they formerly did under their own whose subjects go by the general princes,

name of Kalmucks. Few languages The present prince of Monga can carry a traveller over a greater lia is called Tush-du-Chan, and extent of country than that of the refides about fix day's journey, to Kalmucks. With the Arabic, inthe south-east, from Selinginsky. deed, a person may travel through The place is called Urga, and is many places of the east, from E. near to where the Kutuchtu, or gypt to the court of the Great high priest, inhabits. When the Mogul ; but, with the illyric, he Mongalls fubmitted themselves to can travel much further than with the emperor of China, it was a. either of the former; viz. from the greed, that the Tush-du-Chan gulf of Venice to the outmost boun. should still maintain the name and daries of Kamtzatíky ; for the Ruf. authority of a prince over his peo- fan is a dialect of the Illyric. ple; but undertake no war, nor The greateit part of Mongalia expedition, without consent of the is one continued waste; except emperor ; which has ftri&tly been the places along the Amoor, and observed ever since.

towards the Russian borders on the It is remarkable, that, in all the west. The soil also, to the south, vaft dominions of Mongalia, there from Selinginíky, is exceedingly is not so much as a single house to fine ; and capable, by proper cul. be seen. All the people, even the ture, of producing grain of seveprince and high priest, live con- ral foris. itantly in tents; and remove, with their cattle, from place to place, of the Kutuchru High Priest, or as conveniency requires, These people do not trouble

Lama, of the Mongall Tartars. themselves with ploughing, or dig. ging the ground in any fashion ; The same officer, who carried but are content with the produce the ambassador's letter to the prince of their flocks. Satisfied with of Mongalia at Urga, was ordered necessaries, without aiming at su. to present his compliments to the perfluities, they pursue the moft Kutuchtu, or high priest, who is a ancient and simple manner of life; near relation of the prince. He which, I must confefs, I think received the officer in a very friendvery pleasant in such a mild and ly manner, desired him to sit down dry climate.

. in his presence; an honour granted From the river Volga, to the to very few, except amballadors, wall of China, there are three and pilgrims from remote coungreat Tartar princes; the Ayuka. tries; and, at his departure, gave Chan, the Kontaysha, and the him a present of some inconsidera. Tush-du.Chan. These three migh. ble things ; particularly, a few ty nations have almost the same pieces of Chinese filks. features, religion, and language; I cannot leave this venerable and live in the same manner. It personage, without taking some will easily be perceived, by cafting notice of him. I shall therefore an eye on the map, what an extent relate a few things concerning of territory, these princes possess, him, among thousands more ridi



culous, which the people in this deceffor, and discovers the greatest country tell and believe..

fondness for them; but rejects, ... This extraordinary man affumes with disgust, whatever is not ge. to himself the character of omni- nuine. . Besides this trial, some Science, which is the interpretation questions are put to him, relative of the word Kutuchtu ; and the to wars, or remarkable events, in people are taught to believe that his former state; all which are an. he really knows all things, past, swered to the fatisfaction of the present, and future. As his intel- conclave. Whereupon he is una. ligence, by means of his lamas, is nimously declared to be the self. very extensive, he is easily able to fame Kutuchtu, is conducted with impose on the vulgar in this parti. great pomp and ceremony to Urga, cular. They also believe that he and lodged in the tent of the high is immortal; not that his body priest. lives always; but that his soul,. Till the new Kutuchtu arrives upon the decay of an old one, im- at a certain age, he is entirely un. mediately tranfmigrate's into some der the government of the lamas; young human body; which, by and few are permitted to fee him, certain marks, the lamas discover except at a great distance, and even to be animated by the soul of the therr it is oot easy to get access to Kutuchtu, and he is accordingly him. It may seem furprising, that, treated as high priest.

in so numerous an assembly of la. - When the spirit of the Kutuchtu mas, no intrigues should be carried has taken poffefsion of a new body, on, nor disputes arise, among the that is, in plain English, when he electors. All is conducted without is dead, the lamas are immediately noise or contention. It is however employed to discover in what part imagined, that the authority of the of the world this wonderful person prince greatly contributes to their is regenerated, or born again, as unanimity. they express it. They need, how. The Mongalls relate, that their ever, go to no great distance to find Kutuchtu has now lived fourteen him ; for the affair being previous generations, and renews his age ly concerted among the chief la- every moon; for, at the new moon, mas, they soon determine the he appears like a youth; when she choice of a successor ; who general. is full, like a full-grown man; but, ly happens to be a young boy, when near the change, he is an old that has been well instructed how man with grey hairs. to behave on that occasion. When What they call the Urga is the a successor is pretended to be found, court, or the place where the prince a company of lamas are sent to ex. and high priest reside; who are al. amine the matter, who carry along ways encamped at no great distance with them many toys, such as small : from one another. They have fe. filver bells, and things of that na. veral thousand tents about them, ture, which belonged to the former which are removed from time to Kutuchtu, intermixed with others time. The Urga' is much frethat did not. All these are laid quented by merchants from China, before the child, who picks out and Ruffia, and other places; where such things as belonged to his pre. all trade is carried on by barter without money of any kind. The view to find out the thief. The Chinese bring hither ingots of affair was conducted in this ungold, damask, and other filk and common manner; one of the la. cotton ftuffs, tea, and some porce. mas took a bench with four feet, lain ; which are generally of an which seems to have been of the inferior quality, and proper for conjuring kind ; after turning it such a market. The Russian com- several times, in different direcmodities are chiefly furs of all forts. tions, at last, it pointed directly to Rhubarb is the principal article the tent where the stolen goods lay which is exchanged for these goods, concealed. The lama now mount. great quantities whereof are pro. ed aftride on the bench, and soon duced in this country, without any carried it, or, as was commonly culture. The Mongalls gather and believed, it carried him to the ve. dry it in autumn, and bring it to ry tent ; where he ordered the dathis market, where it is bought up mark to be produced. The demand at an easy rate, both by the Russian was directly complied with ; for and Chinese merchants.


it is vain, in such cases, to offer The Kutuchtu and his lamas are any excuse. all clothed in yellow, and no lay. I hall now subjoin a few obserman is allowed to wear this colour, vations on the Delay-Lama, or except the prince. This mark of priest of the desart, who is reckon. diftinction makes them known and ed ftill superior to the Kutuchtu. respected every where. They also He lives about a monch's journey wear about their necks a string of to the south-east of this place, beads, which are used in faying among a people called the Ton. their prayers. The Mongalls be- guts, who use a different language lieve in, and worship, one Al. from the Kulmucks. I am inform. mighty Creator of all things. ed that the religion of the Ton.

They hold that the Kutuchtu is guts is the same with that of the God's vicegerent on earth; and Mongalls; that they hold the same that there will be a state of future opinions with respect to the transrewards and punishments.

migration of the Delay-Lama, as The following relation, which I the Mongalls do about the Ku. had from a Ruflian merchant, to tuchtu, and that he is elected in whom the thing happened, will the same manner. What appears Thew the methods taken by these most surprising is, that these two lamas, to maintain the dignity and mighty Lamas keep a good correra character of their mighty high pondence, and never encroach priest. This merchant had gone on one another's privileges. The to the Urga, with an intention to word delay fignifies either the sea, trade with the Chinese. While or a great plain, such as this priest he was at this place, some pieces inhabits. of damask were stolen out of his tent. He made a complaint to Of an Interview, and Hunting fome of the lamas with whom he Match with a Mongall Batya, or was acquainted, and the matter Hero. . . was soon brought before the Ku. tuchtu, who immediately ordered A chief, named Tayfha, of those proper steps to be taken with a Mongalls who are subjects of his


majesty, came to pay his respects hills, and through tall woods, hav, to the ambassador, who gave him ing almost no underwood to incoma friendly reception, and kept him mode the horses, or interrupt our to dinner. He was a merry old view, which made it very pleasant. man, near fourscore, but so vigo. After riding a few miles, The Tayrous, that he could mount a horse sna, being master of the chace, os. with as much agility as many dered his men to extend their lines. young men. He was accompanied The Taysha and we were in the with five sons, and many attend. centre ; and often saw the game ants, who treated him with equal pass us, pursued by the horsemen, respect as a king; and even his ac full speed, without the least fons would not sit down in his pre- noise, but the whistling of arrows. sence, till he desired thein. I con. The horses, being accustomed to fefs it gave me great pleasure to this kind of sport, follow the game see the decency with which they as a greyhound does a hare ; so that behaved. One of our company, a the riders lay the bridles on their pretty fat man, asked the Taysha necks, and attend to nothing but what he would do in order to be their bows and arrows. One may as lean as he was. The old man easily imagine the exquisite enterreplied in these few words, “Eat tainment, in seeing several of these lefs, and work more :" a faying horsemen in the pursuit of an elk worty of Hippocrates himself. In or itag through the valleys. When his youth he had been engaged in the avimal is driven from the many battles with the Chinese, woods, it flies, for safety, to the whom he held in great contempt. nearest rocks. Some of these creaAs he was a keen sportiman, the tures are nearly as large, and ambassador made an appointment strong, as the horses that hunt with him for a grand hunting them. The stags are of two kinds : match. After which he and his re- one called zuber, the same with the tinue returned to their tents. German crownhirsh, but somewhat

The Tasha-Batyr arrived, in larger. The zuber is large and consequence of his appointment beautiful, and carries irs head alwith the ambassador, and brought most upright as it runs ; which along with him three hundred prevents its horns being entangled men, well mounted for the chace. with branches of trees. There are This old gentleman had the appel- none of them in Russia, nor even in lation of Batyr; a title of great re. Siberia, except about the Baykall fpe&t among the Mongalls. It fig. lake, and eastward from it; the nifies a hero; and is conferred only places farther to the north being on those who have signalized them too cold for them. The elk is selves, by their courage and con- larger than the stag, and stronger duet, in the field of battle. Besides made ; having also long branchy thefé Mongalls, we carried with horns, but a little flat. us fifty of our Cossacks, and our Tired with fport, we left the tents, as we proposed to be abroad hills in the afternoon, and came some days,

down into a fine valley, where we Early on the 6th, we took our pitched our tents, near a pure way to the eastward, over high brook. The Tayfha then ordered


all the dead game to be brought finds himself to the leeward of before him, and ranged in proper them, the only method, by which order. We found, that, this day, he can save himself from their fury, we had killed no less than five is to kindle immediately the grass large elks, four stags, a dozen roe. where he stands, and follow his bucks, several wolves and foxes, own fire. For this purpose, every befides fawns and hares.

person is provided with Hints, steel, The Taysha caused the game to and tinder. The reason why the be divided among the huntsmen Mongalls set fire to the grass is to who began immediately to dress it, procure early pasture for their cat. some of them by boiling, others by tle. The ashes, left upon the broiling, and eat it without either ground, sink into the earth at the bread, or falt. The tails of the melting of the snow, and prave an stags, which, by these people, are excellent manure'; so that the grass, reckoned very delicate, fell to the in the spring, riles on the lands, Taysha's share. He cut them into which have been prepared in this Nices, and eat them raw. I eat a manner, as thick as a field of wheat. bit of one of them, and thought it Caravans, travellers with merchan. very palatable. The taste resem. dire, but especially armies, never bied noching so much as that of encamp upon this rank grass. And fresh caviare. After we had feast. there are several instances of confi. ed on variety of excellent venison, derable bodies of men being put for we had no other provisions, we in confusion, and even defeated, went to rest, well satisfied with the by the enemy's setting fire to the diversion of the day.

grass. Our author gives the following ac

count of the custom amongst the Character of the Duke of ShrewsMongall Tartars, of Jetting the bury : From a book entitled, grass on fire, in the vast plains of Thoughts, Essays, and Maxims, their country,

chiefly Religious and Political. By

Charles Howard, Esg. of Grey. The grass is rank and thick, stock, in Cumberland, and, as the season is very dry, would, with little labour, make NHarles Talbot, duke of Shrewf. excellent hay. The grass is often U bury, was a great man, first fet on fire, by the Mongalls, in the earl in England, of a most ancient spring, during high winds. Åt family, and either a lineal or a such times it burns most furiously, collateral descendant from the rerunning like wild-fire, and spread. nowned Talbot, who made fo ing its fames to the distance of conspicuous a figure in France, in perhaps ten or twenty miles, till the wars between England and its progress is interrupted by some France in the reigns of Henry V. river or barren hill. The impe- and VI. He was not brought up tuofity of these fames, their smoke to the military art, but had great and crackling noise, cannot easily talents and abilities as a minister be conceived by those who have and statesman, and the real and not seen them. When any person true politeness of a nobleman. He


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