the same motions, sensations, and in a determinate time. And ali. ideas? This is obscure, yet we. ments are substances, which are so may also grant it. But how can changed by a living body, as to be the infant's bones. be broke, and assimilated to it. ' Now the degrees not the mother's? He says, this of poisons are various, according happens by percuffion and horror; to their peculiar violence, quan: but this is an effect, and not a tity, and the part they act upon. cause ; and it does not appear why Half a grain of the glass of antithe mother's bones should not be mony is a ftrong emetic, but given broke, which are harder and there- to the amount of a drachm is a fore more brittle.

very potent poison. Moft poisons Paracelsus bas deduced this from act only on the ftomach. 'If the other causes : he says; that there crocus of metals, well prepared, is is in man an imagination, which applied to the eyes as a collyrium, really effects and brings to pass the it takes away {pecks in the pellucid things that did not before exist; membranes of the eye, and occa. for a man, by imagination willing fions no pain; if mixed up with to move his body; moves it in fact; platters, and applied to the naked but, by his imagination and the nerves in a wound; it is a good de. commerce of invisible powers, he tergent; if tafted, it has no taste ; may also move another body; and but, if one or two grains are re. this he calls MAGICAL IMAGINA

ceived into the stomach, a prodi. tion, which, by the help of de. gious vomiting will ensue, and, mons, or invisible spirits, can com- from a greater quantity, death. municate the force of imagination An ounce of it given to borses to other bodies, and operate at a affords, a general remedy for their diftance. Van Helmont is of the violent diseases, and yet they are fame opinion; but, for my part, but little purged by it. Therefore I despair to illustrate this matter, the stomach and its nerves are so and do think it inexplicable, or conftituted, by the Author of nathat the cause of the phænomenon ture, which, indeed, seems ineris unknown to us.

plicable from the nature of the nerves, that the substance, which

is not poisonous elsewhere, is so in Of the common sensory, affeited by the stomach. poifons. From the same.

The berries of night-shade do

no harm in the eye; their taste is THO "HOSE substances are called sweet; their smeli Aat; if one of

poisons in medicine, which, them should be received into the on being applied to a human living stomach, a perturbation suddenly body, fo change all its actions, as arises in every action; if you give not to be conquered by the force the gilla of Theophraftus, and the of life, whepçe that vital force is berry is vomited up, the brain adeftroyed : but medicaments are gain recovers it's former state. This substances, which fo change the too cannot be explained from the actions, as to subdue the disease, affections of the nerves in general, and life triumphs over diseases; but only from a physical fitness therefore medicaments cease to act between this juice and the nertes


of the stomach. If opium spread perfons, from the erofion of their in a plafter is applied to the exter. lungs, cough almost every time nal skin, it causes, in the part it is they draw their breath, and their applied to, an exceeding great heat, disorder is made worse by coughing, and painful ; it excites a blister, because the ulcerated place is pererofion, and incipient gangrene; petoally irritated; if this coughit has a nauseous and virulent ing continues during the night, a smell; if applied to the naked little phlegm is evacuated; but, nerves, it takes away all fenfation; let pne grain of opium be given, if received into the stomach, it firit they will have no cough, and will causes a sensation of mirth, and seep composed; but in the mornthen a fnoring and apoplexy; its ing they expectorate a drachm or efficacy lasts about eight hours, two of purulent matter. If taken unless' it causes death by being in a great quantity, it is poison, given in too great a dose; when as we have seen in a physician tired its-force is quite enervated, the of life; and in another, who re. next day vomiting ensues, in which penting of his rah action, by tak. the opium pill is often again ing vinegar enervated its force, and brought up, so that this remedy afterwards felt no bad consequenagainst vomiting now excites it. ces from it. It suspends not only The Starkeyan pills consist of o- the senses, but also motions, nay, pium, hellebore, liquorice, and a almost all excretions, and hence soap made of alkali and cold-drawn those who use it, have no evacuaoil. The author writes of them, tion of urine for six or eight hours; that they cause sweating, mitigate even when its force is vanished, the fevereft pains, bring forth the they still complain of a want of morbific matter, and to make an this evacuation. If also you give excellent purge ; but those effects a grain of opium to a man labourare proper to opium. When the ing under a diarrhæa, it will be brain is affected, a nausea and vo. entirely diopt. miting often ensue; so that every There is therefore something thing affecting the brain, affects very wonderful in those nerves, also the stomach, and whatever af. that, from being touched by those fects the stomach; affects likewise bodies, such a change should hapthe brain.

pen in all the functions, which We are in a great measure ob- ceases, as soon as such body is dis. liged to think, that opium is a poi. engaged from the stomach. son; it bears, as it were, the sway A lawyer had been taken ill of in the stomach, checking by a small the cholic; he was advised the use dose the diseases that arise from of anise-seed; but, by miftake, the the ftomach, and at the same time apothecary had given him the feeds composing the brain ; but if given of henbane. The pain was allayagainst the disease proper to the ed, but he became very delirious. brain, which is the phrenitis, the All his functions were disordered; disorder most commonly will be he fat by the fire, talked much, increased. It takes away not only but did not speak one coherent sen. pain, but also correas the humours tence. A physician, being sent for, of the body. We fee consumptive gave him a vomit of vitriol; the Vol. X.



feed was thrown up, and he was some thorn-apple into the public immediately delivered.

highway, some boys, seeing it, exThere is an umbelliferous plant, amine the heads, and eat the seed: called fium, with the eruca leaf, They are seized with all the above. or water-hemlock by Gesner, mentioned sympoms, and those which has a succulent bulb, white, that did not vomit, died. not unlike a turnip; and, being The belladona, or night-shade wounded, diftils a plenty of milk, with black berries, entices every that grows yellow in the air; its passer-by; there is nothing un. smell is not virulent, and its plea grateful in its berries; their juice sant taste allures 'unwary children. has a purple colour, sweet taste, If but a small particle of it adheres and no ferid smell; yet swallowed to the stomach, it makes an entire down they kill one much the same change in all the animal functions, way. A vomit is a present reme. causing vertigoes, horrible ima- dy; but their poison may be cor. ginations, terrors, convulsions, the rected, and the patient át length åbolition of all the external and delivered, by taking a good quan. internal senses, and, in three or tity of vinegar. four hours time, inevitable death. Stalpartius Vander Weil relates

This body then, though appa- the case of two citizens of the rently so innocent, will very sud. Hague, who, having tafted the root deply bring on death. If dif. of the ænanthes that is like hem. charged by a spontaneous vomit, lock, with virose juice, were taken no harm will ensue ; if an emetic ill not long after with a great hear is given in the midst of the mad of the throat and stomach, which fit, all the symptoms will cease was followed by a perturbation of when the stomach is eased. Its the mind, vertigo, heart-burn, nav. chief power is therefore exercised sea, Aux of the belly, running of on the nerves of the stomach, for, blood from the 'nose, and such vio. if it were mixed with the blood, a lent convulsions, that one of them vomit would not have been imme. died in two, and the other in three diately of service. Therefore Van hours, Helmont was, not in the wrong, Van Helmont tasted the root of when he placed the seat of life in the napellus or monkshood on the the stomach, and judged that it tip only of his tongue, and in a extended its influence and power moment his faculty of understand. for health to distant and various ing and thinking was much bright. parts of the body ; for, the sto. er, which gave him great plealure: mach being freed, the head is At length, in about two hours af. freed; and nothing else remains ter, he was twice attacked by a for amendment.

flight vertigo, and he then found It has been observed, that thorn. his understanding as usual; and, apple is attended with the same though he sometimes afterwards symptoms with water- hemlock, tasted of the same, nothing of the but with this difference, that its like ever more happened to him. smell is intolerable. A gardener The smoking of tobacco, for the having thrown out of a garden first time, is attended with some


thing of the kind, which, however, Of the effe ft of rains, of marshes and does not afterwards happen. If bogs, Jubterraneous wood, and fub. one should chance to drink cold terraneous waters. From M. Bufwine so suddenly as not to warm fon's Theory of the Earth. in his ftomach, then the pylorus and and , the wine afterwards contract. RAINS, and the running

waters produced by them, ing warmth, the ftomach swells, detach continually, from the tops the part is choaked, as it were, and ridges of mountains, sand, and has a kind of apoplexy: If earth, gravel, &c. and carry them then, with a bit of spange moift. into the plains, whence streams and ened with oil or honey, and wrap- rivers bear away a part into lower ped about the end of a knitting- plains, and often to the sea. Plains needle, the fauces are tickled, the are therefore filled up successively, wine is vomited up, and the party and rise by little and little, and is freed from all dangerous fy mp- mountains diminish constantly and

become low, which diminution is When Otto Tachenius, accordo perceptible in several parts. Joing to the prescription of Johannes seph Blancanus relates facts in re. Agricola, had so often endeavour... gard to this, which were well ed to sublime arsenic, that it was at known in his time, and which length to remain fixed in the bot- .prove that the mountains were betom of the vessel; and when, after come fo low as to discover villages many sublimations, he had opened and castles from several parts, the vessel, he breathed an air plea- whence they could not be formerly sant and grateful to his palate ; seen. In the shire of Derby in but in leľs than half an hour he England, the steeple of the village felt his stomach aching and con- Craih was not visible in 1572, from tracted, with a convulsion of all his' a certain mountain, upon account limbs, dificult breathing, bloody of the height of another mountain urine, and a great heat; being af. interposed, which extends into terwards suddenly seized with cho. Hopton and Wirksworth; and 80 lic pains, he remained contracted or 100 years afterwards this steeple for a full half-hour: Being recruit- was seen, and even a part of the ed with milk and oil, he found him. church. Dr. Plot cites a like ex. self much better; yet a flow fever, ample of a mountain between Siblike an heçtic, remained on him bertoft and Ashby in the county of the whole winter, which he ex. Northampton. The waters car.. tinguished by decoctions of vulne- ry not only along with them the rary herbs, the eating of cabbage, lighteft parts of mountains, as the use of orange-juice, oil, and earih, sand, gravel, and smallftones,

and by these remedies he pes- but even roll away large rocks, fectly recovered. Here is an ex

Here is an ex- which confiderably diminishes their ample of all the functions of the height. In general, the higher common sensory huri, from the mountains are, and their inclina. olfactory nerves being only affect. tion mure steep, the more the rocks


seem to be cut off from chem. The highest mountains of Wales have Ha



rocks extremely strait, and very new beds, those of fand.stone, foft naked; the shivers of those rock's ftone, gravel, and fand, of which are seen lying in large heaps at the grains are washed and round. their bottom. It is frost and wa. ed ; and to it should be likewife ter that separate and bear them referred the beds of stone that are down: so that it is not only the formed by a kind of sediment and mountains of sand and earth which incrustation, as we cannot deduce rains lower, but also, as it appears, their origin from the motion and they attack the hardest rock's, and sediments of the waters of the sea. drag along their fragments into the In those fandy, soft, and imper. vallies: And, these rocks and large fect ftones, are found an infinity ftones, dispersed here and there, are of vegetables, leaves of trees, land much more common in countries or river shells, small bones of land where the mountains are of sand animals, but never sells, nor o. and free tone, than in those where ther marine productions; which they are of marble and cláy, be. proves evidently, as well as their cause the sand which serves as base little solidity, that those beds are to the rock, is a less folid founda- formed on the surface of the dry tion than clay.

land, and that they are much new. To give an idea of the quantity er than marble and other stone of earth which the rains feparate which contain sells, anciently from the mountains, and bear down formed in the sea. Sand-stone, into the vallies, we may cite a fact and all those new ftones, appear to related by Dr. Plot : He says, in have hardness and solidity when his Natural History of Stafford- they are extracted; but, if used shire, that a great number of pieces for any purpose, the air and rains of money, itruck in the time of are found to dissolve them very Edward IV. were found at 18 feet foon; their substance is even fo depth in the carth; fo that this different from true stone, that, ground, which is marly, swelled when they are reduced into small or was augmented about a foot in parts in order to make sand of 11 years, or one inch and one. them, they are soon converted into twelfth in a year. A like observa- a sort of earth and mud : the itation may be made on trees, which lactites likewise, and other stony have been dug up at 17 feet depth, concretions, which M. Tournefort under which were found medals of had taken for marbles that had ve.. Julius Cæsar; and thus earth, car-, getated, are not crue stones no more ried off from mountains into plains than those formed by incrustations, by running streams, increases very Sand.stone is therefore an imperfet considerably the elevation of the matter, different from stone and ground of plains.

earth, and having its origin from This gravel, fand, and earth, both by the means of the water of which the waters separate from the rains, as ftony incrustations have mountains, and carry into the theirs from the sediment of the plains, form there beds which must waters of certain springs; and thus not be confounded with the an. their beds are not ancient, and have cient and original beds of the earth. not been formed, as others, by the We should rank in the class of these sediment of the waters of the sea.r,

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