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or compensation to conform to the duties to which such transferred personnel may be assigned: Provided further, That such of the personnel so transferred as do not already possess a classified civil-service status shall not acquire such status by reason of such transfer except (1) upon recommendation of the Authority within one year after such personnel have been so transferred and certification within such period by the Authority to the Civil Service Commission that such personnel have served with merit for not less than six months prior to the transfer, and (2) upon passing such suitable noncompetitive examinations as the Civil Service Commission may prescribe: Ānd provided further, That no officer or employee taking such examination shall be discharged or reduced in grade or compensation pending the result thereof, except for cause in the manner provided by law.

Appropriations (b) Such of the unexpended balances of appropriations available for use by the Secretary of Commerce in the exercise and performance of the powers and duties vested in and imposed upon him by the Air Commerce Act of 1926, as amended, and by the Secretary of Commerce and the Interstate Commerce Commission in the exercise and performance of the powers and duties vested in and imposed upon them by the Air Mail Act of 1934, approved June 12, 1934, as amended, as the President shall deem necessary and specify by Executive order, are transferred to the Authority upon such date or dates as the President shall specify by Executive order, and shall be available for use in connection with the exercise and performance of the powers and duties vested in and imposed upon the Authority, the Administrator, and the Air Safety Board by this Act.

AUTHORIZATION OF EXPENDITURES AND TRAVEL

General Authority Sec. 204 [52 Stat. 983, 49 U.S. C. 424] (a) The Authority is empowered to make such expenditures at the seat of government and elsewhere as may be necessary for the exercise and performance of the powers and duties vested in and imposed upon the Authority, the Administrator, and the Air Safety Board by law, and as from time to time may be appropriated for by Congress, including expenditures for (i) rent and personal services at the seat of government and elsewhere; (2) travel expenses; (3) office furniture, equipment and supplies, lawbooks, newspapers, periodicals, and books of reference (including the exchange thereof); (4) printing and binding; (5) membership in and cooperation with such organizations as are related to, or are part of, the civil-aeronautics industry or the art of aeronautics in the United States or in any foreign country; (6) attendance at meetings and conventions when in the public interest; (7) making investigations and conducting studies in matters pertaining to aeronautics; and (8) acquisition (including exchange), operation, and maintenance of passenger-carrying automobiles and aircraft, and such other property as is necessary in the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of the Authority, the Administrator, and the Air Safety Board: Provided, That no aircraft or motor vehicle, purchased under the provisions of this section, shall be used otherwise than for official business. The Authority may include, among expenditures for travel, reasonable expenditures for transportation between airports and centers of population whether or not such transportation is incidental to travel by aircraft.

Purchase of Aircraft (b) The Authority, within the limits of appropriations made available by Congress, may purchase and exchange modern aircraft, completely equipped in such manner that such aircraft can be used in testing and checking every phase of flight operation; and may purchase and exchange for the use of the Administrator and the Air Safety Board modern aircraft similar to aircraft used or suitable for use in air transportation, completely equipped in such manner that they can be used in testing and checking every phase of flight operation encountered in air transportation. The Authority is authorized to obtain necessary space, facilities, and personnel for the storage, maintenance, operation, and navigation of such aircraft.

Travel (c) Travel by personnel of the United States Government on commercial aircraft, domestic or foreign, including travel between airports and centers of population or posts of duty when incidental to travel on commercial aircraft, shall be allowed at public expense when authorized or approved by competent authority, and transportation requests for such travel may be issued upon such authorizations. Such expense shall be allowed without regard to comparative costs of transportation by aircraft with other modes of transportation.

GENERAL POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE AUTHORITY

General Powers SEC. 205 [52 Stat. 984, 49 U.S. C. 425] (a) The Authority is empowered to perform such acts, to conduct such investigations, to issue and amend such orders, and to make and amend such general or special rules, regulations, and procedure, pursuant to and consistent with the provisions of this Act, as it shall deem necessary to carry out such provisions and to exercise and perform its powers and duties under this Act.

Cooperation With State Aeronautical Agencies (b) The Authority is empowered to confer with or to hold joint hearings with any State aeronautical agency, or other State

agency, in connection with any matter arising under this Act, and to avail itself of the cooperation, services, records, and facilities of such State agencies as fully as may be practicable in the administration and enforcement of this Act.

Exchange of Information (c) The Authority is empowered to exchange with foreign governments, through appropriate agencies of the United States, information pertaining to aeronautics,

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Publications

(d) Except as may be otherwise provided in this Act, the Authority shall make a report in writing in all proceedings and investigations under this Act in which formal hearings have been held, and shall state in such report its conclusions together with its decision, order, or requirement in the premises. All such reports shall be entered of record and a copy thereof shall be furnished to all parties to the proceeding or investigation. The Authority shall provide for the publication of such reports, and all other reports, orders, decisions, rules, and regulations issued by it under this Act in such form and manner as may be best adapted for public information and use. Publications purporting to be published by the Authority shall be competent evidence of the orders, decisions, rules, regulations, and reports of the Authority therein contained in all courts of the United States, and of the several States, Territories, and possessions thereof, and the District of Columbia, without further proof or authentication thereof.

ANNUAL REPORT

SEC. 206 [52 Stat. 984, 49 U.S. C. 426] The Authority shall make an annual report to the Congress, copies of which shall be distributed as are other reports transmitted to Congress. Such report shall contain in addition to a report of the work performed under this Act, such information and data collected by the Authority, the Administrator, and the Air Safety Board as may be considered of value in the determination of questions connected with the development and regulation of civil aeronautics, together with such recommendations as to additional legislation relating thereto as the Authority may deem necessary. The Authority may also transmit recommendations as to such additional legislation more frequently.

TITLE III-POWERS AND DUTIES OF ADMINISTRATOR

FOSTERING OF AIR COMMERCE

Sec. 301 [52 Stat. 985, 49 U. S. C. 451] The Administrator is empowered and directed to encourage and foster the development of civil aeronautics and air commerce in the United States, and abroad, and to encourage the establishment of civil airways, landing areas, and other air navigation facilities. The Administrator and the Air Safety Board shall

cooperate with the Authority in the administration and enforcement of this Act.

CIVIL AIRWAYS AND FACILITIES

General

SEC. 302 [52 Stat. 985, 49 U. S. C. 452] (a) The Administrator is authorized and directed to designate and establish such civil airways as may be required in the public interest. The Administrator is authorized, within the limits of available appropriations made by the Congress, (1) to acquire, establish, and improve air-navigation facilities wherever necessary; (2) to operate and maintain such airnavigation facilities; (3) to arrange for publication of aeronautical maps and charts necessary for the safe and efficient movement of aircraft in civil air navigation utilizing the facilities and assistance of existing agencies of the Government so far as practicable; and (4) to provide necessary facilities and personnel for the regulation and protection of air traffic. In exercising the authority granted in this subsection, the Administrator shall give full consideration to the requirements of National Defense. (As amended by Act of July 1, 1948, 62 Stat. 1216.)

Method of Establishment (b) The Administrator shall insofar as practicable designate and establish civil airways with relation to visual, mechanical, electrical, radio, or other like aids along the ground for air navigation, and in such manner that not more than one airway shall embrace the same air space, except to the extent necessary for intersection of airways at landing areas or elsewhere, or except when such action is necessary in the interest of safety or efficient operation of aircraft, or when the operation of aircraft over one airway will not interfere with the operation of aircraft over another airway embracing the same air space: Provided, That nothing herein shall be construed to affect the promulgation or enforcement of any rules and regulations under this Act for the control of traffic.

ACQUISITION AND DISPOSAL OF PROPERTY (c) The Administrator, on behalf of the United States, is authorized, where appropriate to carry out this section, (1) to accept any conditional or unconditional gift or donation of money or other property, real or personal, or of services; (2) within the limits of available appropriations made by the Congress therefor, to acquire by purchase, condemnation, lease, or otherwise, real property or interests therein, including, in the case of air-navigation facilities (including airports) owned by the United States and operated under the direction of the Administrator, easements through or other interests in airspace immediately adjacent thereto and needed in connection therewith; and (3) for adequate compensation, by sale, lease, or otherwise, to dispose of any real or personal property or interests therein, so acquired. Any such acquisition by condemnation may be made in accordance with the provisions of the Act of August 1, 1888 (40 U. S. C. 257; 25 Stat. 357), the Act of February 26, 1931 (40 U. S. C. 258a-258e; 46 Stat. 1421), or any other applicable Act of Congress: Provided, That in the case of condemnations of easements through or other interests in airspace, in fixing condemnation awards, consideration may be given to the reasonable probable future use of the underlying land. (As amended by Act of July 1, 1948, 62 Stat. 1216.)

(d) (1) The Administrator is authorized, within the limits of available appropriations made by the Congress, to train civilian and governmental air-traffic control-tower operators or to conduct programs for such training, including studies and researches as to the most desirable qualifications for air-traffic control-tower operators. Such training or programs shall be conducted pursuant to such regulations as the Administrator may from time to time prescribe, including such fees as the Administrator may deem necessary or desirable. Such training or programs may be carried out by the Administrator either through the use of his own facilities and personnel or by contracts with educational institutions, or other persons.

(2) The Administrator is authorized to lease or accept loans of such real property, and to purchase, lease, exchange, or accept loans of such personal property and facilities, and to repair, maintain, and operate such property and such facilities, as may be necessary or desirable for carrying out the provisions of this section.

(3) For the purpose of carrying out his functions under this section, the Administrator is authorized to exercise all powers conferred upon him by any other provisions of this Act and to appoint and fix the compensation for instructors, airmen, medical and other professional examiners, and experts in training or research without regard to the provisions of the civil-service laws or the Classification Act of 1923, as amended. The provisions of section 3709 of the Revised Statutes shall not apply to contracts with educational institutions and other persons for the use of aircraft, control towers, or other facilities or for the performance of services authorized by this section.

(4) Any executive department or independent establishment is hereby authorized to cooperate with the Administrator in carrying out the purposes of this section, and for such purposes may lend or transfer to the Administrator, by contract or otherwise, or if so requested by the Administrator, lend to educational institutions or other persons cooperating witn the Administrator in the conduct of any such training or program, officials, experts, or employees, aircraft, control towers and other property or equipment, and lands or buildings under its control. For the purposes of this section, the Administrator shall have the power to accept and utilize voluntary and uncompensated services, equipment, facilities, and information of any State, Territory, or political subdivision, or any agency thereof.

(5) Any executive department or independent establishment is hereby authorized to detail personnel of such executive department or independent establishment to be trained as provided herein at Government expense: Provided, That no such personnel shall lose their individual status or seniority rating in the executive department or independent establishment merely by reason of absence due to such training.

(6) There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this section. (d) added by Act of June 29, 1948, 62 Stat. 1093.)

EXPENDITURE OF FEDERAL FUNDS SEC. 303 [52 Stat. 986, 49 U. S. C., 453] No Federal funds, other than those expended under this Act, shall be expended, other than for military purposes (whether or not in cooperation with State or other local governmental agencies), for the acquisition, establishment, construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, or operation of any landing area, or for the acquisition, establishment, construction, maintenance, or operation of air navigation facilities thereon, except upon written recommendation and certification by the Administrator, made after consultation with the Authority, that such landing area, or facility is reasonably necessary for use in air commerce or in the interests of national defense. Any interested person may apply to the Admin

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