fius of Halicarnassus was in the sea, were also allied for a confi. wrong to pretend, that the art of derable time with the Phænicians ; wrestling among the Romans was of this there needs no other proof derived from the Greeks, because than the feet which they equipped the drapery or scarf, worn by the in common againft the Phoceans. Roman wrestlers round their bo. Whát Villalpandus has surmised, dies, resembled that worn by the concerning the temple of Solomon, wrestlers of Greece. Art flourish. that thence the Grecians borrowed ed in Egypt from the earliest ac- their richest designs of the Corin. count of time; the greatest obelisks thian order, though supported with now at Rome are due to the Egyp- great parade of learning, and matians, and are dated as far back as ny fpecious subtilties, only leads the time of Sefoftris, who lived near into a maze of uncertainties; in CCCC years before the Trojan rearing of this stately building, war; they were the works of that heated by a luxuriant fancy, he king, and the city of Thebes was rather acted the panegyrift than the adorned with the most magnificent historian. Let us follow the furer buildings, while art was yet un- traces of fact and uncontroverted born in Greece.

hiftory, as we can discover them in The arts, though produced later the pages of a writer worthy of in Greece than among the nations our attention, who after having of the east, nevertheless arose from judiciously explained the several the most fimple elements; this sim. particulars relating to the temple, plicity may suggest that the Gre- thus concludes ; « But though in cians took nothing from others, points like this I have been upon, but were truly original; they it be, moft lawful to err, yet those scarcely had the opportunity of are more excufable, who keep a becoming plagiarists of the Egyp. conftant regard to the sacred ori. tians; for before the reign of ginal above all things, than those Psammitichus, the entrance into who manifeftly depart from it to Egypt was denied to every stran- follow their own fancies, or the fa. ger, and the aris had then already bulous accounts of the Jews; now been cultivated by the Grecians. as I have drawn the greatest part The voyages of their philosophers of my light from the former, I am and sages were chiefly undertaken sensible that those who have been to inspect into the literature, reli- conversant with all ihe pompous gion, and government of that fa- descriptions we have extant, will mous kingdom. The conjectures be surprised to find this of mine of those who derive the arts from come so vaftly short of the boafted the east, seem better grounded, ef. magnificence of this facred buildpecially if they make them passing. But here. I desire it may be re. irum Phænicia into Greece, the membered, that as this was designed people of both these territories hav- to contain no more than could be ing had very ancient connections met with, or fairly deduced from together; the latter having receiv- the facred writings, fo the reader ed the knowledge and use of letters will at least reap this benefit from by Cadmus. Before the time of it, that he will be better able to Cyrus, the Etruscans, powerful by judge what is or is not authentic in other plans of this ftructure than minated from the places where they he could have been without it, The were eitherinvented,or first receivfollowing observations from others ed into use ; during the practice of upon the subject are in the fame fome ages, they acquired all the ftrain. The vision of Ezekiel, improvements the Greeian genius c. xl. and feq. is taken for a de. in its greatest vigour could bestow; scription of a prophetic or myftical the imitations of such examples, it temple, that never existed but in may be presumed, will ever excel the revelation that was made to all other inventions. him, and the representation he has When the Roman state had at. set down in his prophecy. As for tained to the highest pitch of its ancient authors, we have none to glory, and the most cultivated as produce but Josephus, and other well as the most powerful nations Jews rather of a later date than he. were subdued, and were considered Now all that we learn from them, only as provinces of that mighty that has no foundation in holy empire, the inhabitants of I!aly writ, to us is no evidence at all. distinguished themselves as well by Much they knew or pretended to their love and study of the fine arts know from tradition, but that we as by their skill in arms; in both prefume is not to be depended up- of which they must be allowed to on. We know no monuments they stand next after the Grecians; it is, had beside those we have ourselves: then, first to Athens, and afterwards And the Hebrew tongue, properly to Rome, that the modern world so called, being a sort of dead lan- owes the method of culture for eguage at the time these authors very refinement ; but at the same writ, it may well be doubted, with time, it is proper to observe, that out finning against modesty, whe- the Romans, either through ignother they who had no other books rance of pride, not content with to learn it by, than those now in the orders and dispositions of Atheuse, could understand it better than nian architecture, ventured at se. those who study it at present. veral licentious alterations ; they

The Grecians, during the prof- tacked two spurious orders, the perous times of their common. Tuscan and the Composite, the last wealths, were a nation of all others called also Latin and Roman, to at that time in the world the most the three genuine ones, which aingenious and the moft cultivated. lone are fufñcient to answer all the They seem to have been endowed purposes in building, and which with the greatest propensity to the can never fail of obtaining the prearts, and to have feli the strongest ference whenever they are examinnatural aversion to whatever faced by an attentive and intelligent voured of inelegance and barba- fpectator. It is matter of great rerifm; their country was styled the gret to the investigators of this mother and nurse of art and science. art, that among the writers of anIt is this nation which challengeth tiquity we find little on which to fix to itself the system of those three our ideas, or form our taste. The modes of architecture afterwards writings of Vitruvius Pollio have named the Doric, the Ionic, and been transmitted down to us; this zbe Corinthian orders, thus deno. claffic author fourilhed about the

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DCC year of Rome, in the reigns gether confused and irregular io. of Julius Cæfar, and of his succef- troduced, wherein none of its' forfor Augustus; to the latter he dedi. mer features were discernible. cated his ten books of architecture,

The Gaths prevailed! and to these, next to the veftiges of ancient edifices, pofterity remains At last came the fifteenth and indebted for many successful at. fixteenth centuries of the christian tempts to restore architecture in its æra, so glorious for the restoration original fimplicity and beauty: 'nór of literature and of arts; then it besides Vitruvius were wanting o- was that many happy minds, shaka ther ingenious men, who in their ing off the rust of ignorance, and writings had probably given many 'freeing themselves from the chains illustrations and maxims of their of indolency which had fettered art; several of their names have the preceding generations, recalled descended down to us, but their again into life all the fine arts and writings have perished; yèt what all the finest faculties and rules, so sort of artists they were, if their that it seemed as if the tafte of old books have not remained to inform Greece and Rome was revived in us, their works in many noble e. its true splendor and dignity: how.'' difices, still remaining, give faith ever, to keep within due limits, it ful teftimony to their merit, and sufficeth to say, that architectuce in chiefly in Greece and Italy, where Italy very soon appeared with the this profession was better preserved, expected'advantages; and the writ. and maintained its reputation, that ings, as well as the works of the sea for the course of about two centu. veral great mafters of that time, reries from the days of Auguftus, the main the undeniable proofs of theis manner and style of building re- abilities. mained unaltered, although the

Having already menfalse tafte for internal decorations tioned the Goths, it may not ap. was prevailing even in the time of pear altogether improper to say Vitruvius. Tacitus informs us in fomething of theirarchitecture. The general, that there were no persons name of Gothic was given to all such of great genius after the battle of buildings as were not defigned ac. Actium, but in the decline of the cording to the rules of Grecian or Roman empire, such a decline and Roman architecture. There are two change seemed also to affect the forts of Gothic, the ancient and the intellects of individuals, whence modern, (but improperly so called;) learning and all the fine arts, which in England and the northern parts had flourishet to admiration and of Europe, the ancient Gothic infor fo long a period, fell into dir- cludes the Saxon and Danifa, in repute, and were absorbed by the which indeed we may observe fome barbarisms which overwhelmed the traces of elegance and strengib. It land. Architecture foon faw itself appears that their artists were not miserably transformed, every good entirely ignorant of proportions, mode thereof was overthrown and though they did not confine them.' spoiled, every true practice cor. felves ftrictly to fuch as were beas. rupted, its antique graces and riful; folely attentive to render majesty loft, and a manner alto. their works solid and durable, thoy


were more ftudious to produce the in the X century of our æra, fevemarvelious by the enormous fizeral years after the destruction of all of their fabrics, than by any rego. those kingdoms which the Goths larity of tructure, or propriety of had raised upon the ruins of the ornaments. These are the marks Roman empire, and at a time when that characterize the Goths, a rough the very name of Goth was en. unpolished people, of huge ftature tirely forgotten? From all the and of dreadful looks, that issuing marks of this new architecture, out from the northern parts of our it can only be attributed to the hemisphere, where necessity taught Moors, or what is the same thing, them to guard against the violence to the Arabians or Saracens, who of storms and the fury of corrents, have expressed in their architecture increased by the inundations of the fame taste as in their poesy, melted snow, carried inco-milder both the one and the other falfely climates their monstrous taste of delicate, crowded with superfluous heavy architecture, and only in a ornaments, and often

very unnatu. small degree corrected their en- ral. The imagination is highly cumbered notions by the fight of worked up in both, but it is an Roman edifices; but the models. extravagant imagination; and this they had to contemplate were not has rendered the edifices of the without their faults, for from the Arabians (we may include the o. reign of Alexander Severus, archi. ther orientals) as extraordinary as tecture had greatly degenerated, their thoughts; if any one doubts Thus a want of natural geoius, a of this assertion, let us appeal to want of models, and every thing those who have seen the Moscheas, contributed to hinder the Goths and the palaces of Fez, or some of from acquiring any good mode of the cathedrals of Spain, built by building. This is the summary of the Moors; one model of this fort the ancient or heavy Gothic archi- is the church at Burgos ; and even tecture; some of the cathedrals and in this illand, there are not want. other public edifices, not only in ing several examples of the fame. this country, but in many others Such buildings have been vulgarly of the continent, still remain as called modern Gothic, but their models of this fort. Modern Go. true appellation is Arabesc, Sarathic, as it is called, is deduced cenic, or. Moresc, from a different quarter; it is dif- - This manner was introduced inringuished by the lightness of its to Europe through Spain. Learn. works, by the exceflive boldoefs of ing flourished among the Arabians its elevations and of its sections, all the time that their dominion by the delicacy, profusion, and ex. was in full power; they studied travagant fancy of its ornaments.: philosophy, mathematics, phylic, the pillars of this kind are as llen- and poetry: the love of learning der as those of the ancient Gothic was at once excited in all places are maffite. Such productions, so that were not at too great a diitance airy, cannot admit the heavy Goths from Spain; these authors were for their authors; how can be ato read, and such of the Greek autributed to them a style of archi. thors as they had translated into feature which was only introduced Arabic were from thence turned



into Latin. The phyfic and philo- near the building they made a camp fophy of the Arabians spread them- of hills. A surveyor governed in selves in Europe, and with these chief, and every tenth man was · their architecture ; many churches called a warden, and overlooked were built after the Saracenic each nine. The gentlemen of the mode, and others, with a mixture neighbourhood, either out of cha. of heavy and light proportions; rity or commutation of penance, the alteration that the difference of gave the materials and carriage, climate might require, was little if and hence were called accepted Man at all considered. In the most fons. It is admirable with what southern parts of Europe, and in æconomy and how soon they erect. Africa, the windows, (before the ed such confiderable structures. use of glass) made with narrow But as all modes, when once the apertures, and placed very high in old rational ways are despised, the walls of the buildings, occa

turn at last into unbounded fan. fioned a shade and darkness within- cies, the tracery of these architects fide, and were well contrived to who affected towers and fteeples, guard against the fiercest rays of though the Saracens affected cupothe fun, yet were ill suited to those las, introduced too much mincing latitudes where that glorious lumi. of the stone into open battlements, nary sheds its feebler influences, spindling pinnacles, and little carv. and is but rarely feen through a ings without proportion of dif. watery cloud. The heavy Gothic tance, so that the essential rules of by Sir C. Wren, is distinguished good perspective and duration were as Anglo-Saxonic, the lighter as forgor. Sarcenic; of this last the following account may be added to what has just now been delivered on the An account of the cruel facrifices of the same subject. The holy war gave

Canaanites, Phenicians, and other the Christians, who had been there,

rations. From Objervations and an idea of the Saracens' works,

Inquiries relating to various parts of which were afterwards imitated by ancient History; by Jacob Bryant.

NE would think it scarce upon it every day, as they pro. ceeded in building churches. The custom, as that of human facrifices, Italians (among which were yet should have existed in the world, some Greek refugees) and with but it is very certain, that it did them the French, Germans, and not only exist, but almost univerFlemings, joined into a fraternity, fally prevail. I have before taken procuring papal bulls for their en.' notice, that the Egyptians of old. couragement and particular privi. brought no victims to their tem. leges. They styled themselves ples, nor shed any blood at their Free-Masons, and ranged from na- altars: But homan victims and tion 10 nation, as they found the blood of men must be here churches to be built, (for very ma. excepted; which at one period ny in those days were every where they most certainly offered to their in building) through the piety of gods. The Cretans had the fame multitudes. Their government custom ; and adhered to it a much was regular, and where they fixed, longer time. The nations of Arabia

them in the west ; and they refined Opelible, that fo unnatural a

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