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Historique (1841); Histoire de la République Romaine (1843-44); Histoire de France (1852); Histoire de la Grèce ancienne (1862), a work “crowned by the French Academy; Histoire moderne (1863); Histoire Populaire de la France (1863); Introduction Générale à l'Histoire de France (1865); Histoire des Romains depuis les temps les plus reculés jusqu'à la mort de Théodose (1879-88); Histoire de la Grèce (1887–89). Professor Duruy is Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor, Member of the Institute, and has received decorations from Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Turkey.
The Saturday Review, noting favorably the point and suggestiveness of M. Duruy's reflections on the general results of the conflicts between Rome and other nations, instances the following remarks on the destruction of Carthage:
THE FALL OF CARTHAGE.
If the historic circumstance were such that one of the two cities must perish, we ought not to regret that Rome was victorious. What progress does humanity owe to Carthage ? If there had been left to us of Rome nothing but the inscriptions on her tombs, we should have been able from them to reconstruct her civil and military organization, her philosophy and her religion, while the funeral columns of Carthage reveal nothing but a sterile devotion. The heritage left to the world by Carthage is this : the memory of a brilliant commercial success, of a cruel religion, of some bold explorations, a few fragments of voyages, a few agricultural precepts, of which the Latins had no need ; and, lastly, the honor of having for a century retarded the destinies of Rime, with the generous example, at their last hour, of an entire people refusing to survive their country. From The History of Rome, Dickson's Translation.
HOW HE BEGAN TO WRITE THE HISTORY OF FRANCE.
While a student of the third year in the École normale I had resolved with the ambition characteristic of that age—to devote my life to the writing of a History of France in eight or ten volumes. On becoming a professor I began the work ; but as I dug into the old Gallic soil I came upon Roman foundations, and that I might properly understand them I went to Rome. In Rome I became aware of the mighty influence that Greece had exerted upon Roman civilization ; one must go farther back and explore Athens.
Chroniclers tell us that whenever Godfrey de Bouillon entered a church splendid with painted glass and beautiful carvings, he would stand for hours gazing at the saintly figures and-however urgent his affairs might be unmindful of the passage of time, while reading the sacred legends and causing the histories of the saints to be recounted to him. He looked, he listened, and he could not tear himself away. Such was my own case in the two cities, each of which in its turn was the metropolis of genius. I remained so long contemplating all their grandeur and all their beauty that the work which was to have been preliminary study became the occupation of a lifetime. The two prefaces are two works—the History of Rome and the History of Greece. - From History of Greece, RIPLEY's Translation.
RELIGION OF THE EARLIER GREEKS.
The most complete, but rarest, sacrifice was the holacaust, where the victim, reserved for the god alone, was entirely consumed ; the most solemn was the hecatomb; the most efficacious, that in which the most precious blood was shed, as in the case of Iphigenia, a virgin daughter of the “ king of men.” The poor man, who could not give a living creature, offered little figures of paste, and the sacrifice was not unacceptable. Apollo especially exercised a moral influence over his worshippers. A rich Thessalian sacrifices at Delphi a hundred bulls with gilded horns, while a poor citizen of Hermoine comes up to the altar and throws upon it a handful of four. “Of these two sacrifices,” says the Pythia, “the latter is the more agreeable to the god.” The philosophers of the later times spoke in the same way, having no respect for the ostentation of costly sacrifices. But before their time Euripides had written : “Some men bring trivial offerings to the temples, and yet are perhaps more religious than those who offer fatted animals." Greece, which in its earliest period believed that only the great could be heard of the gods, in its maturity opened the temples and heaven itself to the poor and insignificant. This moral revolution was the counterpart to that political revolution which gave rights to those who, in the earliest days, had none.
The offerings must be pure, the victims perfect, the priest must be without personal blemish, the suppliant without an evil thought in his mind ; and no man approached an altar without having been purified by water -a symbol of moral purification. At the entrance to the temple stood a priest, who poured lustral water upon the hands and head of the faithful ; sometimes, even, a sort of baptism by immersion was considered necessary. In all religions purification is the essential in approaching a god. “But," says the Pythia, “while a drop of water is enough to purify the upright man, for the wicked all the waters of the ocean do not suffice;" and the priests of Asklepeios at Epidauros had written upon his temple : “True purity is made by holy thoughts.”—From the History of Greece.
DUTT, TORU, a Hindu poetess, was born at Calcutta, March 4, 1856; died there August 30, 1877. Her father, the Baboo Govin Chunder Dutt, a magistrate and justice of the peace, and a man of unusual culture and erudition, educated his children at home. These consisted of a son and two daughters; Abju, who died in 1865 at the age of fourteen, Aru, who died at twenty in 1874; and Toru. With her sister Aru, this remarkable scholar attended a French pension for four months, while visiting Europe with their father 1869 to 1872; otherwise the girls were never at school. They both became, however, most remarkable scholars; Toru acquired a thorough knowledge of French, English, German, as well as her native tongue, besides so perfect an acquaintance with Sanskrit that she was enabled to translate portions of the Vishnu Purana into English blank verse. In 1874 she published, in the Bengal Magazine, an essay on the works of Leconte de Lisle ; and in 1876, the year before her death, she issued the volume by which she is best known, A Sheaf Gleaned in French Fields. This book contained more than one hundred and fifty compositions in English ; while a second and enlarged edition, printed the year after her death, brought the number up to more than two hundred. Many of these compositions are translations into English of the writing of the best modern French poets. Early in 1879 appeared from the Paris press her Journal de Mlle. D'Arvers, a novel in French, which she had written after reading Clarisse Bader's work on the women of ancient India. This work, which was to have been illustrated by the sister whose death preceded her own, was given in manuscript to her father when Toru was upon her death-bed ; and, though in French and published in France, it attracted wide attention in England, because, as has been said by a recent reviewer, it is English in sentiment. Her Sonnets were published in 1882. Among her manuscripts was found also an unfinished romance in English, entitled Bianca, or The Young Spanish Maiden. This was her first venture in English prose. With it she left also a number of original English poems.
The following estimate of this young poetess of Sindhu is by Edmund Gosse: “ It is difficult to exaggerate when we try to estimate what we have lost in the premature death of Toru Dutt. Literature has no honors which need have been beyond the grasp of a girl who, before the age of twentyone, and in languages separated from her own by so deep a chasm, had produced so much of lasting worth. And her courage and fortitude were worthy of her intelligence. Among last words of celebrated people, that which her father has recorded, “It is only the physical pain that makes me cry,' is not the least remarkable, or the least significant of strong character. It was to a native of our island, and to one ten years senior to Toru,