to the rocks. There is good wa- fame, so the distance is about tet; fome habitations are found eighty miles. I enquired of them on the sides of the mountains, and all about the rains ; they told me a pretty large village at top: there were considerable ones about this feems to answer the idea of half way to Dzahab, about forry Neft-Ken. Dzahab lies as high miles from Sinai; but I should again up the golf, fo forty-eight think Kadeth must have been much miles more, or in lat. 29. This nearer to Jerufalein. I would wil. port is confiderably larger than lingly have gone to these places ; the former, and very good, but not but as the four clans of Arabs, so closely surrounded with moun- which inhabit this promontory, tains; it is, however, very fale. were then at warone with the other, There is a well of great antiquity I could get no conductor. In ano. with very good waters very con- ther journey I hope to be more fiderable ruins are found, and they lucky, for this is all hearsay ; howfay, there was a great city for ever, combining the whole togemerly, but no inhabitants now, ex- ther, and comparing it with what cepe an Arabian camp of 2000 we collect from scripture, I think men. There is a road from it to we may well conclude Sharme to Jerufalem, formerly much fre. be Midian, and Meenah El Dza. quented. Thus far the captain hab to be Eziongeber: what the and pilots. I enquired from the interjacent ruins are I cannot conmonks, as well as Arabs, about 'jecture ; but I believe I have found these places, as well as about the Kadelh Barnea to be elfe where. ruins, fupposed by my learned I think it cannot be here, for the friend, the bishop of Osory, to Ifraelites were on the borders of be Kadesh Barnea ; the former the Holy Land, or Land of Pro. could only tell me, they had not mise, when they were ordered received any fish from thence in back; and when they were topmany years, that it was two easy ped by the Moabites, they are days journey off, but the road said to have been brought up from was mountainous; so one may sup- Kadesh Barnea ; and I meet with pose the diftance less than forty no place in sacred writing, or any miles. The Arabs agreed as to the ancient geographer, neither Strabo road; but they said, it was once nor any other, thdraw the line a large place, where their prince of division between this promon. lived, whose daughter Mofes mar. tory and the Land of Promise fo ried; that Mofes was afterwards low down; nor could they do it, their prince, and the greatest of as these ruins are within almost all prophets. These Arabs place feventy miles of the extremity of Mofes the first, Salomon the fe. it. There are cwo roads from cond, Mahomet the third, Chrift mount Sinai to Jerusalem, the one the fourth, and then the prophets through Pharan, the other by the of the bible. As to Dzahab, the way of Dzahab :

hat through monks only knew the distance to Pharan is eleven days journey : be four days journey, and that two to Pharan ; three to a station there was a road from it to Jeru. of the Mecca pilgrims called salem : The Arabs told me the heich Ali; one and a half to

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fome confiderable ruins; all this Mofes ftruck twice. I searched, o the northward; from thence and enquired of my Arabs, but our and something more to Je. could neither hear por see any

osalem, by way of Hebron, leave thing of it. I saw several thore ing the Asphaltic lake on the right inscriptions tained on some parts hand to the south-eastward. The of the mountains, the characters other way is longer, on account being the fame with those on moont of the road being more moan. Sinai, Meribah, &c. given by the tạinous; that too passes the fame bishop of Osory. About four ruins, and also Scheich Ali. I miles before we arived at Pharan, enquired about this, when I was we passed through a remarkable at Jerufalem, and received the very breach in a rock; each Gde of it fame account, with this addition, is perpendicular as a wall, about that such Mahometans, as went eighty feet high, and the breach from Jerusalem to Mecca, went is about forty broad. It is at this that way, to join the Cairo cara. breach, I imagine, the Horites were van at Scheich Ali. This seems (mote, four miles beyond the preto be a situation opposite to Kadeth sent ruins of Pharan; for having Barnea, at the line drawn by all the pared this breach they could make geographers ; it is without mount à ftand, nor could they well be Šinai (iaken for this whole tract) pursued. Here, on the tops of the and just before the Moabires, as the mountains to our right hand, were children of Israel paled by mount ruins of buildings, and one seemHor, now Acaba, leaving the Ar. ed a castle. From Meribaho phalric lake on their left hand, to near this place, we had always råthe north west. The tradition too ther descended ; in most places of the Arabs is, that they passed there is the bed of a stream, and this way ; therefore, I think, Ka. after rain the water runs ; but a desh Barnea must be near this spot. little before we came to this breach There are here considerable 'ruins ; it winded off towards the west, and I know of no ciry that ever for the waters fall into that part of was here, for Petra lay more to the the defart we crossed from Tor. eaft; between the Asphaltic lake Between this breach and Pharan, and the Elanitic golf. To leave there are several springs, and one no enquiry wanting, I asked the at Pharan where we encamped; Rabbins of Jerusalem, where they there is the bed of the river men. placed Kadesh Barnea ; and they tioned by the journal, the tradi. said, these ruins.

tional account of which agrees We set out from mount Sinai by with what is said by St. Paul, the way of Scheich Salem; and, Waters seem to have run from Me. after we had passed Mahomet's ribah to within about fix miles of front, came to the beautiful valley, this place; the bed of a stream is mentioned in the journal. I lay here again very plain, and a spring there (and hope I have discovered at the upper end of it, which does the manna, but that will be the not yield water enough to make subject of another paper) and did a stream, the bed then is dry; not set out before day-light, that four valleys terminate here, and I might not pass the rock which form a large area. I enquired


about the road to Jerusalem; the This river is doubted of by Stra. people agreed in the distance and bo, because dried up to the source, ruins. We travelled in the bed of from the time the Ifraelites en. the river through the valley to the tered the Land of Promise, and north: and in about half an hour, the tradition was then loft. You the fight and appearance of a

may see Strabo's Affyria, edit. large stone, not unlike Meribah, Causaubon, p. 5. 10. towards the which lay at some distance from bottom. Pardon this bold conthe mountain on our right hand, jecture; but it coincides and conftruck me, and I also obferved, it ciliates sacred history with antient bad many small stones upon it. geograghy. This 100 seems a The Arabs, when they have any proof, that this is really the sea fone or spot in veneration, as

cond ftruck rock. As to the Mahomet's itone, and the like, springs between the breach and after their devotion, lay fome Pharan, they certainly did not ex(mooth stona upon it,

I asked ift in the time of Moses; or, if what it was; they told me Hager they did, they would have been as Moufa, the stone of Mofes. I nothing to so many people. told them that could not be, for We went down a large valley that lay in Rephidim; they said to the west towards the sea, and what was true, but this was Hagar passed the head of a valley, a part il Chotatain, the stone of the two of the desert of Sin, which fepatrokes ; that he struck it twice, rates the mountains of Pharan and more water came from it than from those which run along the from Meribah; witness the river. coast, and the same plain which The bed of the river winds to the we had passed from Tor. We had eastward, about E. S. E. I ask. scarce entered these mountains, ed how far it went; they said and travelled an hour, when after this bed tan by Sheich Ali to passing a mountain, where there those ruins, and quite away to were visible marks of an extinthe fea; so the river muft have guished subterraneous fire, we begun here, and not at Pharan, law, on our left hand, a small and the bed from Pharan here is rock, with some unknown cha. only formed (I suppose) by winter racters cut on it, not stained up. torrenis. It this is the bed of the on it, as those hitherto met with; river mentioned by St. Paul, as I and in ten minutes, we entered dare say it is, we have the second a valley fix miles broad, running rock: if it runs to the ruins, as is nearly north and south, with all faid, and there is no reason to

the rocks which enclose it on the doubt it, they will be pretty west side covered with characplainly those of Kadesh Barnea; ters. These are what are called and if this bed continues in the Gebel El Macaatab, the written fame course to the sea; as it pro. , mountains. On examining these bably does, this probably is the characters. I was greatly disaprives at Rinocolura, supposed, pointed, in finding them every by Eratosthenes, to be formed by where interspersed with figures the Arabian lakes; because he did of men and beasts, which con001 know its miraculous head. vinced me they were not written

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by the Israelites; for if they had used vulgarly by the Jews about been, after the publication of the the time of Christ. I fewed law, Moses would not have per- them when at Jerusalem to the rabmitted them to engrave images, so bins; they were of the fame opi. immediarel; after he had received the second commandment; if they nion, and thought which is went this way, and not along the coait, they had cha- frequent, was obw; and to that racters, that we know of, unless fome of them were killed in hi. eraglyphics, and these have no connexion with them. It will be difficult to guess what these in which is juft before with a small fcriptions are; and, I fear, if cross yiui TV asus by changever it is discovered, they will be ing the sin into fin, and ad. fcarce worth the pains. If con ding je, it might be an Arabic jecture be permitted, I will give iny very weak thoughts. They word laws a cross, and might cannot have been written by Il. be explained, the cross borne or raelities, or Mahometans, for the carried by Jesus. The Hebrew above reason; and if by Mahome. would be Jesus brought safety.or tans, they would have some re. salvation. But, Şir, more able femblance to some sort of Cuphic than me will judge better. These characters, which were the cha. are all conjectures; and it seems racters used in the Arabic lan- much easier to say what these inguage, before the introduction of scriptions are not, ihan what they the present Arabic lecters. The are. They can scarce be of St. firft Mss, of the alcoran were in Helen's time; for they would Cuphic ; there is a very fine one have some analogy with Greek an Cairo, which I could not pur. characters, and they have nonc. chase, for it is in the principal Perhaps some gentlemen will mosque; and the Iman would not think them ancient Egyptian, Ateal it for me, under four hun. written by the colony which dred sequins, zool. These have they suppose went to inhabit Chinot the least resemblance to them, That is a matter I won't Saracen characters are very un- meddle with; but, amongst many like ; besides, I should place thein others, it will be liable to one great higher than the Begira. I think objection, which is, that'such coit then not unprobable that they lony, if ever there was one, prowere written in the first ages of bably went the straight road, from christianity, and perhaps the very the head of one golf to the head first; when I suppose, pilgrims of the other, from Hierapolis to ages from Jerusalem to Mount Si. Eloth, the way the Mecca pil. nai were fashionable, confequent. grims now go. This place would ly frequent and numerous, by the have been far out of their way, new Christian Jews, who believed being at least sixty miles to in Chrift; therefore, I should be, southward of the pilgrims road, lieve them Hebrew characters, unless they were supposed to have




had transports at Dzahab, or faltness and bitterness, and very Sharme. I, for the first reason foon become. not potable. This given, did not think them written place, off which the ships cast by the Ifraelites, and could not anchor, is below the fand, which conceive that they were of any I mentioned before, near the great consequence. I only took Birque Korondel. After nine these few as a specimen. 'Here hours and a half march we arare, on other parts of this rock, rived and encamped at the desert fome Greek, and Arabic, as well of Shrub, or Sour. The constant as fome Saracen inscriptions, and tradition is, that the Israeliries an Hebrew one, which is, 7078 ascended from the sea here; this is Dm. The Saracens and Arabic, opposite to the plain Badeah, to only say, “ such an one was here which the above-mentioned pass at such a time ;'' the same say the in the mountains leads. From Greek ones, except one, which this place the openings in the says, as I remember, for I have mountains appear a great crack, it not with me, “ The evil ge- and may be called a month, taknius of the army wrote this,'' ing Hiroth for an appellative, which can only prove, that some However, I should rather adopt body of Greeks was worsted here, the signification of liberty. It after the characters were written, would hardly have been necessary and that they attributed their de. for the Israelites to pass the feat to some magic power in sea, if they were within two ‘or' these characters: as we are now

three miles of the northern ex. fruitful in conjecture, perhaps some tremity of the gulf; the space of gentlemen will bring Xenophon at most two miles, the breadth here. The characters seem to be of the golf ar Suez, and at most of the very same kind with those three feet deep at low water, for stained different parts of it is then conftantly waded over, Mount Sinai, Meribah, &c. which could not have contained so mnamy learned and accurate friend ny people, or drowned Pharaoh's the bithop of Olory has given. army. There would have been

The third day from this place, little necellity for his cavalry and travelling westward, we encamp- chariots to precipitate themselves ed at Sarondou, as the journal after a number of people on foot, calls it; but it is Korondel, where incumbered with their wives, are the bitter waters, Marah. I children, and baggage, when they tried if the branches of any of the could soon have overtaken them trees had any effect on the wa- with going fo little about. These ters; but found none : so the ef- reasons, added to the signififect mentioned in scripture must cant names of the places, Tauhave been miraculous. These riche Beni Israel, road of the chil. waters at the spring are fomewhat dren of Israel ; Attacah, Delibitter and brackish, but as every verance, Pihahiroth, whether an foot they run over the sand is appellative or significative; Bacovered with bituminous falts, deah, new thing, or miracle; grown up by the exceffive heat Bachorel Polfum, sea of deftruce of the sun, they acquire much tion; convince me that the Isra



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