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Previously Unrecorded Ownership (h) The person applying for the issuance or renewal of an airworthiness certificate for an aircraft with respect to which there has been no recordation of ownership as provided in this section shall present with his application such information with respect to the ownership of the aircraft as the Administrator shall deem necessary to show the persons who are holders of property interests in such aircraft and the nature and extent of such interests. (503 amended by Act of June 19, 1948, 62 Stat. 493.)

Limitation of Security Owners Liability SEC. 504. No person having a security interest in, or security title to, any civil aircraft under a contract of conditional sale, equipment trust, chattel or corporate mortgage, or other instrument of similar nature, and no lessor of any such aircraft under a bona fide lease of thirty days or more, shall be liable by reason of such interest or title, or by reason of his interest as lessor or owner of the aircraft so leased, for any injury to or death of persons, or damage to or loss of property, on the surface of the earth (whether on land or water) caused by such aircraft, or by the ascent, descent, or flight of such aircraft or by the dropping or falling of an object therefrom, unless such aircraft'is in the actual possession or control of such person at the time of such injury, death, damage, or loss. (Added by Act of June 16, 1948, 62 Stat. 470.)

TITLE VI-CIVIL AERONAUTICS SAFETY REGULATION

GENERAL SAFETY POWERS AND DUTIES

Minimum Standards; Rules and Regulations

SEC. 601 [52 Stat. 1007, 49 U. S. C., 551] (a) The Authority is empowered, and it shall be its duty to promote safety of flight in air commerce by prescribing and revising from time to time

(1) Such minimum standards governing the design, materials, workmanship, construction, and performance of aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers as may be required in the interest of safety;

(2) Such minimum standards governing appliances as may be required in the interest of safety;

(3) Reasonable rules and regulations and minimum standards governing, in the interest of safety, (A) the inspection, servicing, and overhaul of aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances; (B) the equipment and facilities for such inspection, servicing, and overhaul; and (C) in the discretion of the Authority, the periods for, and the manner in, which such inspection, servicing, and overhaul shall be made, including provision for examinations and reports by properly qualified private persons whose examinations or reports the Authority may accept in lieu of those made by its officers and employees;

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(4) Reasonable rules and regulations governing the reserve supply of aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, and aircraft fuel and oil, required in the interest of safety, including the reserve supply of aircraft fuel and oil which shail be carried in flight;

(5) Reasonable rules and regulations governing, in the interest of safety, the maximum hours or periods of service of airmen, and other employees, of air carriers;

(6) Such reasonable rules and regulations, or minimum standards, governing other practices, methods, and procedure, as the Authority may find necessary to provide adequately for safety in air commerce; and

(7) Air traffic rules governing the flight of, and for the navigation, protection, and identification of, aircraft, including rules as to safe altitudes of flight and rules for the prevention of collisions between aircraft, and between aircraft and land or water vehicles.

Needs of Service to Be Considered; Classifications of Standards, and

so Forth (b) In prescribing standards, rules, and regulations, and in issuing certificates under this title, the Authority shall give full consideration to the duty resting upon air carriers to perform their services with the highest possible degree of safety in the public interest and to any differences between air transportation and other air commerce; and it shall make classifications of such standards, rules, and regulations, and certificates appropriate to the differences between air transportation and other air commerce. The Authority may authorize any aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance, for which an aircraft certificate authorizing use thereof in air transportation has been issued, to be used in other air commerce without the issuance of a further certificate. The Authority shall exercise and perform its powers and duties under this Act in such manner as will best tend to reduce or eliminate the possibility of, or recurrence of, accidents in air transportation, but shall not deem itself required to give preference to either air transportation or other air commerce in the administration and enforcement of this title.

Delegation of Authority (c) The Civil Aeronautics Board, subject to such terms, conditions, and limitations as the Board may specify, is empowered to delegate to the Administrator the power or authority to prescribe rules, regulations, and standards under this title and to perform functions authorized under section 702 of this Act. The Board may modify, suspend, revoke, or terminate such power or authority so delegated by it to the Administrator and may prescribe by rules and regulations such provisions and procedures for review of actions taken by the Administrator under authority delegated hereunder as it may deem necessary and appropriate in the public interest. Except as specifically provided in the rules and regulations of the Board, the filing of a petition for review shall not excuse any person from complying with the action of the Administrator nor operate in any manner to stay the enforcement of such action: Provided, That nothing in this subsec

tion shall be construed as amending, modifying, or repealing any provision of the Administrative Procedure Act. (Added by Act of July 1, 1948, 62 Stat. 1216.)

AIRMAN CERTIFICATES

Power To Issue Certificate

SEC. 602 [52 Stat. 1008, 49 U. S. C. 552] (a) The Authority is empowered to issue airman certificates specifying the capacity in which the holders thereof are authorized to serve as airmen in connection with aircraft.

Issuance of Certificate

(b) Any person may file with the Authority an application for an airman certificate. If the Authority finds, after investigation, that such person possesses proper qualifications for, and is physically able to perform the duties pertaining to, the position for which the airman certificate is sought, it shall issue such certificate, containing such terms, conditions, and limitations as to duration thereof, periodic or special examinations, tests of physical fitness, and other matters as the Authority may determine to be necessary to assure safety in air commerce. Any person whose application for the issuance or renewal of an airman certificate is denied may file with the Authority a petition for reconsideration, and the Authority shall thereupon assign such application for hearing at a place convenient to the applicant's place of residence or employment: Provided, That the Authority may, in its discretion, prohibit or restrict the issuance of airman certificates to aliens, or may make such issuance dependent on the terms of reciprocal agreements entered into with foreign governments.

Form and Recording of Certificate (c) Each certificate shall be numbered and recorded by the Authority; shall state the name and address of, and contain a description of, the person to whom the certificate is issued; and shall be entitled with the designation of the class covered thereby. Certificates issued to all pilots serving in scheduled air transportation shall be designated “airline transport pilot” of the proper class.

AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATES

Type Certificates Sec. 603 [52 Stat. 1009, 49 U. S. C. 553] (a) (1) The Authority is empowered to issue type certificates for aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers; to specify in regulations the appliances for which the issuance of type certificates is reasonably required in the interest of safety; and to issue such certificates for appliances so specified.

(2) Any interested person may file with the Authority an application for a type certificate for an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance specified in regulations under paragraph (1) of this subsection. Upon receipt of an application, the Authority

shall make an investigation thereof and may hold hearings thereon. The Authority shall make, or require the applicant to make, such tests during manufacture and upon completion as the Authority deems reasonably necessary in the interest of safety, including flight tests and tests of raw materials or any part or appurtenance of such aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance. "If the Authority finds that such aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance is of proper design, material, specification, construction, and performance for safe operation, and meets the minimum standards, rules, and regulations prescribed by the Authority, it shall issue a type certificate therefor. The Authority may prescribe in any such certificate the duration thereof and such other terms, conditions, and limitations as are required in the interest of safety. The Authority may record upon any certificate issued for aircraft, aircraft engines, or propellers, a numerical determination of all of the essential factors relative to the performance of the aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller for which the certificate is issued.

Production Certificate (b) Upon application, and if it satisfactorily appears to the Authority that duplicates of any aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance for which a type certificate has been issued will conform to such certificate, the Authority shall issue a production certificate authorizing the production of duplicates of such aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, or appliances. The Authority shall make such inspection and may require such tests of any aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance manufactured under a production certificate as may be necessary to assure manufacture of each unit in conformity with the type certificate or any amendment or modification thereof. The Authority may prescribe in any such production certificate the duration thereof and such other terms, conditions, and limitations as are required in the interest of safety.

Airworthiness Certificate (c) The registered owner of any aircraft may file with the Authority an application for an airworthiness certificate for such aircraft. If the Authority finds that the aircraft conforms to the type certificate therefor, and, after inspection, that the aircraft is in condition for safe operation, it shall issue an airworthiness certificate. The Authority may prescribe in such certificate the duration of such certificate, the type of service for which the aircraft may be used, and such other terms, conditions, and limitations as are required in the interest of safety. Each such certificate shall be registered by the Authority and shall set forth such information as the Authority may deem advisable. The certificate number, or such other individual designation as may be required by the Authority, shall be displayed upon each aircraft in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Authority.

AIR CARRIER OPERATING CERTIFICATES

Power to Issue Sec. 604 [52 Stat. 1010, 49 U. S. C. 554] (a) The Authority is empowered to issue air carrier operating certificates and to establish minimum safety standards for the operation of the air carrier to whom any such certificate is issued,

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Issuance (b) Any person desiring to operate as an air carrier may file with the Authority an application for an air carrier operating certificate. If the Authority finds, after investigation, that such person is properly and adequately equipped and able to conduct a safe operation in accordance with the requirements of this Act and the rules, regulations, and standards prescribed thereunder, it shall issue an air carrier operating certificate to such person. Each air carrier operating certificate shall prescribe such terms, conditions, and limitations as are reasonably necessary to assure safety in air transportation, and shall specify the points to and from which, and the civil airways over which, such person is authorized to operate as an air carrier under an air carrier operating certificate.

MAINTENANCE OF EQUIPMENT IN AIR TRANSPORTATION

Duty of Carriers and Airmen Sec. 605 [52 Stat. 1010, 49 U.S. C. 555] (a) It shall be the duty of each air carrier to make, or cause to be made, such inspection, maintenance, overhaul, and repair of all equipment used in air transportation as may be required by this Act, or the orders, rules, and regulations of the Authority issued thereunder. And it shall be the duty of every person engaged in operating, inspecting, maintaining, or overhauling equipment to observe and comply with the requirements of this Act relating thereto, and the orders, rules, and regulations issued thereunder.

Inspection (b) The Authority shall employ inspectors who shall be charged with the duty (1) of making such inspections of aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances designed for use in air transportation, during manufacture, and while used by an air carrier in air transportation, as may be necessary to enable the Authority to determine that such aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances are in safe condition and are properly maintained for operation in air transportation; and (2) of advising and cooperating with each air carrier in the inspection and maintenance thereof by the air carrier. Whenever any inspector shall, in the performance of his duty, find that any aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance, used or intended to be used by any air carrier in air transportation, is not in condition for safe operation, he shall so notify the carrier, in such form and manner as the Authority may prescribe; and, for a period of five days thereafter, such aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance shall not be used in air transportation, or in such manner as to endanger air transportation, unless found by the Authority or its inspector

to be in condition for safe operation.

AIR NAVIGATION FACILITY RATING

SEC. 606 [52 Stat. 1011, 49 Stat. U.S.C.556] The Authority is empowered to inspect, classify, and rate any air navigation facility

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