with that of the ancient Romans. having forbidden it in wars beWe are informed by a contempo tween Christian nations, it was rary German bistorian, that, in laid aside in this country, during the methods of encamping, and of the reigns of king Stephen and of be Geging towns or cailles, the em- Henry the Second. Nevertheless peror Frederick Barbarossa follow- Richard the First, at bis return ed their rules. And the hiftories out of Palestine, brought it again of the holy war, written within into France, very fatally for him. the same age, describe the fieges, self, as he was killed soon after-.. made in Alia, by the English and wards by an arrow, shot out of that French, agreeably to those carried, engine. on under the discipline of that na. The manner of fortifying towns tion. We have one composed by and castles, as well as the methods an Englishman, Geoffry de Vine. both of attack and defence, were fauf, that gives a particular rela- still much the same as had been tion of the siege of Acre, or Pro.. used by the Romans : but the ar. lemais, to which he accompanied mies differed much from those of King Richard the Firft. It ap- that people ; for their principal pears from thence, that the be- strength was in the cavalry; wheresiegers, among other machines as, among the Romans, it was in which had been used by the Ro. the legions, which were chiefly mans, had moveable towers, built, composed of infantry. And this of wood, and of such a height, variation produced others in the that the tops of them overlooked manner of fighting, and of rangthe battlements of the city. They in the troops. Yet, upon many were covered with raw hides, to occasions, the horsemen dismounta prevent their being burnt; and, ed to fight on foot; and this seems had also a network of ropes

which to have been done by the Eng. hung before them, and was in. lith more frequently than by most tended to deaden the violence of other nations. The infantry, for the stones, that were thrown a-. the most part, were archers and gainst them from the enginçs of slingers ; nor were there any in the besieged. Those engines were the world more excellent at that called by this author petrariæ, but time than those belonging to this were the baliste of the ancients; island, the Normans having com. and, according to his account of municated their skill to the Saxons, them, their force was prodigious: and the Welsh being famous for they threw stones of a vast weight, ftrength, and dexterity in draw. and were employed by the belieg. ing the bow. The offensive arms ers to batter the walls, as by the. of the cavalry, were lances and besieged to defend them. He like. swords : but they also used bastle. wile mentions the cross-bow among axes, and maces of different sorts; the weapons made use of in that and some fought with ponderous fiege. It had been introduced in- mallets or clubs of iron. I canto England by William the Con- not better describe their defenfive queror, who greatly availed him. armour, than by translating the self of it, at the batile of Hastings: words of a contemporary historian, but the second Lateran council who has given an account of the


manner in which the order of with short daggers, which were knighthood was conferred on the usually worn by the horfemen for father of king Henry the Second. that purpose. It being customary

They put on him (says that au- for all who were taken in wat to “ thor) an incomparable habere ranfom themfelves with fums of

geon, composed of double plates money, which were generally paid or {collops of steel, which no ar- to those who took them in propor.

row or lance could penetrate. tion to the rank of the captives, « They gave him cuishes, or boots good quarter was given. " of iron, made equally strong. There is a remarkable passage, “ They put gilt Spurs on his feet, relating to this fubject, in Oderil'and hung on his neck a shield, cus Vitalis, a writer contemporary

or buckler, on which lions of with king Henry the Fird. He " gold were painted. On his tells us, that in a battle between

head they placed a helmet, Louis le Gros and that prince, of

which glittered all over with which an account has been given “ precious stones, and was fo well in a former part of this work, nine “ forged, that no sword could hundred knights were engaged, “ cleave or pierce it.”

and only two of them killed: This armour, it may be

pre- “ because (fays the hiftorian) they fumed, was richer than that of or- “ were cloathed all over with iron, dinary knights, and of more ex- " and from their fear of God, and cellent workmanship in the temper" the acquaintance they had con of the steet ;, but in other respects « tracted by living together, they much the same. The habergeons, “ spared one another, and rather or coats of mail, were different " defired to take thao kill those from the cuirasses used in later " who fled.” Some battles in Ita. times, being formed of double ly, which Machiaval has defcrib. plates of iron, and covering the ed as fought by the mercenary arms and moulders of the knights, bands of that coontry, in the four. as well as their bodies. Under teenth and fifreenth centuries, were these they wore other coats, of lea- of the same kind. But it must be ther, or of taffety, quilied with observed, that one of the reafons wool. The several parts of the here given by Odericus Vitalis, outward armour were so artfully why so few of the knights, or men joined, that the whole man was at arms, were slain in this action, defended by it from head to foot, viz. that they fpared one another, and rendered almoft invulnerable, out of regard to the acquaintance except by contufions, or by the they had contracted by living to. point of a lance or sword running gether, did not hold' in engagea into his eye, through the holes ments between different nations, that were left for fight in the vizor that were not fo connected as the of the helmet: but if it happened French and Normans; nor in civil that the horse was killed or thrown wars, where the animofity is in. down, or that the rider was dif- creased, not diminished, by the mounted, he could make but little knowledge which the adverte para refiftance, and was either taken ties have of each other; and there. prisoner, or nain on the ground fore in these we do not find that


the battles were fo harmless: yet the weapons of an enemy; and a the greatest Naughter was general- the fame time he could wield the ly made of the foot, who were nei- moft ponderous weapons, which ther fo well armed for defence as the armour of others was unable the knights; nor able to pay fo to refift. This advantage was ftill high a price for their ranfoms. increased, if his fword was finely

Roger de Hovedon speaks of tempered, and his defenfive arms horfes covered with arm ur in the were rendered more impenetrable reign of Richard the Firft: but I by the skill of the armourer in prea find no mention thereof in the paring the steel. Thus some ex. times of which I write ; and that traordinary acts of personal valour, they were not usually fo armed in which are related in our ancient the reign of Henry the First, may hiftories, and seem to us quite inbe proved from an action before credible, may indeed be irue. A related, between Odo de Borlengi single man, in a narrow pass, may and the barons of Normandy, who have defended it against a great had revolted against that prince, number of assailants; and the fucin which all the horses of the re- cess of a battle may have some. bels were killed by the arrows of times been decided by the particothe English, chough not one of the lar prowess of a few knights, or riders was wounded.

men at arms. Geoffry de Vine. In the above recited paffage, fauf, in his account of the crusade concerning the aims that were againft Saladin, makes the officers given to Geoffry Plantagenet, of the Turkish forces say to that when he received the order of prince, in excuse of their having knighthood, it is said," they been beaten in an engagement with " brought him a lance of afh, arm- the English, that they could not hurt “ed with the steel of Poitou, and the enemy, who were not armed as "a sword from the royal treasure, they were, but with impenetrable “ where it had been laid up from armour, which yielded to no wea. "old times, being the workman. pons; so that in affaulting them they "hip of Galan, the most excel- seemed to frike again flints. The “ lent of all swordsmiths, who fame author describes the Turks, " had exerted in forging it his ut- in another part of his book, as " moft art and labour. A skil. being armed very lightly; bat ful swordsmith was then so neces. bearing a quiver full of arrows, a sary to a warrior, that it is no club fet thick with sharp spikes, a wonder the name of one who ex. sword, a light javelin, and a short celled in his profession should be dagger or knite. Yet it appears, thus recorded in history, and a from his own relations of feveral sword of his making depofited in battles, that with these weapons · the treasury of a king. It must they often killed a great number be observed that, in chofe days, of the Chriftians: and therefore a superior degree of bodily ftrength we must understand the passage gave a double advantage : for the before cited with some allowance Itrongeft. knight could wear the for a degree of exaggeration. We heaviest armour ; whereby he was also find that the armour of the better fecured chan others againft knights in those days was not al. : VOL. X.



ways proof_against arrows from died in the year nine hundred and Welsh or English bows. And thirty fix; and who, among other such violent strokes were given ordinances relating to those sports, with maces and clubs of iron, as forbad the admitting of any per. no helmets could refift. Besides son to joust, who could not prove the heavy cavalry, there was a fort a nobility of four.descents. Soon of light-horse, that only wore an afterwards they were brought into habergean and skull-cap of that England hy King Edgar; and, in metal. Some of the infantry had the following century, were efta. also sull-caps and jaquettes of blished all over France. Geoffry mail, with targets of wood, or de Preuilly, a baron of Anjou, is light breaft-plates. It was cuíto. mentioned, in some of the histomary for knights to bear their ries or chronicles of that age, as coats of arms painted, cither up. the first who introduced them into on the rims, or in the middle of that kingdom : but Father Daniel their fields; and their helmets rather thinks, that he only drew were adorned with different creits, up a code of laws, by which they which, together with the arms, were regulated : and that those remained to their families. Some regulations had been settled by the good authors have afcribed the king and the nobility in their alorigin of this custom, from whence semblies. the modern science of heraldry was These entertainments are juftly derived, to the institution of tilts called, by some of our ancient hil. and tournaments, in the tenth cen. torians, military exercises and pre. tury : but others date it from the ludes of war. For they were of crusade under Godfrey 'of'Bouil. very great use to inftruct the nobi. lon, when the confusion arising lity in all the methods of fighting from so great a number of noble. which prevailed at that time, buc men of different nations serving especially in the dextrous managetogether, made them invent these ment of their horses and lances. diftinctions. A laie ingenious They also kept up a martial dispoFrench writer has very justly ob- fition, and an eager emulation for served, that wearing such enligns' military glory, in time of peace. on their fields, and appropriat. But, as they were frequently aring them to diftinguish particular tended with accidents fatal to the families, could not have been the lives of the combatants, Pope Ingeneral practice in Europe, till nocent the Second and Eugenius after the death of William the the Third made canons against Conqueror: for, if it had, his them, by which all who mould son Robert must have known him die in them were denied Christian by his Armour, and could not have burial. Yet, notwithstanding the ignorantly thrown him to the severity of this prohibition, they ground, as hath been related in continued in France ; and a few the book prefixed to this history. of them were held under King Ste.

Tilts and tournaments, we are phen in England: but Henry tho told, were first introduced into Second, from the humanity of bis Germany by the Emperor Hen- nature; or, perhaps, to shew his ry, furnamed the Fowler, who respect for the authority of the church, where the interest of the that those noblemen, who had ftate did not absolutely oppose it, been honoured with knighthood, moft ftri&tly forbad them. His had proper places of exercise, for fons revived the practice of them, keeping up their skill in horseman. especially his fucceffor, Richard; ship, and the dexterity they had whose ardour for them. was vio acquired in the management of lent; because no person excelled their arms. The above mentioned in them more than himselt: nor author says further, that, on every did they entirely cease in Eng- holiday, throughout the whole land till the latter end of the summer, it was usual for the young fixteenth century: far, in the year citizens to go out into the fields, fifteen hundred and seventy-two, and practise archery, wrestling, among other pomps for the enter. throwing of stones and minile tainment of the duke of Anjou, weapons, with other such martial Queen Elizabeth held a tourna- sports. And, during the festival ment in the tilt-yard at London, of Eafter, they represented a kind where Sir Philip Sidney won the of naval fight on the river Thames. prize: and carousals, another mode. The most particular and authenof them, but not so dangerous, tic account 'I have met with of continued in ose under James and the navies in those days, and also Charles the first. It must be like. of the manner of fighting at sea, wise remarked, that altho' tour, is in the before-cired history of naments were prohibited by King Geoffry de Vinesauf. From his Henry the second, the exer. description it appears, that the cises practised there, and the ships of war were all gallies ; but emulation excited by them, were he says, that in his time they had not intermitted during the course generally no more than two rows of his reign.


A contemporary of oars: and he adds, that the writer informs us, in giving an vessel, which the Romans called account of the ciry of London, Liburna, was then named a galley; that, on every Sunday in Lent, being long, narrow, and lowthe sons of the citizens fallied forth built. To the prow was affixed a in troops from the gates, mount. piece of wood, commonly then ed on war-horses, and armed with called a sprr, but by the ancients, Thields and lances, or, instead of a roftrum; which was designed to lances, with javelins, the iron of strike and pierce the ships of the which was taken off, in order to enemy; but there were also leser exercise themselves in a representa. gallies, with only one tier of oars: tion and image of war, by mock. which being shorter, and there. fights, and other acts of military fore moved with greater facility, contention. He adds too, that were fitter for throwing wild-fire, many courtiers, from the neigh- and made use of to that purpose. bouring palace, and young gen. The same writer has related all the tlemen of noble families, who had circumstances of a sea-figbt, which not yet þeen knighted, came to the Christians, who were going to combat with them, on these oc- the fiege of Ptolemais, had with cafions. It cannot be doubted, the Turks, on that coaft. He



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