A.D. 1101-1189. CRUSADES BY LAND. 239

possessed the entire circuit from Trebizond to the Syrian gates. The Seljukian dynasty of Roum 6 was separated on all sides from the sea and their Musulman brethren ; the power of the sultans was shaken by the victories and even the defeats of the Franks; and after the loss of Nice they removed their throne to Cogni or Iconium, an obscure'and inland town above three hundred miles from Constantinople.7 Instead of trembling for their capital, the Comnenian princes waged an offensive war against the Turks, and the first crusade prevented the fall of the declining empire.

In the twelfth century three great emigrations marched by land from the West to the relief of Palestine. The soldiers and Exped,tlons pilgrims of Lombardy, France, and Germany were excited ^c'j^t: by the example and success of the first crusade.8 Forty- crusade, eight years after the deliverance of the holy sepulchre, the ttic seconder emperor and the French king, Conrad the Third and Louis and the Seventh, undertook the second crusade to support the A.d. 1147;' falling fortunes of the Latins.9 A grand division of the Frederici., third crusade was led by the emperor Frederic Barbarossa,10 who sympathised with his brothers of France and England in the common loss of Jerusalem. These three expeditions may be compared, in their resemblance of the greatness of numbers, their passage through the Greek empire, and the nature and event of their Turkish warfare; and a brief parallel may save the repetition of a

4 See in the learned work of M. de Guignes (tom. ii. part ii.) the history of the Seljukians of Iconium, Aleppo, and Damascus, as far as it may be collected from the Greeks, Latins, and Arabians. The last are ignorant or regardless of the affairs of Roum*

'Iconium is mentioned as a station by Xenophon, and by Strabo with the ambiguous title of K*fiirikn h (Cellarius, tom. ii. p. 121). Yet St. Paul found in that place a multitude (rxifai) of Jews and Gentiles. Under the corrupt name of Kmijah, it is described as a great city, with a river and gardens, three leagues from the mountains, and decorated (I know not why) with Plato's tomb (Abulfeda, tabul. xvii. p. 303, vera. Reiske; and the Index Geographicus of Schultens from Ibn Said).

* For this supplement to the first crusade see Anna Comnena (Alexias, 1. xi. p. 331, tc., and the viiith book of Albert Aquensis).

1 For the second crusade, of Conrad III. and Louis VII., see William of Tyre (l. xvi. c. 18-29), Otho of Krisingen (1. i. c. 34-45, 59, 60), Matthew Paris (Hist. Major, p. OS), Struvius (Corpus Hist. Germanics?, p. ;i72, 373), Scriptores Reruin Francicaruio a Duchesne, tom. iv. j Nicetas, in Vit. Manuel, 1. i. c. 4, 5, 6, p. 41-48 (p. 80-90, ed. Bonn]; Cinnamus, 1. ii. p. 41-49 [ed. Par.; p. 73-89, ed. Bonn].

10 For the third crusade of Frederic Barbarossa, see Nicetas in Isaac. Angel. 1. ii. c. 3-8, p. 257-206 (p. 524-544, ed. Bonn]; Struv. (Corpus Hist. Germ. p. 414); and two historians, who probably were spectators, Tagino (in Scriptor. Freher. tom, i. p. 406416, edit. Struv.), and the Anonymus de Expeditione Asiatica Fred. I. (in Canisii Antiq. Lection, torn. iii. p. ii. p. 498-526, edit. Basnage).

* Compare Wilken, vol. i. Beilage, No. of Cellarius arc, "Strabo pauca in Lyii. p. 6, sqq.—S. "caonia memorat: imam urbem, Iconium:

b Strabo (xvi. p. 568) does not give this "unain mtt/unXit, victim instar oppidi, title to Iconium, nor does Cellarius say "Sontra videlicet: et unum vicum Corohe did. Gibbon must have read the "passum."—S.

|>a*3agu in Cellarius carelessly. The words


tedious narrative. However splendid it may seem, a regular story of the crusades would exhibit the perpetual return of the same causes and effects, and the frequent attempts for the defence or recovery of the Holy Land would appear so many faint and unsuccessful copies of the original.

I. Of the swarms that so closely trod in the footsteps of the first Their pilgrims, the chiefs were equal in rank, though unequal in numbers. fame ail(j merit, to Godfrey of Bouillon and his fellow adventurers. At their head were displayed the banners of the dukes of BurAJ). gundy, Bavaria, and Aquitain: the first a descendant of noi-1103. uUgh Capet, the second a father of the Brunswick line; the archbishop of Milan, a temporal prince, transported, for the benefit of the Turks, the treasures and ornaments of his church and palace; and the veteran crusaders, Hugh the Great and Stephen of Chartres, returned to consummate their unfinished vow. The huge and disorderly bodies of their followers moved forwards in two columns; and if the first consisted of two hundred and sixty thousand persons, the second might possibly amount to sixty thousand horse and one hundred thousand foot." * The armies of the second crusade might have claimed the conquest of Asia; the nobles of France and Germany were animated by the presence of their sovereigns, and both the rank and personal characters of Conrad and Louis gave a dignity to their cause, and a discipline to their force, which might be vainly expected from the feudatory chiefs. The cavalry of the emperor and that of the king was each composed of seventy thousand knights and their immediate attendants in the field;12 and if the light-armed troops, the peasant infantry, the women and children, the priests and monks, be rigorously excluded, the full account will scarcely be satisfied with four hundred thousand souls. The West, from Rome to Britain, was called into action; the kings of Poland and Bohemia obeyed the summons of Conrad; and it is affirmed by the Greeks and Latins, that, in the passage of a strait or river, the Byzantine agents, after a tale of nine hundred thousand, desisted from the endless and formidable computation."

"Anna, who states these later swarms at 4(1,000 horse and 100,000 foot, calls them Normans, and places at their head two brothers of Flanders. The Greeks were strangely ignorant of the names, families, and possessions of the Latin princes.

"William of Tyre, and Matthew Paris, reckon 70,000 loricati in each of the armies.

13 The imperfect enumeration ia mentioned by Cinnamus (fm>ii«>r* ftuf/^hi [p. 69,

* It was this army of pilgrims, the first litic enterprise, of striking at the heart of

body of which was headed by the arch- the Mahometan power, by attacking the

bishop of Milan and Count Albert of sultan in Bagdad. For their adventures

Blandnis, which set forth on the wild, yet, and fate see Wilken, vol. ii. p. 120, &c,

with a more disciplined army, not impo- or Midland, book iv.—M.


In the third crusade, as the French and English preferred the navigation of the Mediterranean, the host of Frederic Barbarossa was less numerous. Fifteen thousand knights and as many squires were the flower of the German chivalry; sixty thousand horse and one hundred thousand foot were mustered by the emperor in the plains of Hungary; and after such repetitions we shall no longer be startled at the six hundred thousand pilgrims which credulity has ascribed to this last emigration.14 Such extravagant reckonings prove only the astonishment of contemporaries, but their astonishment most strongly bears testimony to the existence of an enormous though indefinite multitude. The Greeks might applaud their superior knowledge of the arts and stratagems of war, but they confessed the strength and courage of the French cavalry and the infantry of the Germans;I5 and the strangers are described as an iron race, of gigantic stature, who darted fire from their eyes, and spilt blood like water on the ground. Under the banners of Conrad a troop of females rode in the attitude and armour of men, and the chief of these Amazons, from her gilt spurs and buskins, obtained the epithet of the Goldenfooted Dame.

II. The numbers and character of the strangers was an object of terror to the effeminate Greeks, and the sentiment of fear garage is nearly allied to that of hatred. This aversion was sus- uwarak pended or softened by the apprehension of the Turkish cmPlrepower; and the invectives of the Latins will not bias our more candid belief that the emperor Alexius dissembled their insolence, eluded their hostilities, counselled their rashness, and opened to their ardour the road of pilgrimage and conquest But when the Turks had been driven from Nice and the sea-coast, when the Byzantine princes no longer dreaded the distant sultans of Cogni, they felt with

ed. Bonn]), and confirmed by Odo de Diogilo apud Ducange ad Cinnamum, with the more precise sum of 900,556. Why must therefore the version and comment suppose the modest and insufficient reckoning of 90,000? Does not Godfrey of Viterbo (Pantheon, p. xix. in Muratori, tom. vii. p. 462) exclaim—

Numerum si noscere quadras,

Millia millena militis agmen erat.

"This extravagant account is given by Albert of Stade (apud .Struvium, p. 414); my calculation is borrowed from Godfrey of Viterbn, Arnold of Lubeck, apud eundem, and Bernard Thesaur. (c. 169, p. 804). The original writers are silent. The Mahometans gave him 200,000 or 260,000 men (Bohadin, in Vit. Saladin. p. 110 T. ii. c. 61]).

u I must observe that, in the second and third crusades, the subjects of Conrad and Frederic are styled by the Greeks and Orientals Alamtmni. The Lechi and Tzechi of Cinnamus are the Poles and Bohemians; and it is for the French that he reserves the ancient appellation of Germans. He likewise names the BfirTui, or

* He names both—B(!ttui Ti »«) R»it«««a—M.



purer indignation the free and frequent passage of the Western barbarians, who violated the majesty and endangered the safety of the empire. The second and third crusades were undertaken under the reign of Manuel Comnenus and Isaac Angelus. Of the former, the passions were always impetuous, and often malevolent; and the natural union of a cowardly and a mischievous temper was exemplified in the latter, who, without merit or mercy, could punish a tyrant and occupy his throne. It was secretly, and perhaps tacitly, resolved by the prince and people to destroy, or at least to discourage, the pilgrims by every species of injury and oppression; and their want of prudence and discipline continually afforded the pretence or the opportunity. The Western monarchs had stipulated a safe passage and fair market in the country of their Christian brethren; the treaty had been ratified by oaths and hostages; and the poorest soldier of Frederic's army was furnished with three marks of silver to defray his expenses on the road. But every engagement was violated by treachery and injustice; and the complaints of the Latins are attested by the honest confession of a Greek historian, who has dared to prefer truth to his country.16 Instead of an hospitable reception, the gates of the cities, both in Europe and Asia, were closely barred against the crusaders; and the scanty pittance of food was let down in baskets from the walls. Experience or foresight might excuse this timid jealousy; but the common duties of humanity prohibited the mixture of chalk, or other poisonous ingredients, in the bread; and should Manuel be acquitted of any foul connivance, he is guilty of coining base money for the purpose of trading with the pilgrims. In every step of their march they were stopped or misled: the governors had private orders to fortify the passes and break down the bridges against them: the stragglers were pillaged and murdered: the soldiers and horses were pierced in the woods by arrows from an invisible hand; the sick were burnt in their beds; and the dead bodies were hung on gibbets along the highways." These injuries exasperated the champions of the cross, who were not endowed with evangelical patience; and the Byzantine princes, who had provoked the unequal conflict, promoted the embarkation and march of these formidable guests. On the verge of the Turkish frontier Barbarossa

16 Nioetas was a child at the second crusade, but in the third he commanded against the Franks the important post of Philippopolis. Ciunamus is infected with national ■ prejudice and pride.

* The French crusaders, however, seem dence and politeness of Louis VI I, Wilken,

to have experienced a better treatment vol. iii. p. 137, N., and 141; Midland,

than the Germans who preceded them. vol. ii. p. 187.—S. This result was mainly owing to the pro-


spared the guilty Philadelphia,17 rewarded the hospitahle Laodicea, and deplored the hard necessity that had stained his sword with any drops of Christian blood. In their intercourse with the monarchs of Germany and France, the pride of the Greeks was exposed to an anxious trial. They might boast that on the first interview the seat of Louis was a low stool beside the throne of Manuel;,8 but no sooner had the French king transported his army beyond the Bosphorus than he refused the offer of a second conference unless his brother would meet him on equal terms either on the sea or land. With Conrad and Frederic the ceremonial was still nicer and more difficult: like the successors of Constantine, they styled themselves emperors of the Romans,19 and firmly maintained the purity of their title and dignity. The first of these representatives of Charlemagne would only converse with Manuel on horseback in the open field; the second, by passing the Hellespont rather than the Bosphorus, declined the view of Constantinople and its sovereign. An emperor who had been crowned at Rome was reduced in the Greek epistles to the humble appellation of Rex, or prince, of the Alemanni; and the vain and feeble Angelus affected to be ignorant of the name of one of the greatest men and monarchs of the age. While they viewed with hatred and suspicion the Latin pilgrims, the Greek emperors maintained a strict, though secret, alliance with the Turks and Saracens. Isaac Angelus complained that by his friendship for the great Saladin he had incurred the enmity of the Franks; and a mosque was founded at Constantinople for the public exercise of the religion of Mahomet.20

III. The swarms that followed the first crusade were destroyed in Anatolia by famine, pestilence, and the Turkish arrows; Turkish and the princes only escaped with some squadrons of horse wsrfareto accomplish their lamentable pilgrimage. A just opinion may be formed of their knowledge and humanity; of their knowledge, from the design of subduing Persia and Chorasan in their way to Jeru

"The conduct of the Philadelphiaus is blamed by Nicetas, while the anonymous German accuses the rudeness of his countrymen (culpa nostra). History would be pleasant if we were embarrassed only by such contradictions. It is likewise from Xicetas that we learn the pious and humane sorrow of Frederic.

"Xtmuuix.a iS{«, which Ciunamus translates into Latin by the word liXXin [p. 83, ed. Bonn]. Ducauge works very hard to save his king and country from such ignominy (sur Joinville, dissertat. xxvii. p. 317-320). Louis afterwards insisted on a meeting in mari ex aequo, not ex equo, according to the laughable readings of some MSS.

"Ego Romanorum imperator sum, ille Romanionim (Anonym. Canis. p. 512). The public and historical style of the Greeks was P«| .... primeps. Yet Cinnamus owns that 'lfi<i;<»> is synonymous to BanXii/i [p. 69, ed. Bonn].

"In the Epistles of Innocent III. (xiii. p. 184), and the History of Bohadin (p. 129, 130), see the views of a pope and a cadhi on this singular toleration.

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