The captain and pilots told me, months from the beginning of that this was the place where the November to the end of April, Israelites entered the sea, and the sometimes twelve. From the becoins were those of a convent (

I ginning of May to the beginning fuppose built on the spot in com. of October, a northerly wind ge. memoration of the fact); they nerally rises and goes down with added that there was good water the fun; it is often very strong, there. There is here a strong cur- This wind never fails in thele rent, which sets to the opposite months, unless there be some vio. fhore, about south east ; it forms lent storm ; the rest of the year by its strength a whirlpool, where the winds are variable, and when sailors faid ships were loft, if forced they blow hard at S. and S. S. E. into it, for want of wind, by the there winds set up the sea through current. This pool is about fix the narrow straight of Babel Man. miles northward of Cape Karon. del, and up this gulph through its del; and just below this pool mouth, between Gebel El Zait, there is a fanu, a flat ifland at low on the west side of this sea, and the water, which runs east and weft fouthermost point of the bay of about three miles. This fand, I Tor, on the east fide of this fuppose, is thrown up by the force western branch of this sea, where of the current ; and the faine cur. it is not above twelve or fourteen rent, by the resistance it meets miles over. I suppose such a wind, with from this bank, being forced hindering the water from going back into the cavity made by this out, causes this extraordinary en. excavation, forms the whirlpool. crease in the spring tides. We fee This pool is called Birque Pha. the same thing happen with thesame raone, the well or pool of Pha winds at Venice, both gulphs run. roah and here they affirm his hoft ning nearly in the same direction. was destroyed. I'fhall say more. The Egyptian, western, or Theof this as I travel back by land. baic shore, from Badeah southward, We cannę to an anchor in fifteen to oppofire Tor, on the eastern fathom water, within a mile and Thoré, is all mountainous and a half of the shore, to the south. fteep; and at Elim, the norther ward of this fand, and in the Birque most point of the bay of Tor, ends Karondel, to the northward of the the ridge of mountains, which be. cape ; here the eastern shore is al. gin on the eastern shore. of this ready mountainous, which, near weitern branch at Karondel. I fay this place, was a fandy beach: the nothing of Elim, or Tor, or the Egyptian fhore, from Suez to Ba. marine productions of this gulf, Heah, is likewise rocky and freep; as this paper is intended to give an fo no entering upon the golf from account of Sharme, Menah EI that fhore, but at Badeah or Dzahab, Kadesh Barnea, the fione Suez.

which Mofes ftruck twice, and the It is high water always when inscriptions. I, however, most say, the moon is at her meridian height, that, from this place, mount Sinai, and it ebbs fix hours. At Suez, properly called, cannot be seen ; it flows fix feet; the spring rides but only the ridge or group of are nine, and in the variable mountains in which is is, and Vol. X.



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which altogether form that past striking. I examined the lips of its of this tongue of land called in mouths, and found that no chissel general moun: Sinai. The garden had ever worked there ; the chanof the monks of mount Sinai at' nel is plainly worn by only the Elim renders in dates, &c. 20,000 course of water, and the bare in. piastres per ann. or £2,500.. spection of it is sufficient to con- We from thence crossed the vince any one it is not the work plain, in about eight hours, and of man. Amongft the inng. entered the mountains of Sinai. merable cracks in rocks, which I They are of granite of different have seen in this, as well as other colours. At the entrance of the parts of the world, I never met narrow breach, through which we with any like this, except that at passed, I saw, on a large loose Jerusalem, and the owo which are granite stone, an inscription in un. in the rock Moses struck twice, of known characters, given, I think, which hereafter. by Dr. Pocock, bishop of Olsory; I had enquired of the captain however, as the Israelites had no and the two pilots of our Thip, writing, that we know of, when about Sharme and Dzahab, on the they passed here, I did not weitern More of the eaftern branch think it of consequence enough of the Red-sea; they told me that to stop for; The Arabs told me, they were often forced up the it was relative to a battle fought Elanitic golf, the eastern branch here between Arabs ; and indeed of the Red-fea; and generally went I cannot see what point of history to Sharme, and sometimes as high it can illustrate ; besides, there as Dzahab; that they generally are not above five or fix words. ran from Cape Mahomet, the We arrived at the convent of southermost part of the peninsula, Mount Sinai, after the usual dif. between those two golfs, io Sharme ficulties mentioned by other tra. in fix hours, because they always vellers, were received as usual, made as much more way as they and saw the usual places, of commonly do, they very feldon which, however, I fall give the going there but in a storm : They plans as well as elevations, which generally run four knots, so this Í took. I must say, that the monks makes forty-eight miles, which were far from owning to me, that brings it to the northward of Tor. they had ever meddled with the Tor is in lat. 27. 55. Cape Maprint of the foot of Mahomet's homet thirty miles southward, lat. camel. I examined ic narrowly, 27. 25. Sharme forty-eight miles and no chissel has absolutely ever nearly N. lat. 28. 13. confequently touched it, for the coat of the about E. N. of Sinai. The port granite is entire and unbroke in is pretty large, surrounded with every part ; and every body knows high mountains, the entrance very that if the coat of less hard stones narrow, and the water deep quite than granite is once destroyed, it to the rocks, which are lo very nevér returns. It is a most curious teep, that a stone dropt from the lusus naturæ, and the Mahometans fummit falls into the bason. No turn it to their use. . . wind can be felt here.; they don't

Meribah is indeed surprisingly cast anchor, but fatten their cables

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to the socks. There is good wa. fame, so the distance is about tet; fome habitations are found eighty miles. I enquired of them on the Gides of the mountains, and all about the rains ; they told me a pretty large village at top: there were considerable ones about this feems to answer the idea of half way to Dzahab, about forty Neft-Ken. Dzahab lies as high miles from Sinai ; but should again up the golf, so forty-eight think Kadesh must have been much miles more, or in lat. 29. This nearer to Jerusalein. I would wil. port is confiderably larger than lingly have gone to these places; the former, and very good, but not but as the four clans of Arabs, so closely surrounded with moun. which inhabit this promontory, tains; it is, however, very fare. were then at warone with the other, There is a well of great antiquity I could get no conductor. In ano. with very good water; very con- ther journey I hope to be more siderable ruins are found, and they lucky, for this is all hearsay; howfay, there was a great city for ever, combining the whole togemerly, but no inhabitants now, ex- ther, and comparing it with what cept an Arabian camp of 2000 we collect from scripture, I think men. There is a road from it to we may well conclude Sharme to Jerusalem, formerly much fre- be Midian, and Mecnah El Dza. quented. Thus far the captain hab to be Eziongeber: what the and pilots. I enquired from the interjacent ruins are I cannot con. monks, as well as Arabs, about 'jecture; but I believe I have found these places, as well as about the Kadesh Barnea to be elsewhere. ruins, fupposed by my learned I think it cannot be here, for the friend, the bishop of Oslory, to Ifraelites were on the borders of be Kadesh Barnea ; the former the Holy Land, or Land of Pro. could only tell me, they had not mise, when they were ordered received any fish from thence in back; and when they were stop. many years, that it was two easy ped by the Moabites, they are days journey off, but the road said to have been brought up from was mountainous; so one may sup: Kadesh Barnea ; and I meet with pose the distance less than forty no place in facred writing, or any miles. The Arabs agreed as to the ancient geographer, neither Strabo road; but they said, it was once nor any other, th draw the line a large place, where their prince of division between this promon. lived, whose daaghter Mofes mar. tory and the Land of Promile so ried; that Mofes was afterwards low down; nor could they do it, their prince, and the greatest of as these ruins are within almost all prophets. These Arabs place seventy miles of the extremity of Mofes the first, Salomon the se. it. There are two roads from cond, Mahomet the third, Chrift mount Sinai to Jerusalem, the one the fourth, and then the prophets through Pharan, the other by the of the bible. As to Dzahab, the way of Dzahabi 'hat through monks only knew the distance to Pharan is eleven days journey : be four days journey, and that two to Pharan ; three to a station there was a road from it to Jeru. of the Mecca pilgrims called salem : The Arabs told me the Scheich Ali; one and a half to



Some confiderable ruins; all this Moses ftruck twice. i searched, to the northward ; from thence and enquired of my Arabs, but tour and something more to Je. could neither hear por see any Turalem, by way of Hebron, leav. thing of it. I saw several thore ing the Asphaltic lake on the right inscriptions itained on fome parts hand to the south-eastward. The of the mountains, the characters other way is longer, on account being the same with those on moont of the road being more moon. Sinai, Meribah, &c. given by the tainous ; that too passes the same bishop of Oflory. About four ruins, and also Scheich Ali. I miles before we arived at Pharan, enquired about this, when I was we passed through a remarkable at ferufalem, and received the very breach in a rock ; each Gde of it fame account, with this addition, is perpendicular as a wall, about that such Mahometans, as went eighty feet high, and the breach from Jerusalem to 'Mecca, went is about forty broad. It is at this that way, to join the Cairo cara. breach, I imagine, the Horites were van at Scheich Ali. This seems smote, four miles beyond the preto be a facuation opposite to Kadesh sent ruins of Pharan; for having Barnea, at the line drawn by all the passed this breach they could make geographers ; it is without mount a ftand, nor could they well be Šinai (iaken for this whole tract) pursued. Here, on the tops of the and just before the Moabires, as the mountains to our right hand, were children of Israel paled by mount ruins of buildings, and one seemHor, now Acaba, leaving the Ar. ed a castle. From Meribah to phaltic lake on their left hand, to near this place, we had always rathe north west. The tradition too ther descended; in most places of the Arabs is, that they passed there is the bed of a stream, and this way; therefore, I think, Ka. after rain the water runs; but a desh Barnea must be near this spot. little before we came to this breach There are here considerable ruins; it winded off towards the west, and I know of no ciry that ever for the waters fall into that part of was here, for Petra lay more to the the desart we crossed from Tor. eaft; between the Asphaltic lake Between this breach and Pharan, and the Elanitic golf. To leave there are several springs, and one no enquiry wanting, I asked the at Pharan where we encamped ; Rabbins of Jerusalem, where they there is the bed of the river men. placed Kadesh Barnea ; and they tioned by the journal, the tradi. said, these ruins.

tional account of which agrees We set out from mount Sinai by with what is said by St. Paul, the way of Scheich Salem; and, Waters seem to have run from Me. afier we had passed Mahomet's ribah to within about fix miles of front, came to the beautiful valley, this place ; the bed of a stream is i mentioned in the journal. I lay here again very plain, and a spring there (and hope i have discovered at the upper end of it, which does the maona, but that will be the not yield water enough to make subject of another paper) and did a stream, the bed then is dry; not set out before day-light, that four valleys terminate here, and I might not pass the rock which form a large area. I enquired


about the road to Jerusalem; the This river is doubted of by Stra. people agreed in the distance and bo, because dried up to the source, ruins. We travelled in the bed of from the time the Ifraelites en the river through the valley to the tered the Land of Promise, and north: and in about half an hour, the tradition was then loft. You the fight and appearance of a may fee Strabo's Aflvria, edit. large stone, not 'unlike Meribah, Causaubon, p. si 1o. towards the which lay at some diftance from bottom. Pardon this bold conthe mountain on our right hand, jecture; but it coincides and conftruck me ; and I also observed, it ciliates sacred history with antient bad many small stones upon it. geograghy. This 100 seems a The Arabs, when they have any proof, that this is really the se. fone or spot in veneration, as cond ftruck rock. As to the Mahomet's itone, and the like, springs between the breach and after their devotion, lay fome Pharan, they certainly did not ex. smooth stono upon it. I asked it in the time of Moses; or, if what it was; they told me Hager they did, they would have been as Moura, the stone of Moses. I nothing to so many people. told them that could not be, for We went down a large valley that lay in Rephidim ; they said to the west towards the sea, and what was true, but this was Hagar passed the head of a valley, a part il Chotatain, the stone of the two of the desert of Sin, which lepa. strokes ; that he ftruck it twice, rates the mountains of Pharan and more water came from it than from those which run along the from Meribah; witness the river. coast, and the same plain which The bed of the river winds to the we had passed from Tor. We had caftward, about E. S. E. I alk. fcarce entered these mountains, ed how fir it went; they said and travelled an hour, when after this bed tan by Sheich Ali to passing a mountain, where there those ruins, and quite a way to were visible marks of an extinthe sea; so the river muft have guished subterraneous fire, we begun bere, and not at Pharan, faw, on our left hand, a small and the bed from Pharan here is rock, with some unknown cha. only formed (I suppose) by winter racters cut on it, not stained uptorrents. If this is the bed of the on it, as those hitherto met with ; river mentioned by St. Paul, as I and in ten minutes, we entered dare say it is, we have the second a valley fix miles broad, running rock: if it runs to the ruins, as is nearly north and south, with all faid, and there is no reason to the rocks which enclose it on the doubt it, they will be pretty weft side covered with characplainly those of Kadeth Barnea; ters. These are what are called and if this bed continues in the Gebel El Macaatab, the written fame course to the sea; as it pro. , mountains. On examining these bably does, this probably is the characters. I was greatly disaprives at Rinocolura, supposed, pointed, in finding them every by Eratosthenes, to be formed by where interspersed with figures che Arabian lakes; because he did of men and beasts, which con101 know its miraculous head. vinced me they were not written

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