He has made Judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He hat erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of officers, to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times.of peace, standing armies, without the consent of our Legislatures.

He has affected to render the military independent of> and superior to, the civil power.

He has combined with others, to subject us to a jurisdiction, foreign to our Constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to their act* of pretended legislation.

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among US:—

For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for any murders which' they should commit on the inhabitants of these States :—

For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world :—

For imposing taxes on us without our consent:—

For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury :—

For transporting us beyond seas, to be tried for pretended offences:—

For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighbouring province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument, for introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies :—

For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering fundamental!}' tire forms of our governments :—

For suspending our own Legislatures, nnd declaring themselves invested with power, to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated government here, by declaring out of his protection, and waging war against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt •ur towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

A 2 He

He is, at this time, transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, atready begun, with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow citizens, taken captive on the high seas, to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and breth reh, or to fall themselves by their hands

He has excited'domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfar is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.

In every stage of these oppressions, we have petitioned for redress, -in the most humble terms ; our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked hy every act which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be the luler of a Free People.

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them, from time to time, of .attempts made by their Legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them, by the ties of our common kindred, to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They, too, have been deaf to the voice of justice and consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind—enemies in war—in peace, friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, Do, in the name and by the authority of the good People of these Coionies, solemnly declare

clare, that these United Colonies are, and, of right, ought to be Free and Independent States :—that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connexion, between them and the State of GreatBritain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that, as Free and Independent States, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which Independent States may of righ£ do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honour.

Signed by order and in behalf of the Congress,

JOHN HANCOCK, Pre*. Attest. Cua. Thomson, S^c.

Jofiah Bartlet,
Wm. Whipple,
Math. Thornton.

Samuel Adams,
John Adams,
Rob. T. Paine,
Eldridge Gerry.

Rhode.Island, &c.
Stephen Hopkins,
Wm. Ellery.

Roger Sherman,
Sam. Huntington,
Wm. Williams,
Oliver Wolcott.

Wm. Floyd,
Philip Livingfton,
Francis Lewis,
Lewis Morris.

Rich. Stockton,
John Witherfpoon,
Fra. Hopkinfou,
John Hart,
Ab. Clark.

Robert Morris,
Benjamin Rufh,
Benjamin Franklin,
Jehn Morton,
Geo. Clymer,
James Smith,
Geo. Taylor,
James Wilfon,
Geo. Rofs.

Cxfar Rodney,
George Read.

Samuel Chafe,
Wm. Paca,

Tho. Stone,
Cha. Carrol of Cn.

George Wythe,
Rich. H. Lee,
Tho. Jeflerl'on,
Benj. Harrifon,
Tho. Nelfon, jun.
Fra. Light. Lee,
Carter Braxton.

North-Carolina. Wm. Hooper, Jofeph hewes, John Penn.

Edw. Rutledge,
Tho. Keyward, jun.
Tho. Lynch, jun.
Art. Middleton.

But. Gwinnet,
Lyman \ all,
Geo. Walton.


The CONSTITUTION framed for the United Statks of America, by a Convention of Deputies from the States of New-Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina, and Georgia, at a Session begun May 25, and ended September 17, 1787.

WE, the People of the United States, in order to form a. more perfect union, eftabliih juftice, infure domeitic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and fecure the bleflings of liberty to ourfelves and polierity, do ordain and eftablifh this Constitution for the United States of America.

ARTICLE I.—Section I. All legiflative powers herein granted, fhall be vefled in a Congrefs of the United States, which fhall confili of a Senate and Houfe of Reprefentatives.

Sectiok II.

I. The Houfe of Reprefentatives (hall confilt of Members chaCjn every feCond year by the People of the feveral States;

-''i'pflrnhe electors in each State fhall have the qualifications re. cjaiiite for electors of the moft numerous branch of the State Legislature.

II. No perfon fhall be a Reprefentative who fhall not hav«

attained to the age of 25 years, and been feven years a Citizen of the United States; and who fhall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he fhall be chofen.

III. Reprefentatives and direct taxes fhall be apportioned among the feveral States v^iiich may be included within this Union, according to their refpective numbers, which ihall be dcrvrmined by adding to the whole number of free perions, including thofe bound to iervice for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all ether perfons. The actual enumeration fhall be made within three years after the Hrft meeting of the Congrefs of the United States, and within every fubfequent term of ten years, in fuch manner as they fliall by law direct. The number of Reprefentatives fhall not exceed one for every thirty thoufand; but each State fhall have at leafl f*ne Reprefentative; and, until fuch enumeration fhall be made; the citaie of New Hampshire fhall be entitled to choofe three;


Malrachufetts eight; Rhode Ifland and Providence Plantations one; Connecticut five; New York fix; New Jerfey four; Pennfylvar.ia eight; Delaware one; Maryland fix; Virginia ten; North Carolina five; South Carolina five; and Georgia three.

IV. When vacancies happen in the Reprefentation from any Sftate, the executive authority thereof fhall iflue writs of election to fill fuch vacancies.

.V. The.Houfe of Reprefentatives fhall choofe their Speaker and other officers, and fhall have the fole power of impeachment.

Section III.

I. The Senate of the United States fhall be csmpefed of two Senators from each State, chofen by the Legiflature thereof for fix yean, and each Senator fhall have one vote.

II. Immediately after they fhall be afiembled, in conference of the firfi election, they fhall be divided, as equally as may be. into three claffes. The feats of the Senators of the firft claf» <hall be racated at the expiration of the fecond year; of the fecond clafs, at the expiration of the fourth year; and of the third clafs, at the expiration of the fixth year; fo that one third may be chofen every fecond year. And if vacancies happen by refignation or other-wife, during the recefs of the Legiflature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legiflaiure, which |fhaU then nil fuch vacancies.

HI. No perfon fliall be a Senator, who fha'.l not have attained r« the age of 30 years, and been nine years a Citizen of tlie United States; and who fhall not, when elecled, be an inhabitant of that State for which he fhall be chofen.

IV. The Vice Prefideat of the United States fhall be President of toe Senate, but fhall have no vote unlefs they be equally divided.

V. The Senate fliall choofe their other Officers, and alfo a Prefident pro tempore, in the abfence of the Vice-Prefident, or when he fhall exercife the office of Prefident of the U.States.

VJ. The Senate fhall have the We power to try all impeachments. When fitting for that ptirpofe, they fhall be on oath or affirmation. When the Prefident of the United States is tried, the Chief Juflice fhall prelide; and no perfon fhall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members prefent.

VII. Judgment, in cafes of impeachment, fhall not extend further than to removal from office, and difqualirieation to hold and enjoy any office of honour, truft, or profit, under the United States. But the party convifted fhall, nevertheless, be liable and fubjedl to indifiment, trial, judgraeat, and pvmUhment according to law.

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