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When, indeed, or how, these teeth in the spring. I have seen of came so far to the northward, them weighing above one hundred where no elephants can, at present, pounds English. '(I brought a subsift during the winter season, is large tooth, or mammon's horn, what I am unable to determine, with me to England, and presented They are commonly found in the it to my worthy friend Sir Hans banks of rivers which have been Sloane, who gave it a place in his washed by floods. The command celebrated Museum ; and was of ant of this place had his entry or- opinion, also, that it was the tooth namenied with several very large of an elephant. This tooth was ones, and made me a present of found in the river Oby, at a place one of them.

called Surgute.) I have been told by Tartars in the Baraba, that they have seen this creature called mammon, at Extract from the Theatro Critico the dawn of day, near lakes and Universal. Para Desenganno De rivers ; but, that on discovering

· Errores Communes, the volumin. them, the mammon immediately ous work of the famous Spanish tumbles into the water, and never Benediậine Monk, Faiber Feyappears in the day-time; they say

joo. it is about the size of a large ele

ATHER Feyjoo begins with head and hords , with which he F47

saying, that the fact treated makes his way in marshy places, of in this chapter is so extraordi. and under ground, where he con- nary, and so contrary to the reguceals himself till night. I only lar course of things, that he would mention these things as the reports not have given it a place in this of a superftitious and ignorant work, if he had not found that the people,

truth of it was attested by almost I have observed, in moft of the all the inhabitants of a whole pro. towns we passed, between Tobol. vince, many of whom, who were sky and Yenefiesky, many of these eye witnesses, and persons of great mammon's horns, so called by the credit, are still living. natives; some of them very entire The following are the principal and fresh, like the best ivory, in circumstances of the fact. Fran. every circumstance, excepting only cisco, the son of Francisco de la the colour, which was of a yel. Vega, and of Maria del Casar, lowish hue ; others of them moul. his wife, was born at a village dered away at the ends, and, when called Lierganes, two leagues to sawn afunder, prettily clouded. the south west of the city of SanThe people make snuff-boxes, tandergin, in the archbishopric of combs, and divers sorts of turnery Burgos. At the age of fifteen he ware of them,

was sent to learn the trade of a They are found in the banks of carpenter at Bilboa, in which ita. all the great rivers in Siberia, rion he remained two years, tillon westward of lencouby, when the the eve of St. John's day, in 1674, floods have washed down the having, in company with others, banks, by the melting of the snow, gone to bathe himself in the river,

his companion loft fight of him, mingo gave this information to and, after waiting for him a long the convent of Cadiz, and one of while, they supposed him to be the fathers, whose name was John drowned, and informed his master Rofcende, and who a little before of it, who acquainted the young came from Jerusalem, had a great man's mother, who mourned for desire to enquire into this extraor. him as dead. In the year 1679, dinary affair. Accordingly he set some fishermen in the bay of Cadiz out from Cadiz in the same year saw something swimming on the 1679, with the man who had been water and diving at pleasure, that caught in the net, with intention resembled a man. They endea- of going to Lierganes. When the voured to catch it, but could not father got within a quarter of a the first day. The next day they league of the village, he defired faw it again, and, by means of his companion to go before to shew some pieces of bread which they him the way; which he did very threw into the sea, and which it exactly, going directly to his molaid hold of and eat, they enclosed ther's' house. The moment the it in their nets, and drew it to the saw him the knew him, and em. Thore. Upon examination, the braced him-crying out, This is fishermen found their prize was a my son Francisco whom I loft at perfect man, as to appearance, and Bilboa! Two of his brothers also they carried him to the convent (Thomas, a priest, and John, who of Franciscans in Cadiz, where the was ftill alive when Feyjoo wrote) good fathers, supposing him to be embraced him; but he expressed poffefsed by some evil spirit, as he no emotion, nor did he utter a would return no answer to any of word. Father Roscende left him their questions, exorcised him, but with his mother, and he remained they could not get him to pro- with her nine years in this state nounce any one wor', except Liof idiotism, (having been rather erganes, the meaning of which remarkable for his capacity before word they could not guess, till he disappeared at Bilboa,) and the hearing from a native of Asturia only words he ever spoke were, tathat in his country there was a vil. baco, pan, vino (tobacco, bread, lage of that name, and that Don wine). Sometimes he eat moft voDomingo de la Cantolla, secretary raciously, on other days he touchof the inquisition at Madrid, was ed no food. He used frequently born there, Don Domingo was to be employed in carrying letters writto, informing him of this round the neighbourhood, which affair, and degring him to write to he did very punctually. Once it Lierganes, to know whether a happened,' that Don Pedro del young man, whom they described Guero sent him to Saint Andero as to his age and marks, had been with a letter for Don John de Oli. missing from that place; and he varez; and because the ferry-boat had an answer, that a son of Fran. was not ready, he threw himself cisco de la Vega had disappeared into the river, and swam cross it in the river of Bilboa five years about a league broad, many seeing before, but that his mother looked him land at Saint Andero.

He apon him as drowned. Don Do. delivered his letter as directed ;

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but Don John, who asked him how Of Jpirits prepared by the force of fore, the letter came to be wet, could get with some observations for guardnothing from him. He carried the ing again and remedying the noranswer to Lierganes, with his usual

ious, vapours of charcoal, &c. From punctuality: He lived in this man- Boerhaave's academical lectures on ner about nine years, and then dis. the Diseases of the Nerzes, lately appeared, no body having ever published, in Latin, by his pupil found out what became of him. Van Lems, physician of Leyden.

Father Feyjoo gives us two letters to the above effect; one from CHE bodies, which in the the marquis of Valbuina, of St.

open air are so agitated by Andero, to Don Joseph de la fire, as to pass into crackling Torre, minister of the royal coun. Alames, smoke, foot, and ashes, emit cil of Oviedo, and another from corpuscules from the solid mass, Don Gasper Melchor de la Riba which may properly be denomiAuguera, to Don Diego de la nated spirits. Three things here Gandara' Valade. Don Gaspar occur; smoke, sometimes coloured says, that he had seen Francisco de in a wonderful manner, as may be la Vega frequently. Feyjoo says, seen in fulphureous bodies ; foot, that he had a third account, agree. and the remaining fame. Hence ing with the other two, from Don arises a stench, separable from the Pedro Dionysio de Rubel Cava, a smoke, consisting of the volatile gentleman of consequence of So- falt of the plant wafted into the air, lares, a place close to Lierganes. and spirits passing forth by the And in the supplement to this dil. action of the fire, and the smoke course, which we find in his ninth is collected into a black and focvolume, from p. 280 to p. 283, culent matter, which is called ke inserts a letter which he had re- foot. Those fumes, whilst so agiceived (after he had published the tated, produce wonderful effects above account) from the arch- in our bodies; for they cause erohishop of Sarragoffa, Dan Thomas fions in the eyes, make the lungs de Aguero, who affures him, that hoarse, and the voice harsh ; and when he was a young man, he hypochondriac and hysteric perhad frequently seen this man-fish fons, or those labouring under (hombre pez is the archbishop's ex- convulsive aftlimas, are almoft prefion) at his uncle Don Garcia ftrangled by the small quantity of de Aguero's house near Lierganes. smoke that may be in a room. The But besides this, Feyjoo also gives smell only of a vegetable thing us, in the supplement, a letter from excites convulfion in epileptic peoDon Joseph Dias Guitrar., an in- ple; and abortions, palpitations habitant of Cadiz, dated Dec. 22, of the heart, and almost all other 1738, in which he fays, that Don affections have had their origin Estavan Fanales, intendant of the from the fumes of a candle or lamp. marine, had told him, he had seen extinguished in a close place. the man-fish frequently, and that when certain bodies are thrown a Franciscan friar was still alive, upon the fire that smoke may prowho assured him that he had been ceed from them, it may then frequently in his cell.

become poifonous: this is evi.


dent from throwing fome twigs or it is gradually brought to its most leaves of the toxicodendron on the intense degree, water, spirit, and burning fire ; for all the persons oil, are succeslively produced: if that may be about the fire at the all these have passed out, and the fame time will grow pale as if residuum is still urged. by a vehethey were dead, and if the placement fire, it will eternally breathe be close, they may fall into almost forth something, never shewing a all sorts of diseases; yet these deficiency. Hence it is called, leaves, while they remain on'the by Van Helmont, the eternal coal, tree, though exposed to the fun, because that fimple oil, which ad. are quite harmless. Mercurialis heres to the earth, is never separelates, that in his time a military rated in a close vefsel ; if poundofficer had occasioned the death of ed fine, it is an insipid inert duft; all present, by throwing a certain if you expose this coal to the open body on the fire, which body car, air, it will light by the applica. ried about one did no harm, but tion of fire; the surface only, cononly became active by fire. Hence tiguous to the air, becomes white; we learn, and this is sufficient for if the coal is broken, it glistens us, that, by the strong force of every where within'; if you go fire in the open air, particles may on burning it, it at length begins be extricated, which have a power to be buried under alhes. It is so to affect the nerves, as to pro- impossible to consume this coal *duce all kinds of diseases, and otherwise than in the external sura death itself. In other respects we face, contiguous to the air, which see that the moft falubrious vapours being consumed, the subsequent proceed from other plants, as from furface is also confumed, and, afguaiacum-wood, and that of the ter such a consumption of surfaces juniper-tree. The dough of bread from fixty pounds of wood, one yields no fenfible smell, but, baked only of alhes remains; nor can all in an oven, if a quantity of it is those pounds, that are confumed, cut fresh in a close place, it may be gathered by any art; for the cause death. Coffee-berries, wbili coal, in close vessels, cannot postiroafting in a place not blown bly be consumed by any degree of through by the air, brought upon fire. a man, who had too greedily fnuff

If one should write on paper, ed up their smell, a cardialgia and which is iropregnated with a soluvomiting.

tion of orpiment, and dry this pa. But there are likewise fpirits per, no colour appears; but, if from the fuffocation of fire. A the paper is held over lighted coals, live fame, urging a vegetable with the letters will immediately bem the greatest force, and then fuffo- come black, and hence that which cated and extinguished, so changes dies up is thus manifested. If you this body as to acquire a quality place à burning coal between the which may bring our body to death fun and your eye, corpufcles will itself. If a piece of any kind of be feen carried upwards by a tre, wood, or of the common turf, mulous motion; but it is doubted called also peat, is put into a whether these are produced from chymical vetiel, and the fire under the coal or fun. Van Helmont


called this way of changing this actions of a man were in a mo. body a permutation into gas, and ment abolished by nothing more thinks that these corpuscles dwin- than these fumes. Boerhaave re. dle 'in this manner into the ex. lares of himself, that being in a tremeft tenuity, and are transform- parlour, drinking tea with some ed into a kind of water, which can ladies, where there was a chafingrise to the extremity of the atmo. dish of kindled charcoal for keepsphere. If such a coal be taken, ing the kettle boiling, and no and fire applied to it in a spacious chimney in the place, he faw all place that is shut up, all the ani. the ladies grow pale, and was fo mals in that place will die; not affected himself by the fumes of from heat, for the contrary is e- the charcoal, that, had not the vinced by experience ; and from doors been opened, he felt himself the burning of wood in a chamber tottering, and ready to tumble that is blown through by the wind, down. He likewise relates the disease or death never happens. fame effects on some young ladies Who would believe it, that the who lived in Leyden, and were mere force of fire can so change a fitting in a parlour, the windows very harmless body, if it acts upon of which gave into the street: the it in the open air, when the most aunt of the mistress of the house, intense degree of fire can feparate looking in at the window, annothing of the like, from the fame nounced her coming by tapping .body, in a close vessel? It is there. on the glass with her fingers ; lec fore very improper to deride Van saw through the window all the Helmont upon account of the ladies seated and looking at her, - word gas, for he explains it fuf. but not one of them making the ficiently, and he thought a new leaft motion; the repeated her and fingular name should be given taps, and so as to be louder, but to this change, the like of which none of them made her an answer; we have no knowledge of. thinking they were pafling fome

Whilft Van Helmont, then an joke on her, she knocks in a pas. old man, was writing in a cold fion at the door, calling out

, winter's day, he saw his ink freeze, that the weather was too cold to and he ordered a chafing dish to be be kept so long in the street : en. brought him, with coals that did tering the parlour, she perceived not smoke. He felt no harm from the fumes of charcoal, and saw all it; but, his daughter coming in the ladies pale and fenseless; im. shortly after, and saying that the mediately she ordered the windows perceived a strong stench from the to be opened, and all their faces to coals, the father, making a mo- be sprinkled with water; by this tion for quitting the place, falls means all of them foon recovered, back, hurts the hinder part of his but one of them vomited, another head, and is carried away for dead. had a head-ach, yet none of them It may appear from this fingular suffered any thing more. example, that in a spacious place, An English nobleman, travelling the doors open, the weather cold, by boat in the night from Utrecht without the leaft observation of 10 Leyden, took with him into contracting any illness, all the his cabin a stove, and ordered the



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