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Sect. 9. All Courts shall be open ; and every man for an injury done him in his reputation, person, moveable or immoveable possessions, shall have remedy by the due course of law, and justice administered 'according to the very right of the cause, and the law of the land, without sale, denial, or unreasonable delay or expense; and every action shall he tried in the county in which it shall be commenced, unless when the Judges of the Court in which the cause is to be tried, shall determine, that an impartial trial therefor cannot be had in that county. Suits may be brought against the State, according to such regulations as shall be made by law.
Sect. 10. No power of suspending laws shall be exercised, but by authority of the Legislature.
SECT. 11. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel punishments inflicted: And in the construction of gaols, a proper regard shall be had to the health of prisoners.
Sect. 12. All prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unless for capital ofiences when the proof is positive or the presumption great ; and wlien persons are confined on accusation for such offences, their friends and counsel may, at proper seasons, have access to them.
Sect. 13. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall noć be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.
Sect. 14. No commission of oyer and terminer or gaol delivery shall be issued.
SECT. 15. No attainder shall work corruption of blood, nor except during the life of the offender, forfeiture of estate. The estates of those who destroy their own lives shall descend or vest as in case of natural death, and if any person be killed by accident, no forfeiture shall be thereby incurred.
Sect. 16. Although disobedience to laws, by a part of the people, upon suggestions of impolicy or injus, tice in them, tends, by immediate effect and the influence of example, nct only to endanger the public wel. fare and safety, but also in governments of a republican
form, contravenes the social principles of such governments, founded on common consent for common good; yet the citizens have a right in an orderly manner to meet together, and to apply to persons intrusted with the powers of government, for redress of grievances or other proper purposes, by petition, remonstrance, or address.
Sect. 17. No standing army shall be kept up without the consent of the Legislature; and the military shall, in all cases, and at all times, be in strict subordination to the civil power.
Sect. 18. No soldier shall in time of peace be quar. tered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but by a civil magistrate, in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Sect. 19. No hereditary distinction shall be granted, nor any office created or exercised, the appointment to which shall be for a longer term than during good behaviour; and no person holding any office under this State, shall accept of any office, or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.
We declare, that every thing in this Article is reserved out of the general powers of Government hereinafter menu tioned.
ARTICLE II. SECT. I. The Legislative power of this State shall be vested in a General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
Sect. 2. The Representatives shall be chosen annually by the citizens residing in the several counties respectively, on the first Tuesday of October.
No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-four years, and have a freehold in the county in which he shall be chosen, have been a citizen and inhabitant of the State three years next preceding the first meeting of the Legisla. ture after his election, and the last year of that term an inhabitant of the county in which he shall be chosen, unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the United States, or of this State.
There shall be seven Representatives chosen in cach county, until a greater number of Representatives shall by the General Allembly be judged necelary; and then two-thirds of each branch of the Legislature concurring, they may by law make provision for increasing their pumber,
SECT. 3. The Senators shall be chosen for three years by the citizens residing in the several counties respice tively, having right to vote for Representatives, at the same time when they shall vote for Representatives, in the same manner, and at the same places.
No person thall be a Senator who shall not have ato tained to the age of twenty-seven years, and have in the county in which he shall be cholen, a freehold ellate in two hundred acres of land, or an estate in real and personal property, or in either, of the value of one thousand pounds at least, and have been a citizen and johabitant of the State three years next preceding the first meeting of the Legislature after his election, and the last year of that terin an inhabitant of the county in which he shall be chosen, unless he fall have been absent on the public business of the United States, or of this State.
There shall be three Senators cholen in each county. When a greater number of Senators fall by the General Allembly be judged necessary, two-thirds of each branch concurring, they may by law make provision for increasing their number ; but the number of Senators shall never be greater than one-half, nor let's than one-third of the number of Representatives.
Immediately after the Senators thall be allembled in consequence of the first election, the Senators residing in each county shall be divided by lot into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be va. cated at the expiration of tlie first year; of the fe. cond class at the expiration bf the second year; and of the third class at the expiration of the third year; fo that one-third may be clofen every year.
SECT. 4. The General Allembly shall meet on the first Tuesday of January in eyery year, unless sooner conyened by the Governor,
Secr. 5. Each House mall choose its Speaker and other officers; and allo eaci: Houle, whose Speaker Mall exercise the office of Governor, may choose a Speaker pro tempore.
SECT. 6. Each House fall judge of the elections, re. turns, and qualifications of its own members ; and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and ihall be authorized to compel the attendaoce of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as shall be deemed expedient.
SECT. 7. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punit any of its members for disorderly behaviour, and, with the concurrence of twoihirds, expel a member; and shall bave all other powers necessary for a branch of the Legislature of a free and independent State.
Sect. 3. Each House fall keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish thein immediately after every seflion, except fucb parts as may require secrecy ; and the yeas and pays of the members on any question, Mall, at the desire of any member, be entered on the journal.
SECT. 2. The doors of each House, and the committees of the whole, hall be open, unless when the bufiness is such as ought to be kept secret. : SECT. 10. Neizber Housc thall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houles shall be sitting.
SECT. II. The Senators and Representatives Mall receive a compensation for their services, to be afcer. tained by law, and paid out of the trealury of the Srate ; but no la v varying tlie compensation shall take ctrećt, till an election of Representatives shall have intervened. They ihall in all cales, except treason, felony or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest duro ing their attendance at the session of their respective Houles, and in going to and rerurning from the same, and for any speech or debate in either House, they thali not be questioned in any other place.
SECT.12. No Senator nor Representative shall, during the time for which he shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office under this State, which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which fall have been increaled during such time. No perion concerned in any army or navy contract, no member of Congress, nor any person holding any office under this State, or the Unired States, except the AttorneyGeneral, officers usually appointed by the Courts of jur. tice respectively, artorgies at law, and officers in the militia, holding no disqualifying office, shall, during his continuance in Congrels, or in office, be a Senator or Representative.
SECT, 13. When vacancies happen in either Ilouse, writs of election thall be issued by the Speakers respectively, or in cases of neceffity, in such other manner as shall be provided for by law; and the persons thereupon chosen thall hold their fears as long as thole in whole stead they are elected might bave done, if fuch vacancies had not happened.
SECT. 14. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives ; but the Senate may propose alterations as on other bills ; and no bill, from the operation of whichi, when pafled into a law, revenue may iocidentally arife, thall be accounted a bill for rail. ing revenue ; nor thall any matter or clause whatever not immediately relating to and necessary for raising revenue, be in any manner blended with, or annexed to, a bill for raising revenue.
Sect. 15. No money fhall be drawn from the treafury, bu: in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regularitatement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money fhall be published annually,
ARTICLE III. SECT. 1. The Supreme Executive Powers of this State ihall be vested in a Governor.
Sect. 2. The Governor shall be chosen on the first Tuesdayof O&tober, by the citizens of the Stare having right to vote for Kepresentatives, in the countjes where they respectively reside, at the places where they shall vote for Representatives,