely wife preserved than by happening wanting, as in Arabia Petræa, a to be in bituminous grounds, which desert where it never rains, where have hindered their entirely cor, burning fands cover the whole fur. rupting. In all those new beds of face of the earth; where there is fand or soft stone, or offtone formed scarce any vegetable earth, and by sediments, or of peat, no marine where the few plants that grow, production is found : but, on the faint away by drought : Springs contrary, many vegetables, the and wells are lo rare here, that five bones of land animals, river and only are reckoned from Cairo to land shells, as may be seen in the Mount Sinai, and their water is meadows of Northamptonshire near besides bitter and brackish. Ashby, where a great number of When the waters on the surface snail-shells have been found with of the earth cannot find channels plants, herbs, and several river to flow in, they form bogs and Thells, well preserved at the depth marshes; the most famous marshes of some feet under ground, with. of Europe are those of Muscovy, out any fea-shells.

The waters

ar the source of the Tanais ; those that flow upon the surface of the of Finland, where are the great earth, have formed all those new marshes Savolax and Enasack: There beds hy often changing ther chan. are marshes also in Holland, in nel, and spreading on all fides ; a Westphalia, and in several other part of those waters penetrates to flat countries : In Afia, there are the interior, and flows through the the marshes of the Euphrates, clefts of rocks and stones and those of Tartary, the Palus Moe this is the reason that no water is' otis; yet in general there are fewfound on high lands, or on the tops er in Asia and Africa, than in Eu. of hills, because all the heights of rope : But America is, as it were, the earth are generally composed a continued bog in all its plains; of ftone and rocks, especially to. and the great number of them is a wards the summit. In order to much better proof of the newness find water, the stone and the rock of the country, and the fewness of muft be dug into till their base is the inhabitants, than of their little reached'; that is, till clay or firm industry. earth appears, on which those rocks There are very large marshes in reft; and no water is found unless England, in the county of Lincoln, the thickness of the stone is piera near the sea, which has loft a deal ced through and through, as may of ground on one side, and gained be observed in several wells dug in it on the other. In the old ground high grounds; and when the height are found a great number of trees of the rocks, that is, the thickness buried beneath the new ground of the stone that must be pierced, which has been formed by the wais very considerable, as in high ters. A great number of trees are mountains, where the rocks are in Hike manner found in Scotland, at the mouth of the river Ness. they are notwithftanding firm on Near Bruges in Flanders, digging their roots. The like are found to 40 or so feet in depth, are found in all great bogs, in quagmires, a very great number of trees as and in most marshy places in the close to one another as in a forest; counties of Somerset, Chester, Lanthe trunks, the branches, and the cafter, and Stafford. There are leaves are so well preferved, that certain places where trees are found the different species of trees are under ground, cut, fawed, squared, easily distinguished. Five hundred and worked by men: Axes and years ago that land, where these bills have been likewise found be, trees are found, was a sea, and be. tween Birmingham in Warwick. fore that time there is no account fire and Bromley in Lincolnshire; or tradition that this land had ever and there are hills raised of fine and exifted; but it muft have been land, light sand, which rains and winds as these trees grew and vegetated; carry, and transport away, by leav. and thus the ground, which in far ing dry and uncovered the roots of diftant times was firm land covered great firs, whereon the impreffion with wood, was afterwards covered of the axe feems yet as fresh as if it with the waters of the sea, which had been juft made. Those hills brought there 40 or 50 feet depth might have been, no doubt, form. of earth, and afterwards those ed as downs, by heaps of fand borne waters retired. A great number along and accumulated by the sea, of subterraneous trees have like- and on which those firs might have wise been found at Hull in the grown; and they might afterwards county of York, twelve miles be. be covered with other fands, col. low city, on the river Hum- lected as the former, by inunda. ber; some of them are so large tions or violent winds. A great that they serve for building; and number of those subterraneous trees it is aflured, perhaps without good are found also in the marshy grounds foundation, that this wood is as of Holland, in Friezland, and near durable and serviceable as oak; and Groningen; and it is from thence it is cut into fmall rods, and long that comes the peat that is burnt splinters, which are sold into the all over the country, neighbouring towns, and the peo. In the ground are found an ini. ple use them for lighting their nity of large and small trees of pipes. All those trees appear bro. aimost every kind, as fir,oak, birch, ken, and the trunks are separated beech, yew, white-thorn, willow, from their roots, as trees which the and ash; in the marshes of Linviolence of a kurricane or inunda. colnshire, along the river Ouse, and tion had broken and carried away: in the county of York in Hatfield. The wood nearly resembles that of chace, the trees are straight, and the fir-tree, has the same smell planted as seen in a foreli. The when burnt, and makes coals of the oaks are very hard, and are used fame fort. In the Isle of Man, in in buildings, where they last for a a bog fix miles long and three long time; the ash is soft, and crumbroad, called the Curragh, are bles into duft, as does the willow ; found fubterraneous fir-trees, and, some of these trees have been found though they lie 18 or 20 feet deep, squared, others sawed, others bored, together with broken axes, and order, in whatever part they dig harchets whore form resembles that into, and sometimes the augre of knives used in sacrifices. Nurs, meets with large trunks of trees acorns, and cones of firs, have been which must be bored through; and there found also in great quanti. this gives the workmen great trou. ties. Several other marshy parts ble; here are also found bones, of England and Ireland abound pit-coal, Aints, and pieces of iron; with trúnks of trees, as well as the Ramazzini, who relates these facts, marshes of France and Switzer- believes that the gulph of Venice land, of Savoy and Italy.


formerly extended as far as Mode. In the city of Modena, and with. na, and beyond it; and that in in four miles of its environs, in fucceffion of time, rivers, and, perwhatever place they dig, when they haps, inundations of the sea, had come to the depth of 63 feet, and gradually formed this ground, have pierced the earth 5 feet deep- I shall not here enlarge farther er with an augre, the water springs on the varieties of those beds, of up with fo great a force that the new formation; it is sufficient to well is filled in a short time als have shewn, that they have no o. inost to the top; and this water ther causes than the running or dows continually, neither dimi- ftagnant waters on the surface of nishing nor increasing by rain or.' the earth, and that they are never drought : What is further remarks so hard, or solid, a#the old beds able in this ground, is, that, when that have been formed under the they come to 14 feet deep, they waters of the sea. find the ruins of an ancient town, paved streets, floors, houses, different pieces of mosaic work; after Observations on the cicada, or locust which they find a pretty solid earth, of America, which appears perio. and which might be believed to dically once in 16 or 17 years. By have been never stirred; yet under. Mofes Bariram, 1766. Communeath they find a moist earth, and

nicated by the ingenious Peter Cola mixed with vegetables; and at 26 linfon, Elg. feet trees quite entire, as hazels


N the 8th of June, 1766I trees; at 28 feet deep they find a ferent kinds of trees, on which I fost chalk mixed with a great many then saw'cicada's or locusts, dartdeep; after which are again found ing (as it is called) to lay their vegetables, leaves, and branches, in empty phials; fome in phials,

eggs ; of those twigs I puc fome and so alternately chalk and earth with a little water; and some I mixed with vegetables to the depth ftuck in a pot of earth, which I of 63 feet, at which depth there is kept moitt, in order to preserve the a bed of land mixed with small gra. twigs fresh. vel, and such shells as are found on the coafts of the fea of Italy: Those in the phial with water hatched,

July 21, the eggs in the twigs successive beds of marshy soil and as did those in the twigs in the chalk are always found in the fan

pot of earth, foon after them;

but the twigs in the empty phial forth their eggs, and after a few being withered, the eggs perised; days existence, to fulfil the wife yet I bave observed that on twigs purposes of their maker, close the accidentally broken off in the period of their lives by an easy, woods, if they lie near the ground death. How aftonishing therefore in the shade só as to be kept moist, and infcrutable is the design of the eggs in them will hatch in providence in the production of their due time ; but in those that this infect, that is brought into are exposed to the sun, they surely life, according to our apprehen: die.

fion, only to link into the depths The young locusts that were of the earth, there to remain is harched in the twigs in the phial, darkness, till the appointed time ran down the twigs to the water, comes when it ascends again into on which they floated about four light by 'a wonderful resurrection! and twenty hours, and then died; The means by which they are enathose that were harched in the bled to continue their fpecies, jis twigs in the pot of earth, ran no less fingular than their manner down the twigs immediately to of existence. The females, are the earth, and entered it at the furnished with a bearded dart, firft opening they could find, with which they pierce the tender which they searched for eagerly, foots of all trees they happen to as if already sensible of danger, light upon, without regard to fitu. by being exposed to the light of ation or species many therefore the fun.

perish by the quick growth of the I have observed that in the na- trees in which the eggs are darted; tural way the eggs are usually and more perhaps by being laid in hatched in fix weeks ; but if, by twigs that hang over {treams or the luxuriance of the growth of standing waters. The dart by the shoots into which the eggs are which the operation is performed darted, the rind of the tree closes consists of three parts; a middle, and confines them, they will in and two sides : "The middle is that situation remain several hollow, through which the eggs months, till by some lucky acci- are darted, and the two sides serve dent they are disengaged, and for a covering to defend it. These then they will hatch in a few mi. may easily be taken apart, by nutes after, and seek their retreat hipping the middle through the in the earth, in the fame manner grooves of the top sides, and it is as those hatched in the usual time., by hipping the two outfide parts But many perish by being thus by each other rapidly, that they imprisoned.

work a kind of llant hole in the Viewed through a microscope soft twig they make choife of, the moment they are hatched, they till they reach the pith, and then appear in every respect as perfect they eject their eggs into it to be as at the time of their laft trans- number of twelve; when this is formation, when they rise out of performed, they begin another hole the earth, put off their scaly co. close by the side of the former, and vering, expand their wings, dif- fo continue to work till they have play their gaudy colours, dart carried along iWO Sowscach now



confifting of twelve or more holes. out of which they crawl, leaving They then remove to another twig, it sticking faft behind. Thouand proceed as before ; and so from sands of these cafes may be seen in twig to twig till they have ex- a morning, sticking to all parts of hausted their store, after which trees, which being hardened in they foon expire.

the fun, have a scaly-like sub. I have not yet been able to dif Atance, which not being flexible, cover the full depth to which these after it is dry, often fo incumbers little animals descend. Some, I them before they can put it off, have heard, have been found thirty that many perith in the attempt. feet deep.' I myself have seen For this reason, they always chuse them ten

the night for this operation ; and They do not, however, feem wait for the enlivening influence to travel to any great distance ho. of the warm sun to strengthen and rizontally; for they are feldom give confiftence to their wings, found far from the woods, unless which at first are white, soft, and in grounds that have been newly moist, but soon assume a dark cleared. It often, however, hap. brown colour, with a firmness that pens, that in the long period of enables them to fly, and a tranf. their torpid state, great tracts of parency that adds a beauty to their country are cleared in North Ame- appearance, which before rica from trees, and coverted into wanting. arable or paftore; hence it is no It is remarkable, that in every unusual thing to see them leave state of this infect's existence, it is their cells in those plain grounds, eagerly pursued for food by others. and hasten to some adjoining fence In the very egg, it is the prey of to put off their incumbrance, and ants and birds of every kind; in prepare themselves for flight. This that of the grub, by hogs, dogs, they do always in the night, by and all carnivorous'animals that crawling to some tree, along a can unearth it: and in its most fence, or among bushes or strong perfect ftate, not only by many grafs ; and it is remarkable, that kinds of beafts and birds, but even they differ in this from every other by men, many of the Indians, it infect in this chrysalis ftate ; for is faid, feeding sumptuously upon instead of being wrapped up in a . them. plain covering, which confines the Soon after they arrive at their inhabitant to a certain spot till it last ftate of transformation, they barfts, they have a covering fitted seek mates to enable them to con. to their form, in which they can tinue their species; and in this too travel to a considerable distance; they are very fingular; the female, and which they cannot leave till as has been observed, is furnished they find some solid fubftance, in with a dart, the shaft of which, which they fix their claws, and takes its rise below the middle of . then, with an effort which re- the insect; on the contrary, the quires the utmost exertion of their male projects his dart from be. trength, they burst their case, hind, and fixes it near the haft of which always opens from the shouls that of the female, where it re. ders to the fore part of the head, mains for many hours together;

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