(WITH A PORTRAIT.] THI 'HE uniformity of a life passed in The only relaxation he has allowed

the same daily routine of em- himself, for many fummers past, is a. ployment, and chiefly devoted to atten- daily ride in the Hington stage-coach tion to figures, will afford but little of to a cottage at Highbury, where he entertainment in the recital, The drinks tea, and, after contemplating detail, however, will not be uninterest the beauties of the country, returns ing to those who see with fatisfaction regularly in the evening to the Bank ; the rise, progress, and final settlement out of which, it is afferted, he has not in ease and affluence of unremitting slept a night for the lait five-andindustry and unimpeached integrity ; twenty years. He refides in a fuite of nor will the leffon be a useless one to apartments in the Bank, annexed to his those who look forwards to the fame office as Chief Calhier ; and being a advantages, which they may hope to bachelor, his establishment is not large. attain by the like honourable means. His business fince his introduction into

public life has conftituted his pleaABRAHAM NEWLAND is the son of sure ; and he is said to have been William Newland, of St. Saviour's, known to declare, that he has derived Southwark, baker, and was born, it more real happiness from a single hour is conjectured, about the year 1730. applied to the performance of his offiHis education was calculated for the cial duty, than from a whole day spent counting-house, in which he was placed in the moft convivial and entertaining at an early age, but in which he did not society. continue long, as in February 1747 In the various negociations of the he was appointed a Clerk in the Bank Bank with Government, Mr. Newland of England, and, rose by regular has been of eminent service, and his gradation in the establishment until opinion in some doubtful cales has January 1778, when he was advanced been decisive. to be Chief Calhier. His father died in To expatiate on the talents, the 1764.

regularity, and clearness, with which It has been observed, that at a cer. he acquits himself of the duties of the tain period of life men both acquire department placed under his direction, and retain singular habits either of would be a needless repetition of the regularity or diffipation. At fifteen high encomiums passed upon him by minutes past nine o'clock in the morn. all

those who, both in and out of the ing, Mr. Newland is seen constantly. Bank, bare had occafion to witness his at his desk, and is never absent from abilities and excellent system of conhis duty until three in the afternoon. ducting butiness.

B 2



On the 18th of September, 1789, of the crater; this mass is of a convex

going from Arragona to Girgenti, figure, and rises till it has entirely filled
I went (says the Writer) out of the the whole cavity, and furmounts it in
direct road, to observe a «place called the form of an hemisphere, which
Maccaluba, which was painted out to burits, and lets a quantity of air
me as very singular, by a variety of escape, that caused the whole effect.
relations that had very much excited The bursting is attended with a noise
my curiosity: The foil of the country resembling that produced by drawing
1 traverted, is essentially calcareous. It a cork out of a bottle, at the same time
is overspread with mountains and bills that the clay is thrown out of the
of clay, in which the currents of water crater, and runs down the sides of the
have made deep fiflures, and some of cone like a lava, extending beyond its
which are lined with a gypseous cruft. base, to a greater or less distance,
After an hour's walk I arrived at the according to its quantity. As soon as
place of deftination; I beheld a moun. the air is thus disengaged, the rest of
tain of clay, flat on the top. The base the clay that was not thrown out, falls
exhibited nothing remarkable; but on down into the crater, which then re-
the plain that terminates its height, sumes its first form, and preserves it till
I oblerved the most singular phenome a new bubble endeavours to escape. In
non that nature has ever yet presented this manner there is produced a con.*
to my view.

tinual motion of depression and ele. The base of this mountain being vation, more or less frequent; and circular, it imperfectly represents a the frequency is increased by stamping truncated cone.. Its elevation above upon the cruit of clay with which the valley in which it is situated, and the summit of the mountain is covered. almost enclosed, is one hundred and If a fick be thrust into one of these fifty feet; and the plain at top is in a craters, it returns by little and little, Small degree couvex, and about half a by itarts, but is not thrown to a dir. mile in circumference. This plain is tánce, as I had been taught to expect. to extremely' steril, that the slightest During the time I was employed in trace of vegetation cannot be observed. observing the phenomena of this moun, Every where on the summit is seen a tain, three of my attendants amused very great number of truncated cones, themselves by throwing pieces of the at various distances from each other, dried clay into the mouth of one of the and of various heights. The highest largest craters; the pieces were all may measure about two feet and a half, swallowed up, and an hour employed and the finallest are not more than two in this kind of work produced no or three lines. At the summit of every other effect than that of dilating the one is a crater, in the form of a fun- orifice a little, without filling it up. nel; the depth of which is about one Some of these billocks are entirely dry, third of the height of the cone it and give no longer passage to the air. belongs to. The foil they rest on is a The whole number of cones exceeds grey clay, dry and cracked in every an hundred, but this number varies direction, the pieces being about four every day. Besides the cones there or five inches in thickness. The great are several round cavities in the foil vibration that is felt by walking on this itfelf, especially towards the weit, plain, shows that the surface consists of a where the plain is lels elevated than thin crust, which covers a soft and half- ellewhere. I bele cavities are an inch fluid substance; and it is not without or two in diameter, and are filled with trepidation that an observer perceives dirty falt water, out of which bubbles that this dried clay covers an immense are continually emitted without noile gulf of mud, in which he runs the or explosion, but similar to the boiling greztek riique of being swallowed up. of water upon the fire. On the surface

The interior part of each finall of some of these concavities, I found a crater is always moitt, and exhibits a pellicle of bituminous oil, of a sufficontinual motion. Every moment a ciently strong odour, of that kind mats of moislered clay, of a


which is often confounded with the colour, is elevated from the lower part smell of sulphur.


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Such is the state of this mountain At the distance of one league from during the suinmer and autumn, till the sea-coalt, behind Girgenti, is a the rainy season arrives, and this is the place named Moruca by the antients, state in which I saw it. But the cir- and now Maccaluba, where, on an cumitances during the winter are very eminence in the middle of a barren different; the clay on its summit then plain, are observed several different becomes soft, and almost fluid by the apertures, which, by a gentle ebullition, sain; che conical hillocks are disolved, throw out mud and troubled water. and nothing presents itself to the fight, On the 13th of September last (1777) but a vatt gulf of argillaceous mudi, of half an hour after fun-rise, a noise was which the depth is unknown, and heard at this place, which every moment which cannot be approached but with increaling, became in a thort time? the greatest danger. An uncealing louder than the loudest thunder. This ebullition prevails over all this sure was succeeded by a trembling of the face; the air that produces it, has no earth in the neighbourhood, where Jonger any particular passages, but large apertures are itill to be seen, at burits forth alike in all parts.

the same time that the principal mouth . These two states obtain only when by which troubled waters and mud the mountain is calın. It has likewise commonly issue forth, became enlarged its time of grand fermentation, in in diameter to fix. palms *. Out of this: which it prelents phenomena that mouth there arole, or was emitted, spread terror and affright into all the something that resembled a cloud of neighbouring places, and that relem- sinoke, and which, in a very few seble chose which precede the eruptions conds, arrived to the height of twentyof ordinary volcanoes ; shocks of four palms. Although the matter of earthquakes, often very violent, are this explosion had the colour of fame felt to the distance of two or three in some of its parts, it contained nevermiles; subterraneous thunders and theleis liquid mud, and lumps of clay, nuises are heard, and after several days which in falling, spread themselves progressive increase in the interior for over the circumambient foil. The mentation, they are succeeded by vio- greater part, however, fell again into lent eruptions, attended with much the great mouth from which they had noise, that throw the soil, together been disgorged ; this eruprion lasted with mud, clay, and some stones, to the half an hour, and was repeated three perpendicular height of more than two other times, with the intermillion of a hundred feet; all these matters falt: quarter of an hour, and the duration again upon the fame (por from which of a quarter of an hour. In the mean they were projected. The explosions time, the motion and agitation of large are usually repeated three or four times mailes under the earth were heard, at during the twenty-four hours ; they the distance of three miles the noise are accompanied by a fetid smell of resembled that of the sea in a storm. Jixer of sulphur, which 1preads itself While these terrible phenomena lasted, over the adjacent parts, and fometimes those who were prelent thought the it is affirmed there is an appearance of end of the world was come, and were smoke. After thele eruptions, the terrified by the apprehenfion of being preliminary phenomena cease, and the buried under the clay that was thrown mountain again resumes one of the two out of the principal mouth. This raud States before described.

covered all the neighbouring foil, to The eruptions of this remarkable the depth of fix palms, besides filling and fingular Volcano happen in au up the adjacent vallies, and though tumn, when the lummer has been long this clay was liquid on the day of and dry, but the interval is not regular. the eruption, it appeared on the fol. Many years sometinies elapfe without lowing day to have recovered its con.' one; and afterwards they take place in lftence, fo that several e urious persons two fuccellive years, or two years ont were able to approach the great mouth of three, as in 1977 and 1779, which in the middle, for the purpose of are the times of the last eruptions. The oblerving it. This mud still retains regular interval of five years, con the smell of fulphur, though not fo ceining which different authors have strongly as on the day of the eruption. spoken, is contrary to oblervation. The other mouths, which were inut • The Naples palm is about 91 English inches.

during the eruption, have appeared twenty-three degrees and a half, and it again, and we fill hear a subterraneous descended three degrees. I thrust my murmur, that makes us apprehensive of naked arm as deep as I could into the another eruption.

mud of one of the craters, and I expeWe are always tempted to attribute rienced a sensation of still greater cold effects nearly fimilar to the same cause. than at the surface. No smell of fulIt is seen that this mountain has erup. phur or smoke could be perceived, tions like Mount Ema ; and this has and, in short, I could by no possible been sufficient to induce the inhabite means discover any veftige of fire in ants of its environs, and the few travel. the state the mountain was then in. lers who have observed it, to suppuse This fact being well established, it was that all the phenomena depend on lub- necessary to examine whether the igneterraneous fires. I arrived on the spot, ous element either aslitted or acted as pre-occupied with the same idea. i chief agent in the great eruptions. I expected nothing more than to see an already began to doubt. I'examined ordinary volcano, either in the com- every part of this plain, and all the exmencement or termination. I did not terior parts of the mountain, without fufpect that there was any other agent discovering any substance upon which in nature, except fire, capable of pro. the fire had acted. On the contrary, I ducing the phenomena that had been found evident tokens to prove that announced to me ; but I was quickly this destructive agent had not exifted. undeceived. I faw nothing around me Among the ejected matter of the latt that indicated the presence of the igne. eruption I law fat clays, that contained ous element, whicb, when in action, calcareous (par not at all altered, calca. impresses a distinctive character on all reous fones ablolutely untouched, its produ&ions; and I was soon con. together with regular crystals of spar, vinced that Nature employs very dif- and fragments of laminated felenite, or ferent means to produce effects that gypsum (peculare. These matters, that resemble each other. I saw that fire is to say, the Spar and crystallized gypwas not the principal agent, nor even sum, are altered by the most gentle fire, concerned in the phenomena of this and the grey clay, by the action of mountain ; and if, in some eruptions, heat, is baked into a red tile or brick. smoke and heat were observed, that Since these substances carry no marks these circumstances are no more than of fire, they cannot have been subcasual or accessory, and do not point jected to its action, and consequently out the true cause of the explolions. it has not exifted in this fingular phenoBut, previous to a developement of menon. As foon as my observations had the nature of this new agent, it will be convinced me this mountain was not an necessary to give a detail of some cir- ordinary volcano, I readily saw the cause cumstances which I may have neglected of all the phenomena. Á bottle being in defcribing the more obvious appeare filled with the air which escaped from ances relating to this fingular pheno- the mud and the water, instantly extin. menon.

guished a taper plunged into it. This My first endeavour, on my arrival air, mixed with atmospherical air, pro. on the plain of Maccaluba was to ascer- duced neither fame nor explosion. I tain whether any heat existed in the had no opportunity of making other ex ebullitions I saw about me. It was not periments, but there were fufficient to without apprehension that I walked on how that it was fixed air that is the only this tremulous plain. It appeared dan- agent in the phenomena I have de. gerous to me to approach too near the scribed. And it seems to me, that the larger cones, about which the ground following explanation gives the true was more worn than elsewhere, and solution of this problem, which at first might yield, and suffer me to fink. appeared rather embarrassing. However,encouraged by repeated trials, I have already taken notice, that the I advanced to the very centre of the soil of all the country is calcareous, plain. I thrust my hand into the fluid It is covered with mountains of a grey mud of the craters, and into the cavi- and ductile clay, that often contains ties that contained water in a state of gypsum į and accident has placed a ebullition ; but infead of the sensation Ipring of salt water in the middle of of heat I expected, I experienced that that called Maccaluba, great numbers of cold. I then plunged iny thermo of which are every wbere in this counmeter, which in the open air stood at try abounding with mines of rock-falt,

This water continually moistens the the summer, che surface of the clay beclay, and afterwards exudes through comes dry, and forms a cruk more or one of the sides of the mountain. The less thick. The air then muft make an vitriolic acid of the clay seizes, by its effort to escape, and iffues forth at the greater affinity, the base of the marine place where the relistance is leaft. It Talt, and disengages the marine acid, heaps together, by little and little, the which acts on the calcareous earth be portions of earth it brings along with neath the mountain. This last combi. it, and forms small cones, in the mid, nation disengages a vast quantity of die of which it preserves a passage. But fixed air, that traverses the whole mass when the summers have been long, of moilt clay, and burits out through hot, and dry, the clay increases in the surface.' The vitriolic acid of the tenacity and compactness. It is no clay may likewise combine directly longer permeable to the air, but refitts with the calcareous stone, and continu. the efforts of its elasticity. The air ally form gypsum. The constant mo. accumulates continually, and at a cer, tion of fixed air through the clay pro. tain point of comprehenlon produces duces an effect similar to that which earthquakes, subterraneous thunders, would arise from kneading, that is, it and, lastly, the eruptions concerning augments its ductility and tenacity, which I have spoken': and the greater During the winter, or rainy season, the the relistance, the more confiderable clay is more moistened, the air dir. the explosion. Thus it appears, that engages itself more easily, and the ebul. fixed air is the only agent in all the litions are more multipliecle During phenomena of this mountain.


Hereford, May 10, 1795. thanks of every serious friend to man-

kind, 'to religion, and government. I

SHOULD deserve the implied rebuke, I with you health, time, materials,

you sent me, if I had known where and inclination, to add another volume to direct my warm acknowledgment of or two. You cannot fail to find the favour I received from you. It was readers, and they will hardly find better uneasy to me not to do this, after having employment. been highly entertained and instructed

I remain, by your Anecdotes, which are well chosen, and apply fo directly, many of

DEAR SIR, them, to what has passed in the world Your obliged humble Servant, for some years, that you deserve the



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(See FRONTISPIECE.) The abode of genius, though humble, Stoke Poges, the retreat of Gray,

is always interesting, and the con where he wrote his admirable Church, templation of it is calculated to impress yard Elegy, and other works, will long pleasing sensations on the mind. What attract the notice of " musing inelan. numbers flock to Stratford upon Avon, choly." to view the spot and trace the steps

With awful veneration Aill we trace which Shakespeare trod! and who The fteps wbich he so long before had would omit to visit Chalfont, in Buckinghamthire, the low-roofed temporary With rer'rend wonder view the folema revidence of Milton , still in being ? place Pope's Villa at Twickenham is the From whence his genius foar'd to Na. delight of every person of talte ; and turc's God. See Dunfter's Edition of Paradise Regained,



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