,ומסוף The denomination of


elites entered the sea at Badeah, truly fay with Horace-Omne tulit and no where else. Besides, all punctum, &c. the rest of the coast from Suez,

), and below Badeah, is steep rocks, I believe, only regards the Hieraso there must have been another politic branch, as the marine promiracle for them to descend: the ductions, Madrepores, &c. which current too sets from this place form admirable forests in the bot. where we encamped, toward the tom of it, are not in the Elaniric opposite shore into the pool Birque branch, or the gulph; I mean the Pharaone, Pool of Pharaoh, where, broad part below Cape Mahomes. the tradition is,' his host was No more than that weitern branch drowned; a current, formed, I was known to the Israelites at suppose, by the falling and rushing the time of their passage, if it was of one watery wall on the other, to the Egyptians : bot the name and driving it down; a current, descended to the whole, as their perhaps, by God permitted to knowledge of it. The Red Sea

ever fince, in memori. seems to regard the broad part a. am rei; the distance to the birter lone; for though there are not waters is about thirty miles. , I the above-mentioned ses producommitted to mention in its place, tions, yet there is so great a quan. that, between this and Korondel, tity of the tube coral (not found we were not so lucky as the au- in the western branch of the Hie. thor of the journal, who met with rapolitic golf) and fuch: rocks, as a charming rivuler of sweet water; one may say of them, that the we met with none, good or bad. Gedda ihips fasten themselves to The Ain Mousa, which the Isra- them instead of casting anctor. elites would have met with, if It is of a deep red, so that porthey had passed at Suez, and the sibly, the first navigators entering coait from hence southward, about at the itreight of Babel Mandel, a mile to Tor, being all rock, from the red they saw, called it and steeptoo, induce me to believe, the Red Sea, and that name de. that they entered the sea at Ba-, scended to the whole with their deah, and ascended from it here, navigation. This fea is tempel. and not at any other place. But I tuous and full of shoals; there is am too sensible of my own inabi. no harbour on the Arabian coatt lity to decide, and leave that to after Tor, except one, I mean be. beiter judges than I am, I only tween Suez and Gidda or Mecca, throw out what occurs to me, which is a day and a half from from the inspection of the coun- Gidda. Giddá is its port; and try, an inspection as accurate as I , there is only one on the other am capable of. If any thing I coast, Collire ; but it is a very bad have said can in the least support one; however, thips fometimes thai revelation, to which I dare go thither, and caravans cross the declare myself a friend, even in country to Morfhout. The ships this enlightened age, I shall be are, as the bihop of Offory has very happy; or if this trip of described them; the helm is on mine can be of any use whatever, the outside, as I suppose with his as I had great pleasure in it, I may lordship, that of St. Paul was.


They make use of but four fails, elevation of the second ftone, as and no compass, nor do they ever well as of Meribah. caft the lead. They fail only by day-light, from anchoring place to anchoring place, and are not Some account of the ruins of Poeftum, above two days out of sight of or Possidonia, an ancient city of land, from Cape Mahomet to the Magna Græcia, in the kingdom Arabian main : if a gale happen, of Naples, which have been late. they are often loft ; about one in ly discovered. Extracted from a ten every year. I shall be glad wwork newly published, that con. to be honoured with the society's tains a description and views of commands, and in commuuicating the remaining antiquities, the shis you will oblige,

infcriptions that hate been disSir,

covered in or near that city, to. Your most humble Servant, gether with its ancient and modern Ed. Wortley Montagu.

hiftory, &c.

Pifa, Dec.


OW aftonishing soever it 2, 1765.

may seem, that such very

considerable remains of ancient P.S. I am a very bad draughtf. magnificence fhould have contiman ; but I assure you the sketch-nued totally undiscovered during es contained in plate III. are ra. so many centuries, it is neverthether better than the originals. less most certain, that the author of They are about fix inches long, this book is the first traveller who the marble is whitish, in some pla- has given us any account of the ces reddish, of a flesh colour; they'ruins of Poeftum. If indeed this are engraved with a pointed in. city, like Herculaneum, had been ftrument, for one sees in the bot. buried under ground by an earthtom of them round marks of the quake or the eruption of a vol. point of the instrument. I have cano, its concealment would not met with much basalto, but not be at all miraculous. This mira. one piece of that soft stone of cle, however, is to be accounted which is the butt at Turin, nor for from its remote fituation, in a any of the characters upon it, ex. part of Italy entirely unfrequenta cept some are found amongst these, ed by travellers. The manner in I have neither feen any head, which it was discovered is related bust, or ftatue, in the character of by our author in the following chat,

words; • In the year 1755, an The second rock ftruck by Mo, apprentice to a painter at Naples, fes, is, I think, 43 feet long, 16 who was on a visit to his friends broad, 13 high; it has two cracks, at Capaccio, by accident took a oblique ones ; in them are some walk to the mountains which sur. mouths, like those of Meribah : cound the territory of Poestum. it is of a hard stone, not granite or The only habitation he perceived marble.

was the cottage of a farmer, who I have the exact dimensions and cultivated the best part of the


ground, and reserved the rest for and within a hippocampus. The pasture, The ruins of the an. walls which still remain are com. cient city made a part of this posed of very large cubical ftones, view, and particularly struck the and are extremely thick, in some eyes of the young painter; who, 'parts eighteen feet. That the approaching nearer, saw, with a- walls have remained unto this ftonishment, walls, towers, gates, time, is owing to the very exact and temples. Upon his return to manner in which the stones are Capaccio, he consulted the neigh- fitted to one another fa circumbouring people about the origin of stance observed universally in the these monuments of antiquity. masonry of the ancients); and 'He could only learn, that this perhaps in some measure to a part of the country had been un- stalactical concretion which has cultivated and abandoned during grown over them. On the walls their memory ; that about ten here and there are placed towers years before, the farmer, whose of different heights, those near habitation he had noticed, 'elta. the gates being much highter and blihed himself there; and that larger than the others, and are having dug in many places, and evidently of modern workmansearched among the ruins that lay ship. He observes that, from its round him, he had found treasures situation among marshes, bitumi. fufficient to enable him to pur- nous and sulphurous springs, Pochase the whole. At the painter's eftum must have been unwhole. return to Naples, he informed his some; a circumstance mentioned master of these particulars, whose by Strabo, morbofam eam facit filu. curioficy was so greatly excited vius in paludes diffufus. In such a by the description, that he took a fituation the water must have been journey to the place, and made bad. Hence the inhabitants were drawings of the principal views. obliged to convey that neceffary of These were thewn to the king of life from purer springs by means Naples, who ordered the ruins to of aqueducts, of which many ves. be cleared, and Poelium arose tiges still remain. from the obscurity in which it had The principal monuments of remained for upwards of seven antiquity are a theatre, an am. hundred years, as little known to phitheatre, and three temples. the neighbouring inhabitants as to The theatre and amphitheatre are travellers.'

much ruined. The first temple is Our learned author, who has hexaftylos, and amphiproftylos. certainly been upon the spot, gives At one end the pilaftres and two the following defcription of Po-columns which divided the cella estum, in its present state. It is, from the pronaos are ftill remain. says he, of an oblong figure, about ing. Within the cella are two two miles and a half in circum- rows of smaller columns, with an ference. It has four gates which architrave, which support the fe. are opposire to each other. On cond order. This temple he the key-stone of the arch of the takes to be of that kind called by north gate, on the outside, is the Vitruvius Hyphæthros, and fupfigure of Neptune in basso relievo, ports his opinion by a quotation


from that author. The second the temples at Poeftum were built temple is also amphiprostylos : it architecture seems to have received has nine columns in front and that degree of improvement which cighteen in Aank, and seems to be the elegant taste of the Greeks

of that kind called by Vitruvius had struck out from the rude masses Pseudodipteros, The third is of the Egyptians, the first invenlikewise amphiprostylos. It has tors of this as of many other arts.' fix columns in front, and thirteen To this account of Poestum are in flank. Vitruvios calls this subjoined four very fine prints enkind of temple Peripteros. · The graved by Miller, which will be a columns of these temples,' says our latting monument of the abilities of author, are of that kind of Doric that artist in works of this nature. order which we find employed in In the first we are presented with works of the greatest antiquity. a view of Poeftum in its present state, They are hardly five diameters The second exhibits an oblique in height. They are without view of the three Grecian temples. bases, which also has been urged In the third we have an inside as a proof of their antiquity ; but prospect of the temple Amphi. we do not find that the ancienis proftylos; and the fourth represents ever used bases to this order, at the temple Peripteros. The keepleast till very late. Vitruvius ing, and in shori the entire execumakes no mention of bases for this tion of these four plates, is altoge. order; and the only instance we ther admirable. have of it, is in the first order of Among the inscriptions is the the colisæum at Rome, which was following, which thews that a built by Vefpafian. The pillars man's having 28 children and $3 of these temples are fluted with grand-children was deemed by the very shallow flutings in the man- ancients a sufficient reason for prener described by Vitruvius. The serving his name from oblivion. columns diminish from the bot. tom, which was the most ancient TVLL. OLERII. POESTANI. method almost_universally in all QVI. VIX. A. LXXXXV. D. XI, the orders. The columns have FF. XXVIII. NN. LXXXIII. aftragals of a very singular form ;

C. L. PP. which shews the error of those who imagine that this member was first invented with the Ionic order, to 'A foort account of the Sedmy Palały, which the Greeks gave an astragal, or Seven Palaces; a remarkable and that the Romans were the first building and veftige of antiquity who applied it to the Doric, The

Aill remaining on the banks of the echinus of the capital is of the river Irtiß, in the country of the fame form with that of the temple Kalmucks, being in the wilds of of Corinth defcribed by Le Roy.' the great or eastern Tartary.

Our author mentions many o. From the travels of Mr. Bell of ther particulars which sufficiently

prove the great antiquity of these

T is
a regular edifice in the middle


ing that about the time when IT is very surprising to find fach Several of theme ABOUT eight of ten days

of a desert. Some of the Tartars Above the Sedmy Palaty, towards say it was built by Tamerlane, the source of the Irtish, upon the called by the Tartars Temur-ack. hills and valleys, grows, the best fack or' Lame-temyr; others by rhubarb in the world, without the Gingeez.chan. The building, leaft culture. according to the best information I could obtain, is of brick or stone, well finished, and continues ́ till Of some ancient monuments in be entire. It consists of seven ap

same country. From the fame. partments under one roof, from whence it has the name of the Se. ven Palaces.

journey from Tomíky, in rooms were filled, with scrolls of this plain, are found many tombs glazed paper, fairly wrote, and and burying places of ancient he. many of them in gilt characters. roes; who, in all probability, Some of the scrolls are black, but fell in battle. These combs are ea. the greatest part white. The fily diftinguished by the mounds of language in which shey are written earth and stones raised upon them. is that of the Tonguils, or Kal- When, or by whom, these barties mucks. While I was at Tobolsky, were fought, so far to the north. I met with a soldier in the street, ward, is uncertain. I was in. with a bundle of these papers in formed by the Tariars in the Ba. his hand. He asked me to buy raba, that Tamerlane, or Timyr,

which I did for a small ack-fạck, as they call him, had fum. I kept them till my arrival many engagements in that coun. in England, when I distributed try with the Kalmucks; whom he them among my friends ; particu. in vain endeavoured to conquer. larly to that learned antiquarian Many persons go from Tomsky, Sir Hans Sloane, who valued them and other parts, every summer, to at a high rate, and gave them a these graves ; which they dig up, place in his celebrated museum, and find among the ashes of the

Two of these scrolls were seni, by dead considerable quantities of order of the emperor Peter the first, gold, silver, brass, and some preto the royal academy at Paris. The cious itones, but particularly academy returned a translation, hilts of swords and armour, They which I faw in the rarity chamber find also ornaments of saddles and at St. Petersburg. One of them briddles, and other trappings for contained a commission to a lama, horses; and even the bones of or priest; and the other a form of horses, and soinetimes those of prayer to the deity. Whether elephants. Whence it appears, this interpretation may be de. that when any general or perfon pended on I shall not determine. of diftinction was interred, all

The Tariars efteem them all his arms, his favourite horse and Sacred writings, as appears from servant were buried with him in the care they take to preserve the same grave ; this custom pre. them. Perhaps they may contain vails to this day among the Kalfome curious pieces of antiquity, mucks and other Tartars, and particularly of apcient history, seems to be of great antiquity.


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