furs to great advantage. We found The horn was of a brownish cothat this place produced great plen- lour, about one archeen, or twentyty both of game and wild beasts, eight inches long; and twisted, but few fables. In the spring, a from the root, till within a finger's number of elks and stags come hi. length of the top, where 'it was ther from the south, many of which divided, like a fork, into two points are killed by the inhabitants, both very sharp. On account of their flesh and their Baraba is really what its name hides. What of the flesh is not signifies, an extensive marshy plain. consumed fresh they falt. The It is generally full of lakes and hides are very large, and are dreffed marshy grounds, overgrown with into excellent buff. The huntf- tall woods of aspin, alder, "wilman, having found the track of a lows, and other aquatics ; para ftag upon the snow, pursues it up- ticularly many large birch-trees, on his snow-fhoes, with his bow having their bark as white and and arrows, and little dog, till the smooth as paper.

The lakes a. animal is quite fatigued : for, the bound with various kinds of Inow on the surface being melted fishes; such as pikes, perches, by the heat of the sun, and con- breams, eels, and, particularly, gealed at night by the frost, but a fish called karrafs, of an unnot strong enough to bear the common bigness, and very fat, weight of such an animal, he finks These the inhabitants dry, in sumdeep at every step, and the sharp mer, for winter provisions; which ice cuts his ancles and lames him, are all the food to be found anong so that he becomes an easy prey to them. I have eat of it often, the hunter.

and thought it not disagreeable. One of these hunters told me In winter, they use melied snow the following story, which was for water. They are very hospiconfirmed by several of his neigh. table; and desire nothing, in rebours, Thai, in the year 1713, turn of their civilities, but a little in the month of March, being out tobacco to smoke, and a dram of a hunting, he discovered the track brandy, of which they are very of a ftag, which he pursued. At fond. The dress, both of men overtaking the animal, he was and women, consists of long coats somewhat Itartled, on observing it of sheep fkins, which they get had only one horn, stuck in the from the Russians and Kalmucks, middle of its forehead. Being in exchange for more valuable near this village, he drove it home, furs. As they wear no other apand the wed it, to the great admi. parel, not even thirts, they are ration of the spectators. He after. very nafty. Their huts are most wards killed it, and eat the Aesh; miserable habitations, and sunk and fold the horn to a combé about one half under ground. We maker, in the town of Tara, for were glad, however, to find them ten alteens, about fifteen pence as a baiting-place in such a cold fterling. I inquired carefully a. season. bout the shape and size of this The Barabintzy, like most of the unicorn, as I shall call it, and was ancient natives of Siberia, have told it exactly resembled a stag. many conjurers - among them;


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whom they call fhamans, and ring this scene, which lafted about
sometimes priests. Many of the a quarter of an hour, the kept the
female sex alfo affume this cha- thaytan, or image, close by her-
racter. The shamans are held in self, tuck up in a corner. The
great esteem by the people ; they charm being now finished, the
preiend to correspondence with desired us to put our questions.
the shaytan, or devil; by whom, Her answers were delivered very
they say, they are informed of all artfully, and with as much obscu.
past and future events, at any rity and ambiguity as they could
diftance of time or place. Our have been given by any oracle,
ambassador resolved to inquire She was a young woman, and very
ftrictly into the truth of many handsome,
ftrange stories, generally believed,
concerning the shamans; and sent

Of the Tongufy.
for all of fame, in that way, in
the places through which we We continued our journey, for

several days, along the Topgufta. In Baraba, we went to visit a We found, now and then, little famous woman of this character. villages, or single houses, on the When we entered her house, she banks. One day we chanced to continued busy about her domestic meet a prodigious flock of hares, affairs, without almost taking any all as white as the snow on which notice of her guests. However, they walked. I speak within com. after she had smoked a pipe of to- pass when I say there were above bacco, and drunk a dram of bran- five or fix hundred of them. They dy, she began to be more chearful. were coming down the river, very Our people aked her some trilling deliberately, on a small path, of questions about their friends ; but their own making, close to the te pretended to be quite igno- beaten road. As Toon as they saw sant, till she got more tobacco, us, all of them run into the woods, and some inconsiderable presents; without seeming much fright. when she began to collect her con- ened. I am informed that these juring tools. First, the brought hares travel to the south in much the shaytan ; which is nothing but greater flocks than this, every a piece of wood, wherein is cut spring, and return in autumn, something resembling a human when the rivers are frozen and the head, adorned with many filk and snow falls. In most of the villages wollen rags, of various colours; we found plenty of this fort of ve. then a small drum, about a foot nison; the inhabitants, however, diameter, to which were fixed value it but little : for they catch many brass and iron rings, and these hares more on account of hung round also with rags. She their skins, of which they make now began a dismal tune, keeping considerable' profits, than their time with the drum, which the flesh, beat with a stick for that purpose : The Tongusy, so called from several of her neighbours, whom the name of the river, who live she had previously called to her af. along its banks, are the posterity fiftance, joined in the chorus. D. of the ancient inhabitants of si.

The men


beria, and differ in language, man- lived far northward. They can. ners, and dress, and even in their not bear to sleep in a warm room, perfons and ftature, from all the but rerire to their huts, and lie other tribes of these people I have about the fire on skins of wild had occafion to fee. They have beasts. It is surprising how these no houses, where they remain for creatures can suffer the very pierce any time, but range through the ing cold in these parts. woods, and along rivers, at plea- The women are dressed in a fusa sure; and, wherever they come, gown, reaching below the knee, they erect a few spars, inclining to and ried about the waist with a one another at the top; these they girdle. This girdle is about three cover with pieces of birchin bark, inches broad, made of deer's skin, fewed together, leaving a hole at having the hair curioufly stitched the top to let out the smoke. The down and ornamented, to which fire is placed in the middle. They is faftened, at each side, an iron are very civil and tractable, and `ring, that serves to carry a tobacco. like to smoke tobacco, and drink pipe, and other trinkets of small brandy. About their huts they value. Their gowns are also ftitchhave generally a good stock of ed down the breast, and about the rain-deer, in which all their wealth neck. Their long black hair is confifts.

plaited, and tied about their heads, tall and able- above which they wear a small furbodied, brave, and very honeft. cap, which is becoming enough. The women are of a middle size, Some of them have small ear-rings, and virtuous. I have seen many Their feet are dressed in buskins, of the men with oval figures, like made of deer-skins, which reach to wreaths, on their foreheads, and the knee, and are tied about chins; and sometimes a figure, re- the ancles with a thong of leafembling the branch of a tree,

ther. reaching from the corner of the The dress of the men is very eye to the mouth. These are made, fimple, and fit for action. It cona in their infancy, by pricking the fifts of a short jacket, with nare parts with a needle, and rubbing row fleeves, made of deer's skin, them with charcoal, the marks having the fur outward; trousers whereof remain as long as the and hose of the same kind of kin, perfon lives. Their complexion both of one piece, and tight to is swarthy. Their faces are not the limbs. They have belides a so flat as those of the Kalmucks,but piece of fur, that covers the breast their countenances more open. and stomach, which is hung about They are altogether unacquainted the neck with a thong of leather with any kind of literature, and This, for the moft part, is neatly worship the fun and moon. They stitched and ornamented by their have many shamans among them, wives. Round their heads they who differ liccle from those I have a ruff, made of the tails of formerly described. I was told of squirrels, to preserve the tips of others, whose abilities in fortune. the ears from the cold. There is telling far exceeded these of the nothing on the crown, but the thamans at this plac, but they hair, smoothed, which hangs in a VOL.X



long plaited lock behind their of a family is seized with it, the backs.

reft immediately make the patient Their arms are a bow and seve- a little hut, and set by him some ral sorts of arrows, according, to water and victuals ; then, packthe different kinds of game they ing up every thing, they march intend to hunt. The arrows are

off to the windward, each carrying carried in a quiver, on their an earthen pot, with burning coals backs, and the bow always in in it, and making a dreadful la. their left hand. Besides these, mentation as they go along. They they have a short lance, and a little never revisit the sick, till they hatchet. Thus accoutred, they think the danger paft. If the perare not afraid to attack the fierceft fon dies, they place him on a creature in the woods, even the branch of a tree, to which he is ftrongest bear; for they are stout tied with strong wythes, to premen, and dexterous archers. In vent his falling: winter, which is the season for When they go a hunting into hunting wild beasts, they travel the woods, they carry with them on what are called snow shoes, no provisions ; but depend entirely without which it would be im. on what they are to catch. They possible to make their way through eat every animal that comes in the deep snow. These are made their way, even a bear, fox, or of a very thin piece of light wood, wolf. The squirrels are reckoned about five feei long, and five or delicate food;. but the ermins fix inches broad, inclining to a have such a strong rank taste and point before, and square behind. Imell, that nothing but ftarving In the middle is fixed a thong, can oblige them to eat their flesh. through which the feet are put. When a Tonguse kills an elk or On these shoes a person may walk deer, he never moves from the safely over the deepest fnow ; for place, till he has eat it up, unless a man's weight will not link ihem he happens to be near his family; above an inch ; these however can in which case, he carries part of it only be used on plains. They home. He is never at a loss for have a different kind for ascending fire, having always a tinder-box hills, with the skins of seals glued about him; if this should happen to to the boards, having the hair in. be wanting, he kindles a fire by clined backwards, which prevents rubbing two pieces of wood againit the Riding of the shoes; so that each other. They eat nothing raw they can afcend a hill very easily; but in great extremity. and, in descending, they side The fables are not caught in the downwards at a great rate. same manner as other animals.

The nation of the Tongury was The fur is so tender, that the leaft vēry numerous; but is, of late, mark of an arrow, or rufiling of much diminished by the small. the hair, spoils the sale of the kin. pox. It is remarkable, that they In hunting them they only use a knew nothing of this distemper, little dog, and a net. When a till the Russians arrived among hunter finds the track of a sable them. They are so much afraid upon the snow, he follows it, pero of this diseafe, that, if any one haps, for two or three days, till


the poor animal, quite tired, takes ,move from place to place, as the refuge in some tall tree; for it convenience of grazing requires. can climb like a cat; the hunter Their language has a great affinity then spreads his net around the to that of the Kalmucks; and they tree, and makes a fire; the fable, have priests among them who can unable to endure the smoke, im. read and write that language. As mediately descends, and is caught to their dress, and manner of life, I in the net. I have been told, by could observe little difference befome of these hunters, that, when tween them and the Kalmucks on hard pinched with hunger, on fuch the Volga; and therefore conclude long chaces, they take two thin they have both defcended from the boards, one of which they apply fame original. Their faces, how. to the pit of the stomach, and the ever, are not quite so fiat as those other io the back opposite to it; of the Kalmucks; their noses bethe extremities of these boards are ing somewhat higher, and their tied with cords, which are drawn countenances more open, tighter by degrees, and prevent The Buraty are stout active men, their feeling the cravings of hun. but hate all kind of labour. For, ger.

though they have the example of Although. I have observed, that the Russians ploughing and lowing the Tongusy, in general, worship their ground, and living plentifully the sun and moon, there are many on the produce of this rich and ferexceptions to this observation. I tile foil, they chuse still to live in have found intelligent people a. their tents, and iend their flocks, mong them, who believed there on which their subsistence entirely was a being superior to both sun depends. and moon; and who created them The chief exercise of the men and all the world.

is hunting and riding. They have I shall only remark farther, that a good breed of saddle.horses ; from all the accounts. I have heard and their horned cattle are very and read of the natives of Cana- large. Their sheep have broad da, there is no nation in the world, tails, and their mutton is excellent. which they so much resemble as the They have also great abundance of Tongugans. The distance be. goats. For all these animals they tween them is not so great as is make no provision of fodder ; but commonly imagined.

leave them to feed in the open fields.

When the snow falls to a great Of the Buraty.

depth, which feldom happens in

these parts, they drive them fouthHere we found another tribe of ward, to riting grounds, where the natives of Siberia, who differ, little snow lies. in some particulars, from all those Their arms are bows and arrows, I have formerly described. They lances and sabres ; all of which are are called by the Russians Bratiky, used on horse-back; for, like the but by themselves Buraty. They Kalmucks, they have no infantry: live in tents all the year; and, They are dexterous archers, and having large Aocks of theep, and kilful horsemen. many cows and horses, they re- These people were formerly sub

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