learning ; but the Tzerimith and head was a fillet set with small Tzoowash have none. They have shells, instead of jewels, and hung ' a tradition among them, that in all round with silver pence;

above former times they had a book of this was a piece of linen fo artfully religion ; but, as no body could plaited, and done up, that it look. read it, a.cow came and swallowed ed like a grenadier's cap ; at the it. They pay great veneration to top was a silk.cassel, with another a bull. From whence they came brass bell, which gingled as the is unknown; but, from their com- turned her, head. The rest of her plexion, it is probable they are dress was clean, though homely, from Alia. They live by agri- and the whole seemed becoming culture, and seem to be an inoffen- enough. five kind of people. Their huntfmen offer in facrifice to some de- Of the Tartars about Aftrachan. ity the first creature they catch. Hence fome curious men have The Mahometan Tartars here imagined these people part of the live without the town, and have ten tribes of the Jews, expelled by the same privileges as in other Shalmanezer. I advance this only places. I mer several of their woas a conjecture, which every rea- men in the street with rings in der may follow, or not, as he their noses, which were of different pleafes.

value according to the rank of the By accident I met with an En- person who wore them; some of glishman at this place. He was gold, and others set with precious by trade a carpenter, and had been stones. On enquiring the reason in the Rufiian service; but, being of such a singular ornament, I was fufpected of deferting, he was con- told, that it was the consequence demned to banishinent, to this of a religious dedication of these country, for a certain time : and persons to the service of God: ic notwithítanding that was elapsed, is made by the parents, even while the poor man, deprived of all the mother is pregnant ; in token means of asserting his liberty, re- whereof, as soon as the child is mained fill in the fame fituation. born, they put a ring in the right He bought a Tzerimish wife, from noftril, which continues there till her father, for fix rubles, about death. I have seen some with two thisty. shillings fterling. He such rings. brought her to visit me. She was One day, as I was walking a woman of à chearful and open through the streets of Aftrachan, countenance, and dressed in the I observed a very singular appearmanner of her country : of which, ance ; it was a pretty Tartar lady for its fingularity, I shall give a mounted aftride upon an ox; the short description.

had a ring in her nose, and a string Her hair was plaited round her drawn through the nose of the ox, head, in many locks, but that on which served instead of a, bridle ; the back part longer than the rest, she was dressed better than comat the end of which was tied a tas. mon, and attended by a footman: fel of red filk, and in the middle a the singularity of the equipage, small round brass bell; about her but particularly her extraordinary beauty, drew my attention. plants here, and elsewhere. After The Mahoinetan must not be con- farther enquiry of the more fenfifounded with the Kalmuck Tar- ble and experienced among the tars; the first are a well-looking Tartars, I found they laughed at it civilized people in comparison of as a ridiculous fable. the other.

Át Altrachan they have great Before I leave Astrachan it may quantities of lamb. íkins, grey and be proper to reftity a mistaken-black; fome waved, others curled, opinion, which I have observed all naturally, and very pretty, hava frequently to occur in grave Ger. ing a tine glofs, particularly the man authors, who, in treating of waved, which, at a small dištance, the remarkable things of this appear like the richest watered country, 'relate that there grows in tabby; they are much esteemed, this desart, or stepp, adjoining to and are much used for the lining Atrachan, in some plenty, a cer- of coats, and the turning up of caps, tain shrub or plant, called in the in Persia, Rusia, and other parts. Ruffian language Tartarskey, ba- The best of these are brought from rashka, i. e. Tartarian lamb, with Bucharia, Chiva, and the coun. the skins of which the caps of the tries adjacen:, and are taken out Armenian, Persians, Tartars, &c. of the eve's belly, after she hath are faced; they also write, that been killed, or the lamb is killed this Tartarskey baraka partakes immediately afier it is lambed; for of animal as well as vegetative life; such a shin is equal in value to the that it eais up and devours all the theep. grass and weeds within its reach. The Kalmucks and other TarThough it may be thought, that tars, who inhabit the defart, in an opinion so very absurd could the neighbourhood of Astrachan, find no credit with people of the have allo lamb-ikins, which are meaneit share of undertanding, yet applied to the same purposes; but I have conversed with some who the wool of thefe being rougher, have seemed much inclined to be. and more hairy, they are far inlieve it : so very prevalent is the ferior to those of Bucharia, or prodigious and absurd with some Chiva, both in glofs and beauty, part of mankind.

as also in the dreiling, confequentIn search of this wonderful plantly in value. I have known one I walked many a mile, accompa- single lamb-skin of Bucharia fold nied by Tartars who inhabit these tor five or fix shillings sterling, desarts; but all I could find out when one of these would not yield were some dry bushes, scattered two shillings. here and there, which grow on a fingle (talk, with a bushy top, of a Of the Kathy-Orda, and Karcbrownish colour; the italk is about Kalpacks, or Black-Caps. eighteen inches high; the top conhtting of tharp prickly leaves: it This place is sometimes alarmiš true that no grafs or weeds grow ed with incursions of the Tartars, within the circle of its shade, a called Koflatshy-Orda, and Karaproperty natural to many other Kalpacks; but the Ruffians have


of late so fortified their frontiers, of Cazan and Aftrachan, Their that these rovers appear seldomer houses are very cleanly. They are than formerly. Both these tribes very courteous to ftrangers, and are Mahometans, live always in esteemed honeit; on which account tents, and spread themselves, with they get great credit in their com. their flocks, in the great desart; mercial affairs. both are very numerous, and own Before I leave this place, I ima. subjection to different chiefs, whom gine it will not be improper to subthey call Batteer, which fignifies join a few more particulars relative a hero. These are chosen by to the Kontaysha, prince of the themselves, and are the most fa. Kalmucks, whom I formerly menmous among them for their abilities tioned. . I am the more inclined in military exploits. They are at to do this, as I can entirely depend continual war with the Kalmucks on my intelligence ; having prowho inhabit along the Volga, and cured it from persons who have with all their other neighbours. been in that country, and seen this They are not able to stand against prince; but particularly from an regular troops; and, when attack. ingenious and penetrating gentleed by them, retire into the wide man, who fills a public ofice in defart, with their families and cat- this place, and was employed in tle; whicher none, but people ac- several me/Tages to him from the customed to their manner of life, late governor of Siberia. can follow them.

The territories of this prince The country of the Kara-Kal. are bounded by three of the moit packs, or Black Caps, so called potent empires in the world; on from a kind of caps they com- the north by Russia, by China on monly wear turned up with black the east, and by the country of lamb-skins, lies to the south-west, the Great Mogul to the south. towards the Volga. That of Kor. From the two first he is separated satsy-Orda extends to the south. by defart plains, and from the east, as far as the river Irtish. third by almoft impaffable moun.

tains. To the south-west his fronOf the Tartars at and near Tobolski, tiers reach near to Bucharia. The

the capital of Siberia. of the Kontaytha is a very powerful Kontaysba, or prince of the black prince, and able to bring into the Kalmucks,

field, at a short warning, an hun.

dred thousand horsemen, who are Under the hill in the suburbs, all of them able bodied men, well along the banks of the river, are mounted, and arined with bows several large streets, called the and arrows, lances and fabres. Tartar ftreets, occupied by the re. This is a greater number of horse mains of the ancient inhabitants than any prince that I know can of the parts. Here, as at other ‘mufter, except his Russian majesty. places, these people enjoy the free and the emperor of China. These exercise of their religion, and the Tartars live in tents all the year, privileges of trade. They resem. removing from place to plaee, as ble, in their persons, religion, lan- called by neceffity or inclination. guage, and manners, the Tartars This is the most ancient and pleafant manner of life. It is, enter. formed. This answer was exprefr. taining to hear them commiserate ed in very plain and concise terms. those who are confined to one These Tartars in general write with place of abode, and obliged to brevity and perfpicuity. I have support themselves by labour, seen several of their letters tranf. which they reckon the greatest lated, which pleased me extremeflavery ?


ly, as they contained no tedious The Kontaysha has always fome preambles, nor disgufting repetithousands of his subjects encamp- tions, which ferve only to perplex ed near himself, who treat him the reader. with great veneration and respect, The emperor of China was some And, in justice to him, it mult be time ago engaged in a war with the confessed, that he is as attentive to Kontaysha, about some frontier the interests of his people, and as towns, of which the latter took a Niduous in the administration of possession, and maintained his juftice in particular, as if they were claim with a ftrong army. The his own children,

emperor sent against him an army The Kalmucks are not such fa. of three hundred thoufand men, vage people as they are generally under the command of his foura represented; for I am informed a teenth fon,' who is reckoned the person may travel among them beft general of all his children. with greater safety, both to his Notwithstanding their superiority person and effects, than in many in numbers, the Kontaysha defeatother countries.

ed the Chinese in several actions, The Kontaysha received the de. The emperor at last thought it best puries from the governor of Sibe. to accommodate the difference, and ria like ambassadors from foreign a peace was concluded to the fatis. , princes, and treated them accord. faction of both parties. ingly. This shews what high re. It must be observed, that the spect these eastern princes enter. Chinese, being obliged to undertain for his Czarith majesty, when take a long and difficult march, the governor of Siberia is regarded through a desart and barren counas a sovereign. The ceremony on try, lying westward of the long these occasions was as follows: wall; being also incumbered with

The deputy with his servants artillery, and heavy carriages, con. were admitted into the tent, where taining provisions for the whole the Kontaysha sat, with his queen army during their march, had and several children about him. their force greatly diminished beHe defired all of them to sit down fore they reached the enemy. The on carpets or mats ; for the Kal- Kontaysha, on the other hand, mucks, like most Aliátics, use no having intelligence of the great chairs. They were entertained with army coming against him, waited tea before dinner; and, after it, the patiently on his own frontiers, till Kontaysha dismissed the deputy in the enemy was within a few days a friendly manner, telling him, he march of his camp, when he sent would send for him next day to re- out detachments of light horse to ceive an answer to the governor's set fire to the grass, and lay waste letter, which he punctually pera the country. He also diítracted


them, day and night, with repeated A square hole is cut out for a win. alarms, which, together with want dow, and, to supply the want of of provisions, obliged them to re. glass, a piece of ice is formed to filo tire with confiderable loss. the place exactly, which lers in a

(This method of carrying on good light. Two or three pieces war, by wasting the country, is will last the whole winter. These very ancient among the Tartars, Tartars are very neat and cleanly, and practised hy all of them from both in their persons and houses. the Danube eastward. This cir. They use no stoves, as the Rufudas cumstance renders them a dreadful do, Near the house there is com. enemy to regular troops, who must monly a shade for the cattle. thereby be deprived of all sublistence, while the Tartars, having Of the Barabintzy, or Tartars of always many spare horses to kill

Baraba. and eat, are at no lofs for provifions.

Here we laid in provisions I have only to add, that the for our journey over the BaraKontaysha must be the same prince ba; which fignifies, in the Tarwho, in our European maps, in tar language, a marshy plain. generally called the Great Cham Its inhabitants are a mixtore of of Tartary. As no Europeans different Tartar tribes, called Batravel through that country, thefe rabintzy, from the name of the maps must be very erroneous. It country in which they live. They is however to be expected, that the are a poor miserable people, being Russians will, in time, make a treated as subjects both by the more compleat discovery of the emperor and Kontaysha ; and eastern parts of Ana.

obliged to pay a tribute, in furs We passed through many Tartar and skins of wild beasts, to each. villages, and at night lodged in They have no grain, nor cattle of one of their little huis, and warm. any kind, except a few rein-deer; ed ourselves at a good fire on the and sublift by hunting and fishing. hearth. These houses confift gene. What fish they consume not in the rally of one or two rooms, ac

summer are dried and smoaked cording to the ability of the land for their winter provisions. They lord. Near to the hearth is fixed are partly of the Mahometan and an iron kettle to dress the victuals, parily of the Kalmuck religion ; In one end of the apartment is but this difference causes no dif. placed a bench, at eighteen putes. inches high, and six feet broad, In the places through which we covered with mats, or skins of wild pafled, the ambassador sent for all bcafts, upon which all the family the hunters and sportsmen, that he fit by day, and sleep in the night. might inquire what kinds of game The walls are built' of wood and and wild beats were in their moss, consisting of large beams, neighbourhood. Hunting is the jaid one above another, with a employment of most of the young layer of moss between every two fellows in this country; and is beams. All the roofs are raised. very profitable, as they sell the


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