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all who, eithece of rebellior exercise of t
long since disappeared in the battle of Mursa (99), and the public tranquillity was confirmed by the execution of the surviving leaders of a guilty and unsuccessful faction. A severe inquisition was extended over all who, either from choice or from compulsion, had been involved in the cause of rebellion. Paul, surnamed Catena from his superior skill in the judicial exercise of tyranny,* was sent to explore the latent remains of the conspiracy in the remote province of Britain. The honest indignation expressed by Martin, vice-præfect of the island, was interpreted as an evidence of his own guilt; and the governor was urged to the necessity of turning against his breasť the sword with which he had been provoked to wound the Imperial minister. The most innocent subjects of the West were exposed to exile and confiscation, to death and torture; and as the timid are always cruel, the mind of Constantius was inaccessible to mercy (100).
Constantius sole Emperor. - Elevation and Death of Gallus. — Danger and Elevation of
Julian. - Sarmatian and Persian Wars. – Victories of Julian in Gaul.
The divided provinces of the empire were again united by the Power of the victory of Constantius; but as that feeble prince was destitute of eunuc personal merit, either in peace or war; as he feared his generals, and distrusted his ministers; the triumph of his arms served only to establish the reign of the eunuchs over the Roman world. Those unhappy beings, the ancient production of Oriental jealousy and despotism (1), were introduced into Greece and Rome by the contagion of Asiatic luxury (2). Their progress was rapid ; and the eunuchs, who, in the time of Augustus, had been abhorred, as
(99) Julian (Orat. i. p. 58, 59.) seems at a loss to determine, whether he inflicted on bimself the punishment of his crimes, whether he was drowned in the Drave, or whether he was carried by the avenging dæmons from the field of battle to his destined place of eternal tortures.
(100) Ammian. xiv. 5.; xxi. 16.
(1) Ammianus (l. xiv. c. 6.) imputes the first practice of castration to the cruel ingenuity of Semi-
Eunuchum dixti velle te ;
Terent. Eunuch. act i. scene 2.
* This is scarcely correct : ut erat in compli- ditum est cognomentum. • candis negotiis artifex dirus, uude ei Catenæ in- - M.
Amm. Mar. loc. cit.
the monstrous retinue of an Egyptian queen (3), were gradually admitted into the families of matrons, of senators, and of the emperors themselves (4). Restrained by the severe edicts of Domitian and Nerva (5), cherished by the pride of Diocletian, reduced to an humble station by the prudence of Constantine (6), they multiplied in the palaces of his degenerate sons, and insensibly acquired the knowledge, and at length the direction, of the secret councils of Constantius. The aversion and contempt which mankind has so uniformly entertained for that imperfect species, appears to have degraded their character, and to have rendered them almost as incapable as they were supposed to be, of conceiving any gene rous sentiment, or of performing any worthy action (7). But the eunuchs were skilled in the arts of flattery and intrigue; and they alternately governed the mind of Constantius by his fears, his indolence, and his vanity (8)... Whilst he viewed in a deceitful mirror the fair appearance of public prosperity, he supinely permitted them to intercept the complaints of the injured provinces, to accumulate immense treasures by the sale of justice and of honours; to disgrace the most important dignities, by the promotion of those who had purchased at their hands the powers of oppression (9), and to gratify their resentment against the few independent spirits, who
Miles. ... spadonibus
Horat. Carm. v. 9. and Dacier ad loc. By the word spado, the Romans very forcibly expressed their abhorrence of this mutilated condition. The Greek appellation of eunuchs, which insensibly prevailed, had a milder sound, and a more ambiguous sense.
(4) We need only mention Posides, a freedman and eunuch of Claudius, in whose favour the emperor prostituted some of the most honourable rewards of military valour. See Sueton. in Claudio, c. 28. Posides employed a great part of his wealth in building.
Ut Spado vincebat Capitolia nostra
Juvenal. Sat. xiv. (5) Castrari mares vetuit. Sueton, in Domitian. c. 7. See Dion Cassius, 1. lxvii. p. 1107; 1. lxvii. p. 1119.
(6) There is a passage in the Augustan History, p. 137; in which Lampridius, whilst he praises Alexander Severus and Constantine for restraining the tyranny of the eunuchs, deplores the mischiefs which they occasioned in other reigns. Huc accedit quod eunuchos nec in consiliis nec in ministeriis habuit; qui soli principes perdunt, dum eos more gentium aut regum Persarum volunt vivere; qui a populo etiam amicissimum semovent; qui internuntii sunt, aliud quam respondetur, referentes; claudentes principem suum, et agentes ante omnia ne quid sciat.
(7) Xenophon (Cyropædia, 1. viii. p. 540.) has stated the specious reasons which engaged Cyrus to entrust his person to the guard of eunuchs. He had observed in animals, that although the practice of castration might tame their ungovernable fierceness, it did not diminish their strength or spirit; and he persuaded himself, that those who were separated from the rest of human kind, would be more firmly attached to the person of their benefactor. But a long experience has contradicted the judgment of Cyrus. Some particular instances may occur of eunuchs distinguished by their fidelity, their valour, and their abilities; but if we examine the general history of Persia, India, and China, we shall find that the power of the eunuchs has uniformly marked the decline and fall of every dynasty.
(8) See Ammianus Marcellinus, l. xxi. c. 16 ; 1. xxii. c. 4. The whole tenor of his impartial history serves to justify the invectives of Mamertinus, of Libanius, and of Julian himself, who have insulted the vices of the court of Constantius.
(9) Aurelius Victor censures the negligence of his sovereign in choosing the governors of the provinces, and the generals of the army, and concludes bis history with a very bold observation, as it is much more dangerous under a feeble reign to attack the ministers than the master himself. “Uti verum absolvam brevi, ut Imperatore ipso clarius ita apparitorum plerisque magis atrox
arrogantly refused to 'solicit the protection of slaves. Of these slaves the most distinguished was the chamberlain Eusebius, who ruled the monarch and the palace with such absolute sway, that Constantius, according to the sarcasm of an impartial historian, possessed some credit with this haughty favourite (10). By his artful suggestions, the emperor was persuaded to subscribe the condemna- . tion of the unfortunate Gallus, and to add a new crime to the long list of unnatural murders which pollute the honour of the house of Constantine.
When the two nephews of Constantine, Gallus and Julian, were Education of saved from the fury of the soldiers, the former was about twelve, and the latter about six, years of age; and, as the eldest was thought to be of a sickly constitution, they obtained with the less difficulty a precarious and dependent life, from the affected pity of Constantius, who was sensible that the execution of these helpless orphans would have been esteemed, by all mankind, an act of the most deliberate cruelty (11). * Different cities of Ionia and Bithynia were assigned for the places of their exile and education; but as soon as their growing years excited the jealousy of the emperor, he judged it more prudent to secure those unhappy youths in the strong castle of Macellum, near Cæsarea. The treatment which they experienced during a six years' confinement, was partly such as they could hope from a careful guardian, and partly such as they might dread from a suspicious tyrant (12). Their prison was an ancient palace, the residence of the kings of Cappadocia; the situation was pleasant, the building stately, the inclosure spacious. They pursued their studies, and practised their exercises, under the tuition of the most skilful masters; and the numerous household appointed to attend, or rather to guard, the nephews of Constantine, was not unworthy of the dignity of their birth. But they could not disguise to themselves that they were deprived of fortune, of freedom, and of safety; secluded from the society of all whom they could trust or esteem, and condemned to pass their melancholy hours in the company of slaves, devoted to the commands of a tyrant, who had already injured them beyond the hope of reconciliation. At length, however, the emergencies of the state compelled the emperor, or rather his
(10) Apud quem (si vere dici debeat) multum Constantius potuit. Ammian. 1. xvii. c. 4.
(11) Gregory Nazianzen (Orat. iii. p. 90.) reproaches the apostate with his ingratitude towards Mark, bishop of Arethusa, who had contributed to save his life; and we learn, though from a less respectable authority (Tillemont, Hist. des Empereurs, tom. iv. p. 916.), that Julian was concealed in the sanctuary of a church. .
(12) The most authentic account of the education and adventures of Julian, is contained in the epistle or manifesto which he himself addressed to the senate and people of Athens. Libanius (Orat. Parentalis), on the side of the Pagans, and Socrates (1. iii. c. 1.), on that of the Christians, have preserved several interesting circumstances. '
* Gallus and Julian were not sons of the same was the son of Basilina, 'whom he had espoused mother. Their father, Julius Constantius, had in a second marriage. Tillemont, Hist. des Emp. had Gallus by his first wife, named Galla : Julian Vie de Constantin, art. 3. G.
A. D. 351.
Gallus eunuchs, to invest Gallus, in the twenty-fifth year of his age, with Cæsar, the title of Cæsar, and to cement this political connection by his 51. marriage with the princess Constantina. After a formal inferview,
in which the two princes mutually engaged their faith never to undertake any thing to the prejudice of each other, they repaired without delay to their respective stations. Constantius continued his march towards the West, and Gallus fixed his residence at Antioch; from whence, with a delegated authority, he administered the five great dioceses of the eastern præfecture (13). In this fortunate change, the new Cæsar was not unmindsul of his brother Julian, who obtained the honours of his rank, the appearances of
liberty, and the restitution of an ample patrimony (14). Cruelty and The writers the most indulgent to the memory of Gallus, and of Gallus. even Julian himself, though he wished to cast a veil over the frail
ties of his brother, are obliged to confess that the Cæsar was incapable of reigning. Transported from a prison to a throne, he possessed neither genius nor application, nor docility to compensate for the want of knowledge and experience. A temper naturally morose and violent, instead of being corrected, was soured by solitude and adversity; the remembrance of what he had endured, disposed him to retaliation rather than to sympathy; and the ungoverned sallies of his rage were often fatal to those who approached his person, or were subject to his power (15). Constantina, his wise, is described, not as a woman, but as one of the infernal furies tormented with an insatiate thirst of human blood (16). Instead of employing her influence to insinuate the mild counsels of prudence and humanity, she exasperated the fierce passions of her husband; and as she retained the vanity, though she had renounced the gentleness of her sex, a pearl necklace was esteemed an equivalent price for the murder of an innocent and virtuous nobleman (17). The cruelty of Gallus was sometimes displayed in the
(13) For the promotion of Gallus, see Idatius, Zosimus, and the two Victors. According to Philostorgius (1. iv. c. 1.), Theophilus, an Arian Bishop, was the witness, and, as it were, the guarantee of this solemn engagement. He supported that character with generous firmness; but M. de Tillemont (Hist. des Empereurs, tom. iv. p. 1120.) thinks it very improbable that an heretic should have possessed such virtue.
(14) Julian was at first permitted to pursue his studies at Constantinople, but the reputation which le acquired soon’excited the jealousy of Constantius; and the young prince was advised to withdraw himself to the less conspicuous scenes of Bithynia and Ionia.
(15) See Julian ad S.P.Q.A. p. 271. Jerom. in Chron. Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, 1. 14. I shall copy the words of Eutropius, who wrote his abridgment about fifteen years after the death of Gallus, when there was no longer any motive either to flatter or to depreciate his character. “Multis incivilibus gestis Gallus Cæsar.., vir natura ferox et ad tyrannidem pronior, si suo jure imperare licuisset."
(16) Megæra quidem mortalis, ivflammatrix sævientis assidua, humani cruoris avida, &c. Ammian. Marcellin. I. xiv. c. 1. The sincerity of Ammianus would not suffer him to misrepresent facts or characters, but his love of ambitious ornaments frequently betrayed him into an unnatural vehemence of expression.
(17) His name was Clematius of Alexandria, and his only crime was a refusal to gratify the desires of his mother-in-law; who solicited his death, because she had been disappointed of his love. Ammian. I. xiv. c. 1.
undissembled violence of popular or military executions: and was sometimes disguised by the abuse of law, and the forms of judicial proceedings. The private houses of Antioch, and the places of public resort, were besieged by spies and informers, and the Cæsar himself, concealed in a plebeian habit, very frequently condescended to assume that odious character. Every apartment of the palace was adorned with the instruments of death and torture, and a general consternation was diffused through the capital of Syria. The prince of the East, as if he had been conscious how much he had to fear, and how little he deserved to reign, selected for the objects of his resentment the provincials accused of some imaginary treason, and his own courtiers, whom with more reason he suspected of incensing, by their secret correspondence, the timid and suspicious mind of Constantius. But he forgot that he was depriving himself of his only support, the affection of the people; whilst he furnished the malice of his enemies with the arms of truth, and afforded the emperor the fairest pretence of exacting the forfeit of his purple, and of his life (18).
As long as the civil war suspended the fate of the Roman world, Massacre of Constantius dissembled his knowledge of the weak and cruel admie ministers, nistration to which his choice had subjected the East; and the dis- A. D covery of some assassins, secretly dispatched to Antioch by the tyrant of Gaul, was employed to convince the public, that the emperor and the Cæsar were united by the same interest, and pursued by the same enemies (19). But when the victory was decided in favour of Constantius, his dependent colleague became less useful and less formidable. Every circumstance of his conduct was severely and suspiciously examined, and it was privately resolved, either to deprive Gallus of the purple, or at least to remove him from the indolent luxury of Asia to the hardships and dangers of a German war. The death of Theophilus, consular of the province of Syria, who in a time of scarcity had been massacred by the people of Antioch, with the connivance, and almost at the instigation, of Gallus, was justly resented, not only as an act of wanton cruelty, but as a dangerous insult on the supreme majesty of Constantius. Two ministers of illustrious rank, Domitian, the Oriental præfect, and Montius, quæstor of the palace, were empowered by a special commission * to visit and reform the state of the East. They were
A. D. 354.
(18) See in Ammianus (1. xiv. c. 1. 7.) a very ample detail of the cruelties of Gallus. His brother Julian (p. 272.) insinuates, that a secret conspiracy had been formed against him; and Zosimus Dames (l. ii. p. 135.) the persons engaged in it; a minister of considerable rank, and two obscure agents, who were resolved to make their fortune.
(19) Zonaras, l. xiii. tom. ii. p. 17, 18. The assassins had seduced a great number of legionaries; but their designs were discovered and revealed by an old woman in whose collage they lodged.
* The commission seems to have been granted to Domitian alone. Montius interfered to support his authority. Amm. Marc. loc. cit.-M.