would say.

“ tender conscience;” and lord' bites, though they had fewer Ro Rivers made what terms he could man Catholics among them than with his antagonist, and retired in either of the two other kinginto Flanders, and lived many doms, England or Ireland; and, years afterwards, much respected, perhaps, for that reason more canon of Liege, where he died, openly determined and daringly about thirty years since. Such professed being acting friends to was the uprightness, and force of ihe Stuart family. friendship, in the duke of Shrewf- In direct opposition to him, or bury in supporting what appeared that part of the army he comto himself just and honest, without manded, at the head of all his being guided by those little nare Campbells was placed Campbell row party-notions of fearing con. earl of Breadalbin, of the fame sequences, or what the world family and kindred, by some fatal

error that ever misguided and mirled that unhappy family of the

Stuarts, and all its adherents. Character of John Duke of Argyle. What was the consequence ? Both From the fame.

fets of Campbells, from family

affection, refused to strike a stroke, THIS "HIS nobleman was a Scotch- and retired out of the field of bat

man, chief and head of the tle. He never was first minifter, 'ancient and nomerous family of but was a very able statesman and the name of Campbell in Scot- politician, and was most feadily land. He was duke and peer of fixed in those principles that he Scotland, and the same in England, thought right, and not to be by the title of Greenwich, which shaken or changed. His delicacy he acquired himself before the and honour were so great, that it union of the two kingdoms; and hurt him to be even suspected; perhaps


may allude to this by witness that application said to be the motto he then took, Vix illa made io him by one of the adhenostra voco que non fecimus ipf. rents of the Stuart family, in He was brought up to the pro- 1743 or 1744, in order to gain session of arms, and behaved well, his intereft, which was confiderand in a soldier-like and gallant able both in England and Scotmanner; witness his conduct un- land. He immediately sent the der the duke of Marlborough, and letter to the secretary of state, and his behaviour at Sherif-Moor, it vexed him much even to have where he commanded in chief; an application made him, lest any and was the principal means and person should think him capable cause of the total extinction, at of acting a double part. He was that time, of the rebellion in equally firm and refolute in his Scotland, without much blood. oppofition to the measures and shed. He had then a very diffi. minifters, when he thought them cult part to act as a Scotchman; wrong. for at that period three parts out He did not oppose Sir Robert of four of that kingdom were Walpole out of pique, party, or naturally and affectionately Jaco "faction, but; because he thought


fome of his measures were erro- too hafty ; for why should a man neous, and that he made cor- punish himself when he acts upon ruption too much the guide and principle, and deprive his country standard of his actions. Indeed, of bis service, because he thinks this, and his playing the fool with another deth wrong? If he was Jacobitism, and his keeping it as mistaken, it must be as little as a stalking-horse to himself in its any man, because he had a good power, and not attacking its headhead and heart. In the house of quarters, as it has been effectually lords he spoke well, with a firm, done fince, seems the most blame.. manly, and noble eloquence, and worthy part of this minister's cha- seems to deserve the character racter, who otherwise was a very given of him by Pope : able one, a friend to liberty, and understood the constitution of his Argyle the state's whole thunder country well. You never can so born to wield, effectually take any principle from And shake alike the senate and the man by power, force, or any me. field. thod, as you do when you take it from their minds; and those peo. ple you divest of this opinion you Character of the Duke of Berwick. make more easy, chearful in their

From tbe jame. mind, and more capable of serving you.

"HE duke of Berwick was na

THE When he thought measures

tural son of James II. by Mrs. wrong or corrupt, he cared not Arabella Churchill, filter to the

was the author, however great duke of Marlborough, He great or powerful he might be ; followed the fate of his father, and witness his boldly attacking the came into France after the revogreat duke of Marlborough in the lution with James II. who retired house of lords, about his forage thither, to put himself under the and army-contracts in Flanders, protection of his friend and ally in the very zenith of his power Lewis XIV. His ally he was, beand popularity; though, in all cause he refused to sign the treaty other respects, he was the most of Augsburgh, in a general com. able renowned general of his bination, to lower the ambition time. He deserved, and indeed and greatness of the French mo. he was nobly and amply rewarded narch, agreed to by most of the by his country:

The duke of European powers, and, it is said, Argyle poffefTed great public even by the Pope himself. This places and honourable employ. refusal, it is thought, haftened the ments, which did not influence revolution ; for at that time the him in his way of acting, or voting prince of Orange's views to the in parliament, as he shewed upon crown of Great Britain, if he had feveral occafions, by religning any, must have been very diftant; them when he thought any thing and it is thought that king Wil. was required of him to comply liam was better pleased with his with that he did not think right. accession to the crown of Great In this be is censured by fome, as

Britain, from the fituation and power it gave him to attack the The duke of Berwick was 're. overgrown power of France, than commended to the court of France from any real satisfaction as being by his fuperior merit; he attained king of Great Britain: and this all the military honours and dig. appears more probable, from the nities his most Chriftian Majesty answer he gave to the conventions could confer on him; he was of the states, when they offered to marshal of France, knight of the make him king conjointly with his Holy Ghoft, duke and peer of wife, but only for his life : "I France, grandee of Spain, com. respect the princess, but will not mander in chief of the French hold my crown on her apron. armies; in all which stations his ftrings. Such was the native behaviour was fuch, that few love that the Nassau prince of equalled, perhaps none surpassed Orange bore his country, perhaps him. He lived in an age when founded upon a good deal of re. the renowned prince of Orange, fentment, naturally caused by the and many other of the greatest attack upon Holland by Lewis men, commanded againit him. XIV. in Charles II's reign, when His courage was of the cool, steady that republic, by the rapid victo. kind; always pofseffing himself


, ries of the French monarch, was taking all advantages, not foolishvery near deftruction. He was ly, ralhly, or wantonly throwing not successful, in general, in his away the lives of his foldiers. wars with France, but laid the He kept up on all occafions the foundation for the more successful moft ftriet difcipline, and did not one of his fucceffor queen Anne. fpare punishment among his fol

James II. was received in France, diers 'for marauding and other and supported in a king-like man- crimes, when properly deserved; ner during all his life at the castle for which some rah, ülly, in. of St. Germain. Lewis XIV. confiderate people have found Thewed upon all occasions the ut. fault, and blamed him. They most friendship for him. Indeed, were hard put to it to find a the two monarchs were in some fault in this great man; for surely measure directed by the same prin- an army without ftrict discipline, ciples in religion, which ever unite good order, and due subordinafriendihip; and both were too tion, will never do their duty, as much, at tha: time, governed by all histories and times evince ; the fame set of priests. Lewis and they would be little better XIV's great, and otherwise moft (considering the sort of men arnoble character, was much ble. mies must be compofed of) than milhed by being in such subjection a powerful set of banditri and to them. James II. was dethroned thieves. This, then, in the wriby them, from his own weakness - ter's opinion, is far from blamein too precipitately listening and able, but a moft praife worthy following their councils, in mis- part of his character. If he were taking oblinacy and wrong-head. itriet and exact in his command, edness for firmness and resolution; and the prevention of wrongs by for zeal without knowledge ever others, he was moft juft in him. counteracts itself.

felf; not raifing unneceffary con



tributions, and promoting pillage, it is now past a doubt that queen in order to enrich himself, as many Anne had a very serious intention generals have formerly done before of having her brother upon the his time. He has been reflected throne of England after her death'; upon by the very zealous and vio- and several circumstances, as well lent adherents of the Stuart family, as the time * of that duke's land. for not being fufficiently attached ing in England, make many peoto that party, which was his own ple believe he was gained over to family. But by a cool examina. the Stuart party. If the duke of tion of his actions, which are stub. Berwick was, directly or indirectborn things, and the best index ly, the means of gaining his uncle of the mind of a sensible man, it over to that interest, he more efwill appear, that his behaviour in fectually served it than that rah this particular was, as in moft mock army of unhappy gentlemen, parts of his life, feusible and juft. who were taken prisoners at Preston When he accepted of employ. in 1715, had it in their power to ments, received honours, dignities, do. and became a naturalized French- In a word, the duke of Berwick man, he thought it his duty, as was, without being a bigot, a mo. an honest man, to become a French- ral and religious man, and shewed, man, and a real subject to the by his life and actions, that mo. monarch who gave him bread; rality and religion are very comand to be, or not to be, in the patible and consistent with the life interest of the Stuart family, ac- of a 'statesman and a great general ; cording to the will and commands and if they were oftener united in of the sovereign whom he served, those two professions, it would be and in the interest of France ac- much happier for the rest of mana cording to time and circumstances; kind. for there is no serving two masters He was killed by a cannon-ball, well. But when ordered by his in doing his duty at the fiege of king to be in that family's intereft, Philipíburgh, in 1738. So died he acted with the greateft fince. the marshal of Berwick, ripe in rity, and took the moft effe&tual years, full of dignities, honours, and sensible methods to serve that and glory.

glory. Sic tranfit gloria unhappy house, as the following mundi. anecdote, if true, and it has great N. B. Lewis XIV. before his appearance and probability on its undertakings against Holland, fent fide, proves.

word, underhand, to the prince The duke of Marlborough, after, of Orange, offering to make him the signing of the creaty of Utrecht, absolute fovereign of the Nether. was censured by the British par- lands, if he would be his ally ; liament for some of the army con. when he answered, " he should be tracts in relation to bread and fo- true to his country." rage; upon which he retired into Hect, Sir, faid the emissary, how France ; and it was then credi. you will withstand a prince who bly asserted, the duke of Marl. makes you such fair offers, if he' borough was brought over to the undertakes to invade Holland ? interest of the Stuart family; for “ If that be the case, resumed the *The very day or day after the death of queen Anne.



" But re

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prince, I believe Europe will come nesty, and, I may venture to say, to its fuccour ; but should we be religion, which ever ought to be : abandoned, and left to ourselves, associated together ; because it is if vanquished, I then fall, and thall profefling one thing, and being, or perilh with my country.

pretending to be, of another opi. nion. It is weak, because it is de

structive of the schemes and mea. Character of the Duke of Ormond. sures intended to be accomplished From the fame.

and brought about : it may be .

said to divide oneself againf one. THI 'HIS duke was blessed with self, and of course one's own

a most noble fortune, and ftrength and force is weakened, it fell into very good hands; for by endeavouring to demolish with no person was of a more generous one hand what one builds with the hospitable disposition : he was the other. most popular man of his time, When he was lord lieutenant of head of the ancient, opulent, and Ireland, he made, or occasioned numerous family of the Butlers, to be made, many of the penal both an English and an Irish duke, laws that are most hurtful to the commander in chief of the English Irish Roman Catholics. This was army in Flanders, when the great not honeft, or grateful, because duke of Marlborough, by the in- it was hurting those who were trigues of the party that then pre- his best friends. It was weak, and vailed in England, was recalled not politic, being directly opposite home. He was Chancellor of the to that maxim, if you have a mind University of Oxford, and I be effectually to serve yourself, fing Jieve of Dublin, knight of the power into the hands of your garter, and had all the honours friends : and he, by his behaviour, conferred on him that his country weakened and disenabled those could bestow ; and his princely people from allifting him so much generous disposition became them as they might have done, , and by well, and in fome measure fup- whom he expected to be support. ported his understanding, which ed. when analyzed from real facts, was He did not fuffer so much by his but weak, and not truly sincere attainder as many others that acted and honest, but, like great part with more determined sincerity and of mankind, not very moral. He resolution ; because his brother, received honours, great places of the carl of Arran, a very good trust and profit, from King Wil. surt of man, enjoyed and pofleted liam, queen Anne, and of course great part of his very opolent for. was obliged to take the test oath tune, which enabled him to per. of allegiance and : abjuration to form what was dictated by brother. those respective princes : yet at ly affection and honesty, in paying the same iime he encouraged Jaco- him ann

nnually a sufficient sum to bitism, and, among his friends, live in a most princely manner at . profefied himself the greatest friend - Avignon, where he died; from and-adherent to the house of Stuart. whence he was brought, and buried This is repugnant to fincerity; ho. in Westminster-Abbey.


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