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it is upon record, that even in the time If it be so; if the Romans, in the of Henry the Second, “the booths that combination of religious folemnity were in the church-yard being taken with architectural elegance, and milidown, a number of tenements are tary grandeur with civic accommo. erected in Long-lane (which must have dation, transplanted also into this counbeen upon this very spot) for such as try a mode of constructing houses will give great rents *.'
which, although upon a lower scale, In tracing the progress of architect- united some small portion of mecha. ure from the first rude cottages of the nical art with domestic comfort and ancient Britons, which, in point of convenience ; this method of build. construction, were very little superior ing seems also to have totally receded to the dens of the Oran Outang, the wit. them when they left the Inand; convenience and falubrity of which for it does not appear that their suc. so delighted a late philosopher, or the cellors, the Saxons, found many verwigwams of the American Indians, to tiges of former magnificence, or inthe magnificent palaces of the present deed of former utility, in compariilluminated era, it very naturally · son to what might have been expected strikes the speculative mind, that in from so polished a people, and those the progress of architectural (I mean they did find were chiefly adapted for domestic architectural) improvement, military purposes t. may be traced the progrels of moral However, though they did not find refinement, the progress of the mental palaces, or even comfortable houses, faculties, from the lowelt state of prepared for their reception, they were favage barbarity, to the very acme of io fortunate as not to know the use, enlightened and elegant civilization. and consequently not to feel the want
The ancient Britons, as we learn of, these conveniencies. Accustomed from Diodorus Siculus, lived in houses to live in camps, they found, like their made of reeds; and it is generally neighbours the Poles. I, every luxury allowed, that to the stations and garric that nature required in a rudely.confons of the Roman soldiers the first structed tent, or in a cottage composed regular cities and towns in the Inand of fods of earth and hurdles not nearly owe their origin ; but although from fo artificially framed as the habitations these, ir is faid, they loon after became of the Beaver, and almost as closely acquainted with a better style of build. aitapted to their bodies as the hell of ing, this must be understood only to
a Smail. mean with respect to public works, During the times of the Saxons and such as temples, aqueducts, castles, Danes, it appears, that the architecture walls, &c. on which their captives and which the former introduced, and criminals were employed, without we which has generally, though in many can believe that they had, so early as instances improperly, been termed Go. the time of Augulis, commodious thic, was contined entirely to churches, inns, inan lions, and mutations, for the castles, and public buildings, while the accommodation of travellers, changing houses that meltered the lower clafles of horses, &c.
of society were, even in cities, mile.
* Stow : Seymour, Vol. I. p. 747, &c. t Agricola exhorted the Britons, in private, to erect temples, houses, and places of public resort. After they had adopted the taste of the Romans in their buildings, their attire, particularly the Togu, also became fashionable. As they had thus imi. tated the architecture and drels, they proceeded, step by itep, to copy the vices of their matters. They had magnificent palaces, baths, and exquisite banquettings. These ?hings, which their honest fimplicity led them to believe were the mere effects of Latian civility, formed a part of their bondage.
f I have somewhere read a passage comparing the houses of the Polanders (who, confidering the short duration and great charge of building, very wisely measured thew Atruciure by the fize of the bodies that were to inhabit them, and used to say, if they lasted their lives it was enough ; let their children build for themselves) with the magnificent palaces of ancient Rome, from which, as from the following ob. fervation of Seneca, a useful moral may be deduced :
“ Romæ Olim Culmum liberos texise, postea sub * Marmore atque auro fervitutem habitasie.".
rable cottages, the walls of which were communication betwixt the two Palace composed of mud,and the roofs thatched Yards, teemed, by time and expolure with reeds or Atraw; perhaps, for I to the air, to have acquired almolt the think they could not be much worse, hardneis of iron, while other pieces, like the cabins in Ireland, the Highland that had been placed in ciose, and procots, or some of the hovels which I bably damp, tituations, were by worms have seen in Wales, or indeed, to come so curiouily and intricately perforated, nearer home, the cells in Nottingham. that, though less regular, they exhibited thire, where, an ancient Author ob- fomewhat of the appearance of a honey. serves, “ the people are true Troglo- comb t. However, there ipecimens of dites, such as inhabit the Mountains ancient materials ferved to thew, that of the Moon in Ethiopia, who hew although the Norman arcivitects had their houses out of the rocks *." doubtlels adopted thein from motives
Under the reigns of the Norman of interest, their itability had done creKings, although the magnificent piles dit to their choice. itill remaining thew the flourishing During the reigns of the Plantage. state of Gothic architecture, there nets, the mode of contructing houles, seems to have been little improvement story projecting over itory, such as we in the construction of buildings for see in the Plate which gave rise to this domestic purposes.
fpeculation, was adopted in England, I think it was subsequent to this ära probably the itile was imported from that even a second story was added to Paris, with the buildings of which the common houses, the ascent to which wars had made our ancestors familiar I. was by lleps on the outside. Many This general mode continued, without dwellings of this description, of itone, any very great improvement made upon though of a later date, are still to be it, except in fome few initances by the seen in the northern parts of this introduction of bricks, through the Illand. In the metropolis, at the early long series of years that elapsed until period to which I allude, they were the fire of London ; for although leve almost entirely constructed of wood ; ral proclamations of Elizabeth, James, and it is curious to observe, that aland Charles the First, enjoined and though we had iinmente quantities of commanded that the houses in London native timber, the Normandy chelnut, should be built with stone and brick, probably under the influence of per. and not with lath, plaister, and woud, fons attached to the Court, and upon and that the regularity and evennels of the recommendation of Norman archie the itreets should be attended to, yet, tects, came generally into use ; of which such was the attachment of the builders some of the beams and crollets of the to their old itile and materials, that roof and other parts of Westminíter soon after their promulgation they were Hall, the ancient timber work in the generally negleed. So that, says adjacent Abbey, and in other buildings Howell, an author who wrote about of that period, are sufficient specimens. the year 1650, “there is not, in LonMany pieces of this woord I observed don, the elegance of building as in when a part of the Exchequer Chambers other cities, nor are their streets 10 were taken down in order to widen the trait and lightiome, by reason that the
* The same might have been said of the tenants of the cavern houses near Bridge. north, and of the Reditone house on the bank of the Severn, a few miks below B-wil. ley ; the latter of which, although in a superior itile from the rock, containing a number of caverns, which are very artificially formed into chambers, is certainly conitructed, with refpect to rendering it habitable, upon the same principle. This house, which is nearly covered with ivy or other clinging plants, forms, when viewed from the river, on the fore ground of a beautitul lanuicape, one of the most pretua relque objects that can be imagined.
# In ccnlequence of this dilapidation, immense quantities of ancient tallies of the fame wood were found, perforated by worms, in the same curicus manner.
I J-hn Duke of Bedford, Regent of France during the mmerity of Henry the Sixih, resided in the Palace of Turnelles, Paris, which was only separated from the Baltille by Si. Antoine-itreet. This manfiore he enlarged and embellthed to that degree, that Charles the Sever th preferred it for his residence to the Hotel ot S:. Paul, which was oppolite. In some very ancient prints of the Battills, a tolerably cuitect idea is given of the old buildings in this street,
houses paunch out, and their stories hang pends, this notice of a place which, as over each other."
an a' pendage to the priory of St. Of this ancient method of construct Bartholomnew, has been of considerable ing houses paunching out, and stories importance, may serve to rescue from overhanging each other, the long ranve oblivion this part of the old city, and, of those in Long lane is the most perfekt like the description of a street recospecimen, if this term may be appl ed vered from the ruins of Pompeia, may, to imperfection, of any that I hive though of little importance for its ele. seen ; for although their fronts may, gance, vet as it is connected with comwith respect to rough casting or cale mon life, and glancing at the Plate to ing, have been more than once altered, which I have referred, as it leads the it is certain the skeleton timbers, and mind to reflections on the manners of consequently their original deformity, the times. become an object both of remains; therefore if an ob'erver takes antiquarian and philosophic curiosity. his Itand at the first of these, and conliders the whole series, I think he may
POWIS HOUSE, POwis Wells, &c. form a tolerable idea of a Itreet or lane The lite of Guilford-treet was for. in the old city.
merly a foot-path, which, leading from In reflecting upon these buildings, the Earl of Rosslyn's house, Southand extending his view to a metropolis, ampton row, by the back of Queenthe greater part compo!ed of these kind Square, and the front of the Foundling of fabricks, he will not wonder that Hospital terminated in Gray's Insa fires should have been frequent, and lane. Lamb's Conduit-place was erected the devaltation occafioned by them on the ground occupied by a few enormous, or that peitilential difeales Itraggiing cortiges, one of which, let it thould have been engendered, especi. be remembered, as an instance ot for. ally when we may supole that this mer frugality, or the cheapness of the suburb was deemed airy in comparison tinies, was a Farthing Cheese Cake to what was termed the heart of the House. Further on, and, as I think, city, and certainly had a much freer nearly at the back of the garden of circulation ; but he will wonder in Powis Houte, Itood Powis Wells. The these days of general improvement, manfion itself, which, being the most when so much dilapidation has taken important object, I shall first observe place, and changes, such as the song ", upon, bad its front in Great Ormondwhich I fear was intended as a satire treei, and was, within my memory, upon projectors, alludes to, are in con. tenanted by the Earl of Northington templation, that such houses should so and other Lord Chancellors Formerly long have stood in so prodigious a it was, as its name implied, the res thoroughfare, and, for such a long term fidence of the Earl of Powis. About of years, have impeded the way to the the year 1734 it was occupied by the greatest market in the kingdoni. Conde Montejo, the Spinilb Ambassa.
As I have, from report, understood, dor, with whole Lady the Dutchess of that over the roofs of thele houses the Wharton t, who had been one of the angel or demon of dilapidation im. Maids of Honour to the Queen of
" We'll carry St. Paul's unto Werminlter Hall,
• Where the Lawyers of old used to plead," &c. + This Lady, with whom the Duke became violently in love, and whom he married in Spain, has been represented as a bighly-accomplished and most amiable woman. It has been said, that tor a contiderable tiine the expressed the utmost reluctance to this match, but was at laft induced to content, from the hope of reforming him. The event thewed, that estimable as her talents were, the had rated them too highly, when the supposed, that her mild virtues and elegant accomplishments would, for any length of time, influer.ce a temper so versatile, and a heart to depraved, as those of her husband.
It has been liated, that the Conde Montejo, who paid more attertjon to political than d meltic arrangements, had suffered very considerably by a combination betwixt his fervants and tradeimen ; the bacter of whom probably thought, that while horalfing a Spaniard they were ferving their country, and che torner, who were many of the English, ibat, as Chriftians, they were bound to take the firanger in,
Spain, came as a companion. It is lin- considerably more so than many which, gular enough, that this magnificent under that appellation, we fee adverhouse was erected at the expence of the tized, which should, from the florid de. King of France (Lewis the XIVth), scription that follows, be rather termed upon the foundation of one belonging palaces : it had a long narrow garden, to the Powis family, which was de the beds of which were bordered, and stroyed by fire in the reign of Queen the walks curiously inlaid with oysterAnne, during the time that the Duc shells, and was, in days of yore, famous d'Aumont, then French Amballador, for a chalybeate spring, which two was its inhabitant. It may be curious boards, more than fix feet high, cut to recollect, that the front of this into the shape of grenadiers, and most building was adorned with a cornice furioully emblazoned, stood to guard. and pilaiters of ttone, upon walls of This place, from the adjacent manvery excellent brick work. Over the sion and the salubrious spring, was porch, which was supported by co. called Powis Wells, and, although in a lumns of the Corinthian order, was declining state, was kept open till past displayed the sculptured figure of a the niidule of the lait century. It was Phoenix rising from the flames, which, latterly not only frequented by convathough not a very new, was certainly lescents, who uled every morning to an appropriate emblem of the dreaatul pursue the goddess of health, like a accident that had happened upon the tennis ball, from one garden-wall to spot, and of the new mantion that had the other, but was, toward the decline arisen from its alhes. The hall and of day, the resort of civic and suburb. principal stair-case of this magnificent ian family parties, probably many such building were painted by Amiconi, as are defcribed in the third print of and I have been informed, that the Hogarth's graphic Novel of the Four ceilings of the grand suite of apart Times of the Day. ments were also historically or em. We were then so illiterate, so un. blematically painted, in circles and polished, and indeed so unfortunate, compartments, which were surrounded, as not to have any Lactariumis. .We divided, and adorned, by fome exqui. thould then have as soon expected to fitely-finished groupes and feftoons of find a room wherein we might have flowers, such as nuw decorate those of digelted a syllabus as swallowed a the British Museum, hy Baptilte. syllabub; but close to the garden
At the back of the garden wall of pales of the cottage I am celebrating, this palace, as I observed in the be were cows, cukes, her.ches, milk.maids, ginning of this speculation, was lowly and other rural cates and conveniena lituated a house of entertainment. It cies, al fresco. was a little in the cottage stile, indeed This Imall manfion, it is probable, Be this as it may, these dilapidators of the revenue of the Conde the Dutchels had the lagacity to discover, and the spirit to suppress. After she had, with lill and accuracy, developed the combination and ichemes which had caused such contution in the domeitic affairs of the fainily, the ordered advertilements to be published, directing thole that had any pecuniary concerns with the establishment of the Ambala lador to apply to her at Powis Houte. The bills, aiter undergoing a severe scrutiny, and suffering a considerable reduction, were pair ; thole Engliih levants who had exercited their ingenuity upon the finances of Spain were discharged ; the accounts were, from this time, audited every week, and lettled once a month. In contequence of this arrangement, a scene of confusion and exirayagance was reduced to a fyftem of regularity and order, and that enormous plunder and peculation which was no less a dilgrace to the country than to its alithors in future prevented,
When we connder the talents of this Lady, who seemed exaziy the woman formed to correct the vices of the Duks, and to have retteitä him to that ficuarius in the public esteem which his abilities merited, how must we lament that he did not meet with her before his health, character, and tortune, were lo decayed, blasted, and dilipated, that he did not even himleit seem to think it was worth while to fruggle with his pathions, even for a short period, to preferve either, she might, perhaps, had the connexion taken place in carlier lie i the might though indeed it is hard to conje iure what'ettect her genius and her prudence would, at any period, have had upon the mind of a man, who was acknowledged to be a great wita and consequently, according to the Poet, nearly allied to intanity,
would not have been mentioned, had it and sometimes by the humane amusenot presented to the mind a curious ments of throwing at cocks and hunt. speculation, namely, the change that ing a mad bull, parties engaged in the has, within these fifty years, been pursuit of these pastimes tieq ently effected in the appearance of its fitua- extended over the fields whereon Rutiei tion, and its converfion, froin being the and Brunswick squares, and other suscene of mechanic rudeness, and vul- perb assemblages of palaces, are now gar hilarity and dissipation, to that erected or erecting. Ty item of magnificence, fobriety, order, These calebrations, which and decorum, which must be supposed sometimes of such importance as to to exist, when the elegance of the attract the attention of the Magistrate, houses built upon its lite, and the it is certain also attracted a valt influx affluence, and consequently politeness, of company to Powis Wells, from the of the present race of their inhabitants windows of which, and a prospect place are considered.
at the top, the distant (ports were un. It certainly is not prudent in an questionably enjoyed by them while Author to affront his readers; and I they partook the refrelhments the hof. know of no offence against good man pitable roof afforded. ners that is considered much more When, in consequence of these meetheinous than carrying their recol. ings, Powis Wells became firit dir. Jection too far back ; yet still I hope I reputable, and then, by reason of the Thall be excused if I presume that a few forfeiture of their licence, were abanof mine can remember, when they were doned, the house was dilapidated, after very young, near this spot, a field, de having continued some time in a ruinnominated the Long, or rather, from ous state. By the rise of new buildings, having a pond at the furtheit extremity the people, bricked out from their former somewhat in the shape of that toy, the scenes of festivity, were forced to seek Kite Pield; or perhaps, if upon ro more diftant places of amulement, and important a subject one might venture numerous public gardens arose. Thus an opinion, from the amulement there as they changed their situation, so they in derived from that ingenious play, did their retreshments. Cakes and ale thing, which I conceive to be the me. were metamorphosed into coffee, tea, dium betwixt the wings of the good and hot loaves ; a change probably Bishop Wilkins, or, if my classic friends much for the better. Their sports, too, please, of Dedalus and Icarus, and a underwent as material an alteration ; modern balloon.
Boxing, wrestling, prison-base, and Near this spot was a famous wrest. cricket, were, by our metropolitan ling-ground, which, like the area by youth, abandoned for the evening walk, the ancients termed Pulvis, had some and the agreeable fociety of the Ladies. times a boundary of line and posts, Their manners were refined by female wherein ihe atliletic youth, in the man. conversation, their hearrs softened by ner of the Romans in the Pentathlum, music, their minds attuned to rapture used, in filannel dresses, or naked from by the dulcet strains of voices Hebrew the waist upwards, to contend for the or Christian, their morals of these prize, either in running, leaping, I Mall say nothing; if any change has wrestling, throwing the quoit, or been effected in them, I ardently hope boxing. In the pugilistical art there it is for the better, especially as, from were many as celebrated as Epeus, the improvements fo rapidly proceeding, who is laid to have been the best it is not to be expected that the pupils bruiser in his time; and as he was of pleasure will long have these Lyceums also famous for being the constructor to resort to, but are likely to be again of the wooden horie, and for making walled out of their pbilojephical retreats. ladders, it is fair to suppose that lie When upon the sites of many of our was, like fone of those heroes, a car. te?-gardens, as has already been the penter.
cale with Dobney's Bowling green and The exhibitions of this spot, which others. genteel houses or magnificent I have endeavoured to rescue from ob- palaces are erected, or their thrubberies, livion, were occasionally varied by the walks, basons, &c. are transferred into Hibernian diversion of hurling, from the areas of superb squares, the plans of which many a fracture and didlocation which are perhaps yet in petto, where has ensued. By the rural sport of pri- the lower order of the sexes will meet fon-bule, the manly exercise of cricket, to form those agreeable connexions