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have accidentally, collaterally, or cause one penny, was-ther earned locally contributed to augment the with as much labour, and when price of provisions, I cannot deter. earned would fetch as much of mine, nor do I think it of much every thing at market, as fifteen importance to inquire ; because I will in these days : was the value am satisfied, whatever may have of money now as great, and the been their effects, they could have price of other things as small, as in had none at all, had they not been those times, and provisions bore allifted by the firft and great cause, the same price as at present, they. the increafe of riches; for: no ar. would then be dear indeed, and the tifices of traders can make their pamphleteers would have good reacommodities dear in a poor coun: fon to impute their dearness to the try; that is, fell things for a great frauds of engrossers and monopolizdeal of money, where there is lit, ers; but as the price of every thing tle to be found. It seems there. besides,of houses, furniture,cloaths, fore to no purpose to search out horses, coaches, fees, perquisites, for causes of the present high and votes, are all equally advanced; price of provisions, from facts, nay, as every pamphlet, which used whose operations are uncertain, to be sold for one Thilling, has now and reasons at best but fpeculative, inscribed on its title-tage, price when it is fufficiently accounted eighteen pence, çheir own works for from these two great princi- are a confutation of their arguples, the increase of taxes, and ments ; for nonsense is a commo. the increase of riches, principles dity in which there are 100 many as abfolutely indisputable, and as dealers ever to suffer it to be modemonftrable as any mathematical nopolized or engrossed. Ic is cer. problem.
a. I tainly therefore improper to say, I shall now make fome cursory that provisions are dear, but we observations and short conclusions should rather affirm, what is the on the principles here advanced, real fact, that money is cheap; which, allowing these to be true, and if the complainants would use can admit of no doubt. First then, this expression instead of the other, although the price of provisions is and at the same time consider, that at present very high, they cannot this arises from the fuccess of our with propriety be said to be dear. arms, and the extension of our Nothing is properly dear, except trade, I am persuaded, that if they some commodity, which either from were not less distressed, they would real or fictitious scarcity, bears a certainly be less dissatisfied, and higher price than other things in would, perhaps, by degrees, comthe same country at the same time. prehend, that, in a country en. In the reign of Henry II. the value gaged in expensive wars and fucof money was about fifteen times cessful commerce, there must be greater than in the present age: a heavy taxes and great riches; and fowl then was sold for a penny, that where there are taxes and which cannot now be boughe un- riches, there the prices of provi. der fifteen pence; bút fowls are fions, and all other things, must not for that reason dearer now, be high, in spite of all the efforts than they were at that time ; be. of minifters or parliaments, who
ought by no means to be blamed, the maintenance of an increasing for not effecting impossibilities, poor, all burthens inseparable from and counteracting the nature of his land, must all rise in proportion things.
: to that fall; and these muft perSecondly, this cheapness of mo. petually retard its progress. The ney in its consequences affects dif. price of labour and of land must ferent conditions of men in a very by degrees advance, as money de. different manner: to some, it ope- creases in value; but, as there are rates exactly in the same manner the last that will feel its effects, the as real dearness and scarcity, at the labourer muft, in the mean time, same time that to others it gives be miferably pinched, and the considerable advantages. All those land-owner dreadfully impoverish. who fubfift on settled ftipends mufted by it. This is not speculation, inevitably be ruined by it : mer. but a fact which is too well verified chants, and traders of all kinds, by experience at this time, through are greatly benefited; but the la- every part of this kingdom, where bourer and the land owner are the labourer, with his utmost in moft grievously opprefied. Those dostry, cannot now procure a belly who subfilt on setiled ftipends must full for himself and his family; be ruined ; because, if their in. and, notwithstanding all the late comes cannot be advanced in pro. improvements in agriculture, the portion to the decrease of the vá. very same eftates in land which Jue of money, and the consequent formerly maintained a large family increase of the prices of every in fplendour and hospitality, can thing, the same nomival sum which now scarce repair and pay windowwould afford affluence in one age, tax for a spacious manfion-house, will not prevent starving in ano. and supply the owner of it with ther; of which we have numerous the necessaries of life. When I examples in our schools, colleges, hear a merchant, contractor, or alms-houses, and other charitable broker, calling out for war, argu. foundations. Merchants and tra, ing for new loans and new taxes, ders are constantly gainers by it, I wonder not, because I know that because they can always raise the they are enriched by them, and I prices of whatever they deal in, know also that they have sagacity faster than the value of money de enough to know it too: but when creases : but the labourer, having I hear a landed gentleman talk the nothing to subsist on but his daily same language, when I see him work, muft ever be behind-hand eager for war, which muft involve in advancing the price of his la him in new dift resses, encouraging bour; because he is not able to loans, whose interests he must pay, wait till it acquires its due pro. pleading for taxes, which must lie portion of value, and therefore by an eternal mortgage upon his el. it he muft suffer extremely. The tate, exulting in acquisitions of land owner likewise cannot raise territories and commerce, which his rents in any proportion to the must daily increase his expences, fall of the value of money; because and diminish his income, and trithe charges' of cultivation, the fa. Umphing in victories which muft mily-expences of the occupiers, and undo him, I own I am surprised,
but at the same time rejoice to find, think it plainly appears, that the that, in this enlightened age, there present exorbitant price of provi. is ignorance still left amongst us, lions, and all the necessaries of life, fufficient to produce so disinterested chiefly arises from the increase of a patriot.
our taxes, and of our riches; that, Lastly, from the foregoing pre- is, from public 'poverty and pri. mises one consequence evidently vate opulence, the faial disease appears, which seems to have é. which has put a period to all the scaped the fagacity of our wiseft greatest and most fourishing empoliticians, which is, that a nation pires of the world: their destrucmay, nay must, inevitably be ruin. tive effects have been sufficiently ed, who every year increases her known in all ages ; but the remę. debts, notwithstanding her acqui. dy successfully to be applied to fitions by conqueft or commerce them, is yet a secret. No acqui. bring in double or treble the sums sition of foreign wealth can be efwhich she is obliged to borrow ; fe&tual for this purpose : was our and this by a chain of causes and whole national debt to bę at once consequences, which the efforts of paid off, by the introduction of all no human power or wisdom are the treasures of the East, it would able to difunite. New debts re. but accelerate our destruction ; før quire new taxes; and new taxes 'such a vast and sudden influx of must increase the price of provi. riches would fo enhance our ex. fions : new acquisitions of wealth, pences, and decrease the value of by decreasing the value of money, money, that we should at once be still aggravate this evil, and render overwhelmed with luxury and want. them ftill dearer; this dearness of The most concise method of cure provisions must augment the price would be to take fuperabundant of labour; this muft advance the wealth from individuals, and with price of all manufactures; and this ic discharge the debts of the public; muft destroy trade; the destruction but here juftice, liberty, and law, of trade must starve the poor, ex. would obstruct our progress with pel the manufactures, and intro. infurmountable difficulties. Whoduce universal bankruptcy, riot, ever therefore would attempt this and confusion. · Artificers of all salutary, but arduous undertaking, kinds will, by degrees, migrate must not begin by extirparing en. into cheaper countries: the num. groflers and regraters, nor by dea ber of clergy, whose education itroying rats and sparrows, chose must grow more expensive, and great forestallers of the public incomes less valuable, will be in- markets; but by gradually paying sufficient for parochial duty : the off that debt, not only by econopay of navies and armies must be my, but by the most avaricious augmented, or they will no longer parfimony, and as far as possible, by delend a country which cannot narrowing those channels, through maintain them ; but rather them. which riches have flowe: in such selves become her internal and most torrents into the pockets of private dangerous enemies.
men: he must be deaf to all merFron what has been here said, I cantile application for opening new
inlets of commerce at the public and impracticable ; for not exe. expence : he must boldly refift all cuting which, government is arpropositions for settling new colo. raigned; the ignorant support nies upon parliamentary estimates; them, the factious make use of and most carefully avoid entering them, and oppositions, knowing into new wars : in short, he muft what it is to be hungry, patherical. obftinately refuse to add one huna ly bewail the miseries of the poor, dred thousand pounds to the na. The dowager at the quadrille table tional debt, though by that means inveighs loudly againt the cruely millions could be introduced throp of parliament, for disregarding the the hands of individuals. How voice of the people, and suffering far these measures are practicable, provisions to continue at so exoror consistent with the honour, dig. bitant a price; calls a king; and nity, or even advantage of this if she happens to be beafted, grows country in other respects, I cannot more outrageous against the mini. determine ; but this I will venture stry; while the filent old general, to affirm, that by no others this her unfortunate pariner, in three calamity, so loudly and fo juftly at sentences recommends military exthis time complained of, can ever ecution on all butchers, bakers, be redressed.
poulterers, and fish mongers, as the · By what has been here thrown most equitable and most effectual out, I would by no means be un- remedy: Were these impertinences derstood to mean to discourage the productive of no mischief, they legislature from inquiring into a would be only ridiculous, and un. buses, of which I doubt not but worthy of a serious confutation; there are many, and applying to but as them the moft efficacious and spee. dy remedies; much less to disap
He nuge feria ducunt prove the falutary measures they In male ; have already taken to redress this evil, the wifeft, and perhaps the they tend to deceive, to disaponly ones which are practicable for point, and to exasperate the minds that end. I propose only to leffen of the vulgar, and to leave those of the unreasonable expectations ma- their betters discontented, and dil. ny have formed of their success, fatisfied with government; whatand the indignation consequent ever shall explain the true and fun. from their disappointment; and to damental causes of this calamity ftem a little those torrents of ab- to the people, and give some check surdities, with which one is over. to the nonsense, which is every whelmed in all companies, both where wroie, talked, and propamale and female. Every politi.' gated on this subject, is an attempt cian at a coffee-house has a noftrum which may render great and imfor this disease, which he pro, portant service both to the social nounces infallible ; and abuses ad- and the political world, miniftration for not immediately adopting it. Projectors every day hold forth schemes unintelligible
An ellay upon theatrical imitation ; Confined by his art to this single : extracted from the dialogues of subject; this artist is only capable • Plato, by J. J. Rousseau. (Trane of making this, or other palaces ? fated from a vol. of Rousseau's similar : but there are some that Î works newly published.)
are much more universal, who pro
duce all that can be executed by: THE more I reflect upon the any workman whatever in the *1 establishment of our imagi. world; all that is produced by na. nary republic, the more Itrongly it ture, all that can be rendered vifi. appears to me, that we have pre. ble in heaven, upon earth, in hell, scribed for it laws that are ureful even the gods themselves. You and appropriated to the nature of comprehend that there marvellous man. I find, in particular, that it artifts are painters, and indeed, the was necessary to give, as we have most ignorant of men can do the done, some bounds to the licences fame with a looking-glass. You of poets, and to forbid their using will tell me that the painter does any part of their art that relates to not make these things, but only imitation. We will now, if you their images: the workman does please, resume this subject; and in no more who really fabricates them, the belief that you will not inform as he copies a model that exists beagainst me to those dangerous ene. fore him. mies, I will acknowledge, that I . I there see three palaces very difa look upon all dramatic writers as tinct. First, the original model, or the corrupters of the people. For idea, that exifted in the mind of whoever, letting themselves be as the architect, in nature, or at least mused by their images, are inca. in its author, with all the possible pable of receiving them in their ideas of which it is the spring. feal point of light, or of giving Secondly, the palace of the archi.. these fables such correction as they tect, which is the image of this require. Whatever respect I en model ; and at length the palace tertain for Homes, their model and of the painter, which is the image first master, I do not think I owe of that of the architect. Thus God, more to him than I do to truth; the architect, and the painter, are and in order to begin by securing the author of these three palaces. it to me, I shall endeavour to trace The first palace is the original idea, what is imitation. .
existing by itself; the second is the Toimitate a thing, an idea mult image of this; the third is the be formed. This idea is abstract, image of the image, or what we abfolute, föle, and independent of properly call imitation. Hence it the number of copies of this thing follows, that imitation does not, which may exist in nature. This as it is imagined, hold the second idea is always antecedent to its rank, but the third in the order of execution : fo the architect who beings; and that no image being builds a palace, hath the idea of a exact and perfect, imitation is ala palace before he sets about build. ways at a still more diftant degree ing it. He does not construct the from truth, than it is believed. . model he follows, and this model The architect may construc. sewas previously in his mind, veral palaces upon the fame model;