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which possession is delivered to the buyer and the property is to vest in the buyer at a subsequent time, upon the payment of part or all of the price, or upon the performance of any other condition or the happening of any contingency; or (b) any contract for the bailment or leasing of an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or spare part, by which the bailee or lessee

contracts to pay as compensation a sum substantially equivalent to the value thereof, and by which it is agreed that the bailee or lessee is bound to become, or has the option of becoming, the owner thereof upon full compliance with the terms of the contract. The buyer, bailee, or lessee shall be deemed to be the person by whom any such contract is made or given. (As amended by Act of June 19, 1948, 62 Stat. 493.)

(18) “Conveyance” means a bill of sale, contract of conditional sale, mortgage, assignment of mortgage, or other instrument affecting title to, or interest in, property.

(19) "Foreign air carrier" means any person, not a citizen of the United States, who undertakes, whether directly or indirectly or by a lease or any other arrangement, to engage in foreign air transportation.

(20) "Interstate air commerce", "overseas air commerce", and "foreign air commerce”, respectively, mean the carriage by aircraft of persons or property for compensation or hire, or the carriage of mail by aircraft, or the operation or navigation of aircraft in the conduct or furtherance of a business or vocation, in commerce between, respectively,

(a) a place in any State of the United States, or the District of Columbia, and a place in any other State of the United States, or the District of Columbia; or between places in the same State of the United States through the air space over any place outside thereof; or between places in the same Territory or possession (except the Philippine Islands) of the United States, or the District of Columbia ;

(b) a place in any State of the United States, or the District of Columbia, and any place in a Territory or possession of the United States; or between a place in a Territory or possession of the United States, and a place in any other Territory or possession of the United States; and

(c) a place in the United States and any place outside thereof, whether such commerce moves wholly by aircraft or partly by air

craft and partly by other forms of transportation.? (21) “Interstate air transportation", "overseas air transportation", and “foreign air transportation", respectively, mean the carriage by aircraft of persons or property as a common carrier for compensation or hire or the carriage of mail by aircraft, in commerce between, respectively

(a) a place in any State of the United States, or the District of

2

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2 This clause, "whether such commerce moves wholly by aircraft or partly by aircraft and partly by other forms of transportation.”, is indented here as in the enrolled bill. The bill as passed by the Senate, s. 3845, sets forth the definitions as they appear here except that clause in question was extended to the left-hand margin of the page so that it unquestionably applied to all three subdivisions immediately above. The conference committee, as shown by the text of the bill contained in the conference report, H. R. Rep. No. 2635, 75th Cong., 3d Sess., adopted the form of the Senate bill and Congress passed the bill as recommended by the conference committee, without change. Consequently, a typographical error must have been made in printing the enrolled bill.

3

Columbia, and a place in any other State of the United States, or the District of Columbia; or between places in the same State of the United States through the air space over any place outside thereof; or between places in the same Territory or possession (except the Philippine Islands) of the United States, or the District of Columbia;

(b) a place in any State of the United States, or the District of Columbia, and any place in a Territory or possession of the United States; or between a place in a Territory or possession of the United States, and a place in any other Territory or possession of the United States; and

(c) a place in the United States and any place outside thereof, whether such commerce moves wholly by aircraft or partly by

aircraft and partly by other forms of transportation. (22). “Landing area” means any locality, either of land or water, including airports and intermediate landing fields, which is used, or intended to be used, for the landing and take-off of aircraft, whether or not facilities are provided for the shelter, servicing, or repair of aircraft, or for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo.

(23) "Mail" means United States mail and foreign-transit mail.

(24) “Navigable air space” means air space above the minimum altitudes of flight prescribed by regulations issued under this Act.

(25) “Navigation of aircraft” or “navigate aircraft” includes the piloting of aircraft.

(26) "Operation of aircraft” or “operate aircraft” means the use of aircraft, for the purpose of air navigation and includes the navigation of aircraft. Any person who causes or authorizes the operation of aircraft, whether with or without the right of legal control (in the capacity of owner, lessee, or otherwise) of the aircraft, shall be deemed to be engaged in the operation of aircraft within the meaning of this Act.

(27) “Person" means any individual, firrn, copartnership, corporation, company, association, joint-stock association, or body politic; and includes any trustee, receiver, assignee, or other similar representative thereof.

(28) “Propeller" includes all parts, appurtenances, and accessories thereof.

(29) "Possessions of the United States” means (a) Puerto Rico, notwithstanding the provisions of the Act of March 2, 1917, entitled "An Act to provide a civil government for Porto Rico”, and any other Act or Acts which are inconsistent with the provisions of this Act; (b) the Canal Zone, but nothing herein shall impair or affect the jurisdiction which has heretofore been, or may hereafter be, granted to the President in respect of air navigation in the Canal Zone; (c) the Philippine Islands, except that the operation of civil aircraft within the jurisdiction of the Philippine Islands shall be governed by laws enacted by the legislature of the islands and by executive regulations designating air-space reservations or other prohibited areas; and (d) all other possessions of the United States.

(30) "Public aircraft” means an aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government or of any political subdivision thereof, including the government of any State, Territory, or possession of

3 See footnote 2 (p. 7).

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which possession is delivered to the buyer and the property is to vest in the buyer at a subsequent time, upon the payment of part or all of the price, or upon the performance of any other condition or the happening of any contingency; or (b) any contract for the bailment or leasing of an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or spare part, by which the bailee or lessee contracts to pay as compensation a sum substantially equivalent to the value thereof, and by which it is agreed that the bailee or lessee is bound to become, or has the option of becoming, the owner thereof upon full compliance with the terms of the contract. The buyer, bailee, or lessee shall be deemed to be the person by whom any such contract is made or given. (As amended by Act of June 19, 1948, 62 Stat. 493.)

(18) "Conveyance” means a bill of sale, contract of conditional sale, mortgage, assignment of mortgage, or other instrument affecting title to, or interest in, property.

(19) "Foreign air carrier” means any person, not a citizen of the United States, who undertakes, whether directly or indirectly or by a lease or any other arrangement, to engage in foreign air transportation.

(20) “Interstate air commerce”, “overseas air commerce”, and “foreign air commerce", respectively, mean the carriage by aircraft of persons or property for compensation or hire, or the carriage of mail by aircraft, or the operation or navigation of aircraft in the conduct or furtherance of a business or vocation, in commerce between, respectively,

(a) a place in any State of the United States, or the District of Columbia, and a place in any other State of the United States, or the District of Columbia; or between places in the same State of the United States through the air space over any place outside thereof; or between places in the same Territory or possession (except the Philippine Islands) of the United States, or the District of Columbia;

(b) a place in any State of the United States, or the District of Columbia, and any place in a Territory or possession of the United States; or between a place in a Territory or possession of the United States, and a place in any other Territory or possession of the United States; and

(c) a place in the United States and any place outside thereof, whether such commerce moves wholly by aircraft or partly by air

craft and partly by other forms of transportation.2 (21) "Interstate air transportation", "overseas air transportation”, and "foreign air transportation”, respectively, mean the carriage by aircraft of persons or property as a common carrier for compensation or hire or the carriage of mail by aircraft, in commerce between, respectively

(a) a place in any State of the United States, or the District of

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2 This clause, “whether such commerce moves wholly by aircraft or partly by aircraft and partly by other forms of transportation.”, is indented here as in the enrolled bill. The bill as passed by the Senate, S. 3845, sets forth the definitions as they appear here except that clause in question was extended to the left-hand margin of the page so that it unquestionably applied to all three subdivisions immediately above. The conference committee, as shown by the text of the bill contained in the conference report, H. R. Rep. No. 2635, 75th Cong., 3d Sess., adopted the form of the Senate bill and Congress passed the bill as recommended by the conference committee, without change. Consequently, a typographical error must have been made in printing the enrolled bill.

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Columbia, and a place in any other State of the United States, or the District of Columbia; or between places in the same State of the United States through the air space over any place outside thereof; or between places in the same Territory or possession (except the Philippine Islands) of the United States, or the District of Columbia;

(b) a place in any State of the United States, or the District of Columbia, and any place in a Territory, or possession of the United States; or between a place in a Territory or possession of the United States, and a place in any other Territory or possession of the United States; and

(c) a place in the United States and any place outside thereof, whether such commerce moves wholly by aircraft or partly by

aircraft and partly by other forms of transportation.3 (22) “Landing area” means any locality, either of land or water, including airports and intermediate landing fields, which is used, or intended to be used, for the landing and take-off of aircraft, whether or not facilities are provided for the shelter, servicing, or repair of aircraft, or for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo.

(23) “Mail” means United States mail and foreign-transit mail.

(24) “Navigable air space” means air space above the minimum altitudes of flight prescribed by regulations issued under this Act.

(25) “Navigation of aircraft” or “navigate aircraft” includes the piloting of aircraft.

(26) "Operation of aircraft” or "operate aircraft” means the use of aircraft, for the purpose of air navigation and includes the navigation of aircraft. Any person who causes or authorizes the operation of aircraft, whether with or without the right of legal control (in the capacity of owner, lessee, or otherwise) of the aircraft, shall be deemed to be engaged in the operation of aircraft within the meaning of this Act.

(27) "Person” means any individual, firrn, copartnership, corporation, company, association, joint-stock' association, or body politic; and includes any trustee, receiver, assignee, or other similar representative thereof.

(28). "Propeller" includes all parts, appurtenances, and accessories thereof.

(29) "Possessions of the United States" means (a) Puerto Rico, notwithstanding the provisions of the Act of March 2, 1917, entitled "An Act to provide a civil government for Porto Rico”, and any other Act or Acts which are inconsistent with the provisions of this Act; (b) the Canal Zone, but nothing herein shall impair or affect thé jurisdiction which has heretofore been, or may hereafter be, granted to the President in respect of air navigation in the Canal Zone; (c) the Philippine Islands, except that the operation of civil aircraft within the jurisdiction of the Philippine Islands shall be governed by laws enacted by the legislature of the islands and by executive regulations designating air-space reservations or other prohibited areas; and (d) all other possessions of the United States.

(30) "Public aircraft” means an aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government or of any political subdivision thereof, including the government of any State, Territory, or possession of

3 See footnote 2 (p. 7).

the United States, or the District of Columbia, but not including any government-owned aircraft engaged in carrying persons or property for commercial purposes.

(31) "Spare parts” means parts, appurtenances, and accessories of aircraft (other than aircraft engines and propellers), of aircraft engines (other than propellers), of propellers and of appliances, maintained for installation or use in an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance, but which at the time are not installed therein or attached thereto. (Added by Act of June 19, 1948, 62, Stat. 493.)

(32) “United States” means the several States, the District of Columbia, and the several Territories and possessions of the United States, including the Territorial waters and the overlying air space thereof. (Numbering changed by Act of June 19, 1948, 62 Stat. 493.)

DECLARATION OF POLICY

Sec. 2 [52 Stat. 980, 49 U. S. C. 402] In the exercise and performance of its powers and duties under this Act, the Authority shall consider the following, among other things, as being in the public interest, and in accordance with the public convenience and necessity

(a) The encouragement and development of an air-transportation system properly adapted to the present and future needs of the foreign and domestic commerce of the United States, of the Postal Service, and of the national defense;

(b) The regulation of air transportation in such manner as to recognize and preserve the inherent advantages of, assure the highest degree of safety in, and foster sound economic conditions in, such transportation, and to improve the relations between, and coordinate transportation by, air carriers;

(c) The promotion of adequate, economical, and efficient service by air carriers at reasonable charges, without unjust discriminations, undue preferences or advantages, or unfair or destructive competitive practices;

(d) Competition to the extent necessary to assure the sound development of an air-transportation system properly adapted to the needs of the foreign and domestic commerce of the United States, of the Postal Service, and of the national defense;

(e) The regulation of air commerce in such manner as to best promote its development and safety; and

(f) The encouragement and development of civil aeronautics.

PUBLIC RIGHT OF TRANSIT

Sec. 3 [52 Stat. 980, 49 U.S. C. 403] There is hereby recognized and declared to exist in behalf of any citizen of the United States a public right of freedom of transit in air commerce through the navigable air space of the United States.

TITLE II—ORGANIZATION OF AUTHORITY

CREATION OF AUTHORITY

Appointment of Members of Authority Sec. 201 [52 Stat. 980, 49 U.S. C. 421] (a) An agency is created and established to be known as the “Civil Aeronautics Authority" which shall be composed of five members who shall be appointed by

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