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half in length. He was attacked culty he could make an hundred by several diseases; but there were steps fucceffively.-In his twentyno marks of any other disease on third year, he was attacked with the skin, besides the finall.pox.- a flight fever, and fell into a kind He was now six years of age : hic of lethargy; he had some intervals, therto his food had been garden- but fpoke with great difficulty : fuff, bacon, and potatoes; his For the five last days, his ideas height was about fifteen inches, seemed to be more clear than when and he did not weigh more than he was in health. This disease foon thirteen pounds ; his person was' proved fatal. --At the time of his agreeable and well proportioned'; death, he measured thirty-three he was in perfect health, but there inches.. was little appearance of intellect. At this time the King of Poland ordered him to Luneville, gave New experiments concerning the puhim the name of Bebé, and kept trefaction of the juices and humours him in his palace. ?
of animal bodies. By M. Jean Bebé thus exchanged the condi. Baptiste Gaber. Translated from tion of a peasant for the luxuries the Memoirs of the Academy of of a court; but he experienced no Turin. change either in his body or his mind. He had no sense of reli THE great Lord Chancellor gion; was incapable of reasoning'; 1 Bacon, who may be consicould learn neither music or danc. dered as the restorer of philosophy, ing; was susceptible, however, of was well apprised of the great ad. passions, particularly anger, jeavantages which medical and natulousy, et le defir ardent.-When ral knowledge would derive from lixteen years old, he was only a judicious history of putrefaction twenty one inches in height; he founded upon experiment. I shall : was still healthy and well propor. not, however, attempt such a work tioned; but at this time, la puberté in its utmost extent, nor even to produifit fur les organes de la gene- furnish materials for such a work, rarion un trop grand effect; his with respect to all subjects, for fear Atrength began to decrease, the my attention should be too much spine became crooked, the head divided among a great variety of fell forwards, the legs were en. facts to be properly employed upon feebled, one shoulder-blade pro. any. I mall confine myself to jected, the nose was greatly, en- tie animal juices ; and, indeed, larged; Bebé loft, his gaiety, and my experiments have been made became a yaletudirarian ; and yet only on the most considerable of his itature was increased fourinches them, or such, at least, as appear. in the four succeeding years.- ed to me to be the most proper M. le Comte de Tressan, foretold to throw light upon the internal that this dwarf would die of old causes of many diseases, upon age before he was thirty; and in their effects or symptoms, and the effect fo it was, for at twenty-one, indicacions of cure. . he was Ihrunk and decrepit ; and, 1. A man aged about fifty years, at twenty-two, iç, was with diffi. died of an inveterate jaundice with.
out a fever ; and his body having eminent persons, and the effect was lain about 24 hours in a cold place the same. in winter, was then opened. The 3. Some blood which was taken Jarge inteftines were found infarct. from a vein of the dead body at the ed with ash-coloured excremenis ; same time, appeared to be of a yel. and the small ones contained here lowish red. Some of this blood and there a kind of yellow mucus; being immediately mixed with spi. the gall bladder was diftended with, rits of nitre, effervesced, but much a great excess of bile, nearly black. less than the bile. This mixture Some of this bile I received in a being left to digeft for some hours, glass, from an aperture which I a yellow serum separated from the made in the vesicle, and found it blood, and covered its whole sur. not very fetid, but something face; this blood being subjected to glewy and tenacious. I put a small the same heat as the bile, and for part of it into another vessel, and the same time in the stove, appear. poured upon it a drop or two of ed more difpofed to effervescence aqua.fortis ; the mixture imme. than the bile, but this difpofition diately effervesced, and several air afterwards gradually diminished. bubbles rose to the surface, with a 4. From these experiments the hiffing which was audible when I following observation may be brought my ear close to the vessel, drawn. and the mixture became sensibly 1. That in diseased bodies the warm.
humours may become so alkalescent 2. I divided the remainder of the as to effervesce with acids ; for it bile into three parts, which I plan is not probable, that the humours, ced in open glasses, where they on, which these experiments were were exposed to different degrees made, effervesced in consequence of of heat, which answered to the any alteration they had suffered af. 35th, 25th, and roth degrees of ter the body was dead; it having Reaumur's thermometer. At the been kept only 24 hours in a cold end of twenty-four hours I mixed place, and in cold weather, where them with acids : The bile which the same humours taken from a had been placed in a degree of heat healthy body would scarce have answering to 35, was most diluted, acquired such a degree of alkales. and gave very light indications of cence in many days. eftervescence; that which had stood 2. That a very flight degree of in 24, was also diluted, and the putrefaction and fetor, which is acid produced a more sensible ef. not sufficient to produce alkaler. fervescence, but ftill very light; cence out of the body, as appears and the bile, which having been by experiments related in the se. exposed only to the temperament of quel, will produce alkalescence in the air, which might perhaps vary the body." from seven to ten, preserved its 3. That alkali formed in the tenacity, and fermented as forcibly body, and contained in the bile, is as in Experim. 1. . This experi. extremely volatile, since a heat of ment was repeated a few hours af. i 25 degrees made the greatest part terwards, in the presence of fereral of it evaporate ; and that the same se on
alkali i ... :
alkali contained in the blood, be.. experiments, the effervescence was ing a little more entangled with attended with the same phænome. other elements, is, consequently, na that are related, (Par. 1.) Pu. Jefs volatile ; since the same degree trescent humours not only effer. of heat, continued for the same vesce with mineral acids, but with time, diffipated but a very incon. very weak diftilled vinegar. The fiderable part of it.
several portions of these humours 4. This observation inclines me that have been exposed to artificial to suspect, that, in other experi. heat, become fetid, and effervesce ments upon putrefaction, in whick sooneft, and soonest arrive at the some operators affirm, that they last ftage of fermentation. When "have seen indubitable proofs of the this happens, the fermentation presence of an alkali; and others ceases*, though the heat is conti.' say, they have' scarce discovered nued ; and the smell, which till any indications at all; the diffe. then is intolerably ferid, becomes rence is the effect of different de- herbaceous, and is not disagree. grees of heat, the staleness of the ablet. The fetor manifests itfelf dubítance exposed to the heat, or sooner, and lafts longer, than the the different volatility of the al. alkalescence. kali, arising from its cohesion with 6. To put the effervescence of other principles,
putrescent humours with mineral 5. The fame experiments that I acids beyond a doubt, I must now made upon morbid bile, I made observe, that the aqua fortis which also upon healthy bile, upon blood, I used in my experiments was very and upon ferum. I divided each weak, and such as produced no of these liquors into three parts, 'motion in common water; and which I separately exposed to the this effervescence is so far from three different degrees of heat men- being the effect of concentering the tioned above; and having submit. acids I, that, in my opinion, the ted them severally to the action of acids may be so concentered as to mineral acids, I found the bile render the effervescence less; prin. most disposed to effervesce; and cipally because the animal humours Baglivi has observed, that it cor. relift effervescence, in proportion rupts sooner than any other hu.“ as they unite with acids speedily mour. I found that human bile and intimately; for when I made was more disposed to effervesce use of distilled vinegar, not strong than the bile of an ox ; that cor. enough to coagulate the putrescent rupt blood ferment's with acids still humours, I observed that the effer.
Tower, and that serum ferments vescence was equally violent, and - flower than blood. In all these I have seen distilled vinegar opea'
. It has sometimes happened, that serum, exposed to an heat equal to 35, - has not effervesced ; which gives cause to suspect that the alkali contained in it "diffipates in proportion to the force and continuance of the heat.
+ This always happens in the process of vegetation. All putrescent humours deposited in a warm place soon become rancid, and contract a strong smell, which, after a long time, resembles that of amber. . 1 Which is the case with bile not in a putrescent state.
rate so powerfully opon a putrid texture, by continual agitation, I serum, as wholly to convert it into left it to putrify. I observed that froth.
its fine florid red colour insensibly 7. When I was reading Dr. faded to a blackish brown ; but Pringle's experiments upon this this change did not take place in subject, I observed that he some- the whole mass at the same time ; time's exposed putrescent substances it began at the surface, and gradu. to an heat equal to the 1ooth de- ally descended. gree of Farenheit's thermometer*, 9. Blood in this state does not which is nearly the same with the putrify so soon, nor so soon give 30th degree of Reaumur's.--Now, ligns of alkalescence, as the red it is certain, that at this degree of part separated from the serum, beheat, animal humours very soon cause the serum putirfies more become putrid; but then they lose flowly than any other animal hu. as soon the alkalescence which they mour. derive from putrefaction, if this 10. After having discovered, by degree of heat is continued ; fo the foregoing experiments, that that as the corrupting humours the alkali Aies off with a slight de. manifest their alkalescent quality gree of heat, I was desirous to try for a very short time only, it might if I could recover and retain it. I easily happen that no sign of alka. therefore put into an alembic of lescence appeared in this experi. glass, some serum which had sepament, if it was not made in the rated from blood taken a few hours critical moment: I mean, if he ex. before from a feverish patient, and amined the putrescent humours a I placed it in a degree of heat belittle before the alkali was formed, tween 25 and 28 of Reaumur's or a little after it had evaporated. scale : I passed the neck of the And supposing the experiment to alembic ihrough a hole which was have been critically made, ftill, as made for that purpose, in the the ambient heat would have caused wooden covering of the stove, that the alkali to evaporate almoft en the head of it might be in the tirely as soon as it was formed, fame temperament with the air of Dr. Pringle would have perceived the chamber, which was equal to very light tokens of effervescence, about the roth degree of the same though with a less degree of heat, scale, and that the exhaling vapour they would have been considerable: might condense there into liquor : consequently, if that ingenious and to the spout of the head of the accurate observer had made his ex. alembic, I luted a bottle as a re. periments with a degree of heat just ceiver, and at the end of every
equal to that with which I made two days I had about two drachms · mine, the result, cætaris paribus, of this diftilled liquor, upon which would have been the same. I poured acids, with different ef.
8. I received some blood as it feets. That part which came over issued from the arm in a vial; and first, had the smell and taste of sehaving diffolved it, or broken its rum; it was clear and transparent,
+ The freezing point in Farenheit's is 32, the boiling 211. On Reaumur's the first is marked o, the latter 8o.
and did not effervesce either with why the humours that are containacids or alkalies. The next por. ed in the vessels of the human body tion was slightly fetid, but nearly become alkalescent while they are of the same taste and transparency yer scarce ferid, at the same time as the first; the third differed lit. that drawn from the body, and kept tle from the second; but the fourth in open vefsels, they became fetid was extremely fetid, foul, opake, before chey give signs of alkale. and of a pale colour; it did not, scence. As soon as they begin to however, effervesce, but acids form alkali in the véstels, the alkali flightly tinged it with red; the is retained, but as it exhales from a fifth, which came over after the vessel exposed to the air, a greater tenth day, and was clear, effervef. quantity must be formed than exced with acids, and produced a hale, before it can become sensible. hiffing which became sensible when 12. As ferum fubjected to the the ear was brought close to the experiment in a sound ftate did not vefsel : it also produced bubbles and give up its alkali in less than ten froth : the fixth portion was equal- days, it may be fairly inferred chat ly limpid, but effervefced more it does not in less time become fightly, and when I perceived that corrupt, it being certain, in the nothing more would come over first place, that humours corrupt with this degree of heat, I broke lowly in a closed vefsel; and, in the alembic to examine the resi. the second place, that of all huduum : I found it a viscous cruft, mours, the serum continues longest resembling wax, of a reddish colour, uncorrupt. : and extremely ferid, but the affusion I did not doubt, but that ferum, of acids produced not the least fivas already corrupt, would, in diftillaof effervescence. This experi- tion, give up its alkali immediate. ment, I thought, proved to de. ly, I therefore made the same ex. monstration, that alkali evaporates perimeets upon corrup, serum, that with a degree of heat from 25 to I had made upon found : My prin28 ; that being collected in a re- cipal view was to determine, exceiver, it will effervesce, and that actly, the time when the alkali the refiduum is a mass extreinely would begin to fly off, and after fetid, wholly destitute of alkali, having collected the distilled li. and, consequently, no effervescence quor, to try whether it would is to be expected by pouring acids change the blue vegetable colour upon it.
of violets to a green, which the 1. Some blood which I kept in Downess of the preceding experia glass vessel close stopped, retain- ment had prevented me from at. ed its alkalescence a long time, tempting. I took for this purpose though it was exposed to a degree fome blood in such a state of pu, of heat equal to 25; but upon un. trescence as to effervesce with aftopping the vessel, it few off with cids, and having put it into a glass great violence, in a vapour ex- alembic, I exposed it to the same tremely fetid. The explofion was degree of heat with the same preprobably caused by the expansion of cautions and apparatus as in the the air, in consequence of the putre- preceding experiments. The firtt faction; and this experiment thews day I collected two drachms of the VOL. X.