ficent city destroyed by time and the It is the most beautiful prospect ima. hands of barbarians. M. de Peyssonel, ginable. who has given a description of it, To the right of Sardis, towards the seems to have taken a very superfi- fouth, is another very pleasant valley, cial view of it. The drawing of five watered by a river, which, as well as columns of an ancient temple situated the Pactolus, discharges itself, in the on the plain towards the west, con- plain, into the Hermus. tained in his work, is by no means The caitle of Sardis is fituated on the accurate. By a pedestal which is still declivity of the mountain. We climbed Standing it appears, that this temple, to it, not without considerable danger, which was supported by three rows for we were obliged to creep on hands of columns, was nivegy-seven paces in and feet over a narrow ridge of land on length, measuring from the above the edge of a precipice ; there is like. pedeltal to the opposite column in the wile another on the other side, but a first row, by fifty-nine in breadth. kind of a parapet prevents one from These columns, as far as they can at seeing it. This pals was defended by present be seen, are nearly thirty feet that sort of turret which the Turk's in height. The temple is of the Ionic now call Kiz-Koulesi. It is supposed to order, and of the higheit antiquity; have been erected by the Persians. from the beauty of the workmanlhip There is absolutely nothing in the of what still remains, an idea may be castle, which was built by the barba. formed of its magnificence ; it was rians from the ruins of the ancient dedicated, according to all appearance, city. We found in the wall a done to Juno pro nuba, the goddess whose reversed, with a Greek inscription, worthip was established at Sardis. which it is almost impossible to de

In the plain, to the north, and not cypher : all that we could make out far from the high road, are some beau was, that it related to a Steptanophoros tiful ruins of a vast edifice, which like archiereus tis Alias. It is well known, wire seems to have been a temple : that the dignity of liarch was the close by it is a building, erected in part highest dignity in the church; that it from the ruins, which may be pre. was elective and annual ; and that it Sumed to have been a Chrittian church. was ulually conferred on the moit dir. Farther distant, towards the Pactolus, tinguished person amongst the clergy. is a wall, which once conitituted part of the large cities of Alią. of an inimense circular edifice relein To the north of Sardis, at the dir. bling an amphitheatre. These ruins tance of forty Itadia, according to Heare of a date anterior to the Romans, rodotus, is the Lake of Gyges, which but not so ancient as the time of Cre. the Turks call Innligheul. It is very Sus, when the arts had not yet attained extenlive, reaching to the mountains of a certain degree of perfection. A little Marmar. The northern shore of this lower is the Pactolus, which traversed lake riles in a flope towards Sardis. the Forum. It is a small river, the On this spot, which the Turks at prewater of which is excellent, and very sent call Bing Tépé, are the tombs of Jimpid. It rises the Tmolus, and the ancient Kings of Sardis., They in winter inundates the valley through are very numerous, but three tumuli which it directs its course. We en are particularly remarkable : the nearcamped on its bank.

est of them to the plain is that of AliaOn the first eminence to the south thes, the father of Cresus. Herodotus of the town is a level spot, where pro fays, that it is fix itadia and two plethra bably stood the palace of the Kings; in circumference, and thirteen plethra and further south, on tlie moit elevated in height. It is very lingular, that Summit of this projection of the bases of these Three tombs, although circu. Tmolus was situated the Theatre of 'lar at the bale, approach much nearer Şirdis, the profienium of which was 158 tie pyramidal form towards the top paces wide. The Stadium, fupported than ile others ; perhaps from a hy large arcles, is placed exactly oppo. detire of the Kings of those times fire the theatre ; the mountain on the to imitate the Egyptian pyramids. leit, formed of earth, like Mount Besides these, a multitude of other Imolus in general, was cut into steps ruins, both ancient and inodern, is for the spectators. The view from to be seen at Sirdis, that atreit the thepice overlooks the whole plain of great resolutions which this celebrated Surilis and the neighbouring mountains. city bas fuccellively experienced. All

these ruins are of a greyish stone pro Wednesday, 6. _Quitting Gueldgik, cured from the quarries of Mount you descend the Tmolus into the plain Tmolus. The plain of Sardis, which of Eudemiche, situated three hours formerly made a part of the Hyrcanian journey distant. The fides of the fields, so called from the colonies which Tmolus are covered with vines, and the Kings of Persia eitablished there, the wine made there is still of such is but little cultivated. Probably the excellent quality as to deserve the inundations of the Hermus, which diro praises bestowed on it by ancient gufted the natives of antiquity with it, authors. They are likewise decorated have likewise deterred the modern with beautiful plantations of olive. ones. We observed no villages in it: trees, which extend into the plain of all this vast tract is occupied by No. Eudemiche. This plain forms part of madic Turcomans, who pasture their the Cilbianian fields of the ancients. flocks there. The city of Sardis itself It is every where fertile and well is reduced to about fifteen Turkish cultivated. Eudemiche is a small town houses, forming a population of less with a great trade in cotton, linen, and than 100 persons, including the Aga corn. and his suite. The prelent inbabit. Thursday, 7. An hour's march from ants of the town appear to be mi. Eudemiche, at the foot of Mount Tmo. terably poor, and the Pactolus no lus, we found the remains of the an. longer sweeps along his golden land for cient town of Hyppepa, spoken of by thein.

Herodotus, and one of the twelve Tuesday, 3. Leaving Sardis at six towns destroyed by a great earthquake o'clock in the evening, we crolled in the reign of Tiberius. They confift Mount Tmolus to go to Eudemiche. of the arches of a large edifice, in About a league from Sardis are ful perfect preservation. There are likephureous hot baths, in a place called wise other arched ways and arches of by the Turks Tchamour. We stopped a bridge over a wide ravine, inundated there a few hours to see the affuence in winter by a torrent. This place is of the company collected there from now called Tappui. We there found all parts : it is part of the pleasure a beautiful mutilated ftatue of a woman, of the Turks. We palled over Mount which a Turk fold to M. Cousineri for Tmolus in the night': it is very high, soo paras, at the same time loudly ridi. and full of dangerous passes and pre- culing the folly of the Francs, wbo, as cipices. About four o'clock in the he said, gave such an extravagant price morning we arrived at a place called for such rubbish. The Turks of this Gueldjik, about fix leagues from village are extremely savage, and all Tchamour. It is an extensive plain the people at work in the plain ran to upon Mount Tinolus itself, at the see us puls. The country which con. southern extremity of which is a small tains the ruins of Hyppera appears not lake abounding in fith, surrounded to have been at all known, as no trawith gardens and country houses, veller has yet spoken of it. whitber the Turks of the adjacent Friday, 8. From Euderniche to Buy. villages resort to spend the summer. endir is about seven hours journey. This is one of the most delightful spots The town of Thyra is situated at the that I have seen in Turkey. It is foot of the mountain that forms the covered with beautiful trees; horse. Southern limit of the plain denominated chelnuts, chelnuts, walnuts of the by the ancients the lower Cilbianian Jarget growth and the greatest beauty; fields. This whole tract is the finest Iulian poplars, of which the Turks plain I have seen in Turkey : it is are particularly fond, form charming embellished with trees, and perfectly thades; you likewise see great num.

well cultivated in every part. The bers of fruit-trees. The view of the town of Thyra, which is very large, Jake, towards the fouth, is bunded by was probably the ancient Mastaoura. a lofty ever-verdient hill, crowned with On a high hill beiore the town is a trtes ; on the banks of the lake is a large tumulus, and another Imall one imut surrounded with a low Itone will, lower down towards the plain. Bayen. planted with superb plantain and wil. dir is a tolerable town, at the foot of low lees, where the Turks ailemble to Mount Tmolus, with a confiderable prayers, for want of a molque. The trade. light of this ceremony reminded us Upon leaving that place, you de. of the temples of the primitive ages. scend into the Caitrian fields, the


northern part of which, like the plain cate, that that ancient town existed in of Thyra, is decorated with olive.trees the vicinity of Tourbali, if even the to the very fummit of the mountains ; latter place be not erected on its ruins. the rest is cultivated with corn. The A little farther are seen the remains banks of the Caister exhibit a view of of a grand aqueduct which traverses sice-fields and gardens in the Turkith the whole plain, where flows the #tyle. This plain is separated by hills Kenkrios of the ancients, which dire from that of Tourbali

, which is almost charges itself into the Caister. This entirely uncultivated : In the latter plain is separated from that of Djama plain was situated the metropolis of the Ovasi by a range of small eminences, as ancients. To the north-west of Tour is the latter from that of Sedikoi, bali, near a sheep-fold, we discovered where we arrived on Saturday the gth, a cemetery, with marble columns and about nine o'clock in the evening. enormous stones ; which seem to indi.

N0. VI.



“Ορώ γαρ ημάς εδέν οντας άλλο, πλην
Είδωλο, οσοι σερ ζωμεν, ή κύφην σκίαν. SOPH. A. FLAG

Frail mortals are no more
Than a vain image, and an empty Made. FRANCKLIN.

: for a man ent traits of a man's character, it the pofseflion of honours which otliers too frequently happens, that Pride is to acquired, or to be vain of an alliance be found in the number of those fail. with those who subítitute inaction for ings which present themselves to our labour, and are influenced by no other oblervation. In a few rare instances motive than that of their own gratifica.

may be surprised to meet with it in tion ? Were nobility conferred only men posteffed of respectable mental upon those who should distinguish them.' attainments ; but we commonly find it felves by their benevolence, their tain those whom we thould have supposed lents, or their erudition, the boast of to be devoid of every pretension to extraction might not be without some vanity. The fondling of fashion may apology ; but until it be so, it cannot indeed, instead of condemning it as a be reconciled to reason. ftáin, regard it as the badge of dignity Wealth is another source from which and independence; but to a philofo. Pride very frequently proceeds. He phic mind it cannot assume a more who, not raised by education above the favowable appearance than that of a prejudices of the crowd, has proposed pitiable weakness. Various are the to himself riches as the sole object of causes which give birth to it in differ. his defires, will very probably betray ent individuals ; but none of them, an elation of mind, when he finds him-' when subjected to the scrutiny of re self surrounded by the comforts which flection, will be found sufficient to are now within his reach, and invested fupport it.

with that authority which opulence A title is but rarely unaccompanied' confers. Having succeeded in the by a considerable share of self-import. only pursuit to which he has applied ance, and many in a subordinate fta- himself, he will not be wanting in tion of life value theniselves not a commendations of his own activity little that they are able to trace an and prudence; and, taught from his affinity to some distant branch of nobi. youngest years to consider wealth as lity. But what can be more absurd, the only standard of precedency, he

• The reason why the plain of Thyra is so well cultivated is, because it is under the immediate jurisdiction of the Khass of Conftantinople, and confequently is not fubje&i io the vexations as the adjacent country, ruined by petty Agas.


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will accordingly allot to himself no perhaps five hundred years ago. IF mean rank in the scale of society. But he has ever felt inclined' to esteem is it not folly for man to pride himself himself for the firmness of his virtue, upon the possession of those things, or the constancy of his faith, he will be which he must so soon lose ? Is it not confounded when he recurs to the ingratitude, nay even presumption, in history of those who have not contented hiin to arrogate to bimself merit, be. themselves with mere negative merit, cause Providence has deigned to smile an inoperative' affent,, but have upon his exertions? .

manfully 'faced every temptation, But Pride is by no means confined to proved every ordeal, and sealed their those who are exalted by, dignity of lincerity with their blood. Thus con extraction, or swollen by the greatness vinced of his own comparative un of wealth. In many it proceeds from a worthiness,' he will not fuffer himself blind admiration of themselves. To to be in fated by the unqualified com. any one who will listen to their self- mendations of ignorance or hypocrify: praise, they will enumerate with eager; if at any time he discovers, that the nels different instances of their good ramparts which he has raised are en conduct, will repeat with exultation dangered by the aggreslions of human their happy observations or their keen vanity, he immediately rallies into the retorts, or will recount with invidious line of his recollection all the failings malignancy the rocks which have of which he is conscious, and itrengthproved fatal to others, but which they ens his fort' by the accession of every have been prudent enough to escape, consideration which can tend to secure They will seek commendation for their his defence. honesty ; and their religion will be : It may not be improper here to of

many affect to esteem remembered, that our very best actions pride, as being of service to them are stained by imperfections, and may in refining their notions of honour too frequently be traced to some finil. and decorum, and guarding them ter motive ; and that even when we are agzinst every action which would be most upon our guard, numberless in- derogatory to their character. But it stances of negligence and transgression, is an abuife of language to give the of ingratitude, inpatience, and arro name of Pride to that noble principle, gance, meet the piercing eye which which elevates us into virtue. That pervades the universe.

greatness of mind which is alluded to When Pride does not proceed from cannot but be disgustert with the swell any of the foregoing causes, it may, lings of self-sufficiency for the inolt part, be attributed to Many argument's might be adduced ignorance. Indeed, this may be per- to Mew the absurdity of pride, and to haps imputed, in soine degree, to such prove, that it is a matter of the greatest as have been already mentioned with importance to prevent it from obtain. the greatett propriety. But there is ing in our brexits. a very numerous clals of men, whole In the first place, it renders as ob. excesive self-esteem can only be ac., noxious to our fellow.creatures. counted for by referring it to the will occur to every attentive observer, weakness of their undertandings or that he who evidently admires himself the deficiency of their information. is seldom admired by others. Althougfi He who is unconscious of the super he may be poffefred of

many amable riority of others, will readily admir qualities, which of themselves are enthe inroads of that vanity which is titled to our esteem, still the oftentatalways allailing the human heart. But tjous display of thein is to loatlicme to he who is capable of forming a correct lls, that we view lis conduct with pre. eltimate of those around him, will pro- judice, and feel inclined to withhold bably discover, that he is outdone by the commendation which is really due. many in every attainment upon which The humble man, on the contrary, he may value himself. If he has ever infomates himself into our favour. congratulated himself that he has itruck We frequently place that to the acout some original thought, he will

, count of his diltidence which is in fact possibly, in the course of his reading, owing to his ability ; his failings be surprised by the occurrence of the we pass over with an air of peculiar very same idea in an author who lived indulgence, and his excellencies, when

· developed

developed from the cloud of modefty, call to mind the endless myriads of Shine forth upon us with redoubled beings who exift as well as himself ; Splendour.

he will be astounded. The further he But if Pride be offensive to our fel. proceeds in the path of fcience, the !ow.creatures, how odious must it be more unbounded prospect will contiin the light of Him who made us ; who nually open upon his view; and from is acquainted with all the infirmities of the unnumbered objects which distract our nature, and the inmost secrets of his attention, he will turn to himself our hearts ! He surely cannot behold, with confusion and abasement. But without disgust, a creature so worthless if he raise his thoughts to the omnipoand lo insignificant as man, erecting his tent Ruler of the Universe, he will lose crest, and presuming to think highly of himself in wonder and admiration. himself. The sacred writings, whilst What must be his ideas of Him in they abound with the ftrongelt denun- whose fight a thousand years are but as ciations against the proud, at the same yesterday, 'when it is paft, or as a watch time hold forth the largest promises to in the night; who meajuretb out the waters the humble. It is worthy of remark, in tbe hollow of his hand; who weigbeth that our Saviour's celebrated Sermon on the mountains in scales and the hills in a ibe Mount commences with a gracious balance ; who looketb down upon the inba. benediction upon such as are poor in fpi- bitants of the earth as upon grasshoppers ; rit.

and stretcherh out the heavens as a curtain. The contemplative man will, in the Such reflections as theie are well calcourse of bis meditations, be supplied culated to reduce the pride of man, almost every day with additional reasons and to paint to him his own worthlett. for bumbling bimself even unto the duft. ness and insignificance in their proper He will retleet, that but a short time colours: they will tend to awaken his ago he received his existence, and that admiration of that incomprehensible in a few years at most he will be num- Being whose presence is unbounded by bered with the dead ; that possibly at space, and will teach him to build his the very moment at which he is thus hopes on no other balis than that of reflecting, Fate may be breaking the the Rock of Ages. Though the conthread which supports him from drop. fideration of his own weaknefs and ping into eternity; that when he re. unimportance may be ungrateful to signs his breath, he will be confined to the vanity of human nature, itill he is the glooniy prison of the grave ; that not left without a consolation. The his absence will not be missed in comfort which he derives under this society ; but that after a few friends depreision, cannot be exprefied better have paid him the pious tribute of à than by borrowing the language of tear, his memory will perhaps perish Adelifon. After proving that the prefor ever. If he look into himself, he sence and cognizance of the Deity exwill find that he is a creature whole tend to the most minute particle of {phere of knowledge is circumscribed creation, the unrivalled Penman adds, in the extreme, whose miseries are that “ As it is impossible he thould complicated, whose impotence is con- overlook any of his creatures ; so we temptible, whose heart is corrupt. may be confident, that he regards with Should he review the tenor of his life, an eye of mercy those who endeavour a ghastly group of Gns will stare him in to recommend themselves to his no. the face, and he will brink back from tice, and in an unfeigned humility of beart the survey with horror and remorse. think themselves unworthy that he If he turn his attention to the wonders hould be mindful of them.” of creation ; if he contemplate the in

AURELIUS. finitude of the heavenly bodies ; if he January 6tb, 1803.


H3 following is an Abstract of the “ After travelling about 300 hours

Account which has been tranf. from the Cape, or, as we suppose, mitted by the Gentlemen who were about 800 English miles in the disent by Government on a Voyage of re&tion of porth-east, or thereabours, Discovery into the Interior of Africa, which would bring them within two


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