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proprietors and the tenants have sought redress from the legislature, but as yet no decisive action has been taken, by that body. The inconsistency of the feudal tenure, with the spirit of our institutions, will be admitted by all; but there is great difficulty in legislating justly upon the subject.

CITIES AND VILLAGES. ALBANY CITY is situated on the west bank of the Hudson, 145 miles above New York. It appears to great advantage, from the river, rising rapidly from the bank, and exhibiting its public buildings in bold relief. The alluvial valley of the Hudson extends about a quarter of a mile from the river bank. From this valley, a bluff rises abruptly, 140 feet, and, in the distance of a mile, about eighty feet more. Upon this bluff, are situated most of the public buildings.

In 1845, the city had 116 streets and lanes. It is divided into ten wards, each of which elect annually, an alderman and assistant alderman, who together form the common council of the city.

The public buildings are, many of them, elegant and costly. The Capitol, erected at an expense of $120,000, is a fine freestone edifice. The State Hall, built of white marble, and fireproof, is an elegant building, of the Ionic order, surmounted by a dome. It cost $350,000. The City Hall stands near it, and is also a fine Grecian structure, of white marble, surmounted by a gilded dome. The Albany Academy, an elegant building of Nyack freestone, opposite the state hall, cost, including the grounds, more than $100,000.

This building, and the capitol have large parks, in front, surrounded by substantial iron fences, and planted with ornamental trees and shrubbery.

The Albany Female Academy is a chaste, marble building, erected at a cost of about $30,000. The Albany Exchange, of massive granite; the Museum, of marble; the Medical College, of brick, and well adapted to the purposes, to which it is applied ; the State Normal School; and the State Geological rooms, occupying the old state hall, are the other principal buildings.

Several of the churches, also, are deserving of notice for their architectural beauty. Among these, we may mention the Middle Dutch church, on Beaver street; the Pearl street Baptist church, a finely proportioned structure, in the Ionic style, and surmounted by a splendid dome; the Hudson street Methodist church, one of the most chaste and beautiful models for a church in the United States; the Presbyterian, and Roman Catholic churches, in Chapel street, &c., &c.

Among the hotels the Delavan House, stands preëminent for simple grandeur and chasteness of architecture. It was completed in 1845, and cost about $200,000. The Eagle, Congress Hall, Mansion, Townsend, American, Carlton, Stanwix Hall, and the Franklin House, are also well conducted hotels.

The State Library, founded by the munificence of the state, has an excellent collection of works on history, geography, and general literature. An extensive law library is connected with it. The entire collection numbers over 15,000 volumes, and is accessible to all, without charge.

The Albany Library, founded in 1792, and now numbering about 9,000 volumes, occupies apartments in the Albany female academy. The Albany Institute is a scientific institution, designed to encourage attention to history, and general science, in the city and state. It has a valuable library, of nearly 2000 volumes, in the building of the Albany academy.

The Young Men's Association occupies a fine suite of rooms in the exchange. It has a well conducted reading room, a library of 3200 volumes, and sustains a course of lectures each winter. The number of its members is over 1500. It was the first institution of the kind in the state.

The Alms House has connected with it, a fine farm of 150 acres, cultivated by the inmates. There are in the city, two Orphan Asylums, supported by private charity, which provide for the support and education of about 150 children; and a number of other benevolent societies.

The Albany Academy, founded in 1813, has eight teachers, and about 200 pupils. The Albany Female Academy, founded in 1814, has twelve teachers, and about 275 pupils. The Albany Female Seminary has six teachers. There are numerous other schools, of considerable reputation. The public schools have nine school houses, costing between $30,000 and $40,000.

The Albany Medical College is a flourishing medical school, having an able faculty, and one of the best anatomical museums in the United States. It has seven professors.

The State Geological Rooms, in the old state hall, contain the splendid collection of the state geologists, arranged, in the lower rooms, in the order of the successive strata, and in the upper, in the order of the counties. Here, too, are specimens of the mineral and vegetable treasures of the state, appropriately arranged, and a large collection of the quadrupeds, birds, fishes and reptiles of the state. They are open, free of expense, to all.

At the junction of the Erie canal with the Hudson, the citizens have constructed an extensive basin, to protect the boats 'from the winds, and give them greater facilities for discharging their cargoes.

The city is largely engaged in manufactures. Its iron foundries are among the largest in the country. More stoves are manufactured here, than in any other city, or town, in the union.

Coaches, sleighs, hats, caps, and bonnets, are also largely manufactured; the three latter articles, to the amount of nearly one million of dollars, annually. It has extensive manufactories of pianofortes. Leather is produced to the amount of more than $400,000 per annum. Population in 1845, 41,129.

West Troy, in the town of Watervliet, is a thriving village, possessing excellent hydraulic privileges, which it derives from the surplus waters of the Erie canal. It is a convenient depot for merchandise, from its facilities for transportation, and is largely engaged in manufactures, having twenty-five or thirty manufacturing establishments. The United States arsenal, established here in 1813, is the largest arsenal of construction, in the United States.

Attached to the establishment, are about 100 acres of land, containing thirtyeight buildings, for workshops and storehouses. It constantly employs about 200 officers, soldiers, and workmen, and manufactures annually, munitions of war, to the amount of about $100,000. The grounds are enclosed by an iron fence in front, and a wall of stone on the sides and rear.

The Erie and Champlain canals form a junction, a short distance above the village, and a bridge and two ferries connect it with Troy. Population in 1845, about 6000.

At Neskayuna in the same township, is a community of Shaking Quakers, established in 1776, by Ann Lee, the founder of the sect. This was the first Shaker establishment in the United States.

Cohoes village, also in this town, possesses one of the finest water privileges in the state, and its advantages for manufacturing, are hardly surpassed. It is estimated, that at the lowest stage of the water, there is sufficient to run 1,000,000 spindles. Population in 1845, over 2000.

Rensselaerville, in the town of the same name, is situated on Foxes creek. It has some manufactures, and about 1000 inhabitants.*

Coeymans is a small manufacturing village, having a good landing, and some trade with New York. It has also some manufactures. Population 1000.

* From this town, in 1779, Captain Deitz, and two lads named John and Robert Brice, were taken as captives by the Indians, and suffered all the barbarities which the malice of the savages could inflict. Captain Deitz died at Montreal, from the effect of their cruelties; but the boys were exchanged at the close of the war, and returned home. This is believed to have been the nearest approach made to Albany, by the Indians during the Revolution.

Square Miles, 22.
Organized, 1683.
Population, 391,223.
Valuation, 1845, $239,995,517.

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The city and county are of equal extent.*
Rivers. B, East River. C. Hudson River.

a, Harlaem River. 4. Spuyten Duy-
vel Creek,

n. Hellgate. Bays. A. New York Bay. Islands. d. Randall's.

p. Barn. Blackwell's. v. Governor's.

e. Bed. low's. j. Ellis'. Forts. Castle Garden, or Castle Clin

ton. Fort Columbus, on Governor's island. Fort Wood, on Bedlow's

island. Battle Fields. Kip's and Turtle Bay.

Harlaem Heights. Fort Washington. Universities. Columbia College. Uni.

versity of New York. Cities. New York City.

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BOUNDARIES. North by Westchester county ; East by Westchester county and Long Island; South by Long Island and the waters of New York bay; and West by New Jersey.

Its territory extends to low water mark on the Jersey side of the Hudson, as well as to the same point on the Long Island side of the East river, and the Westchester side of the Harlaem.

SURFACE. The lower part of the county, though originally rough and broken, has been graded and levelled, and now rises gradually, from the shores of the Hudson and East rivers, towards the centre of the city. The upper part is still hilly, and has extensive marshes.

RIVERS. The East river, or strait, and the Hudson, or North river, wash its eastern and western shores, affording fine anchorage, and sufficient depth of water, to permit the largest

The numbers refer to the wards.

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Fort Wood.

ships to come up to the wharves. The Harlaem river is a narrow strait, connecting by means of Spuyten Duyvel creek, East river with the Hudson. Several small streams water the upper portions of the county, but none of them are of sufficient size to be worthy of notice. The original name of the island was Manhattan, a word of doubtful etymology, but of late years, it has been known by the name of New York Island.

Bays. The upper, or New York bay, proper, is one of the finest harbors in the world, affording anchorage ground suffi. cient for the navies of the world. The lower bay, or harbor, is also spacious, but not so completely land locked as the upper.

It furnishes, however, convenient and secure anchorage ground.

Kip's and Turtle bays, on the east, and Striker's bay, on the west side of the island, are small inlets, only worthy ofnotice, for their historic interest.

ISLANDS. Randall's, Barn, and Blackwell's islands, in the East river, and Governor's, Bedlow's, and Ellis', in the harbor, with some smaller islands, belong to the county. On Governor's island are Fort Columbus, and Castle William ; on Bedlow's,

There are also other fortifications, on Long Island and Staten Island, intended, like these, for the defence of the harbor,

CLIMATE. The climate of New York county is, from its situation, more equable than that of the inland counties, generally. The sea breezes waft a refreshing coolness, over the heated streets in summer, and temper the intense cold of the wintry blasts. In healthfulness, it occupies a very high rank, among the great cities of the world. Its ratio of deaths, to the population, is less than that of any of the large cities of Europe.

GEOLOGY AND MINERALS. The rocks of this county, with the exception of a small section at the extreme north, are primitive. Granite characterizes the river banks, and huge boulders of it lie scattered over the surface. Dolomite, (a species of marble), bog iron ore, and oxide of manganese, are the principal minerals, applicable to use in the arts.

Among those interesting to the mineralogist, may be enumerated fine specimens of tremolite, pyroxene, mica, tourmaline, serpentine and amianthus. Some specimens of pyrites, epidote, lamellar feldspar, stilbite, garnet, staurotide, graphite, &c., have also been met with. Marble is abundant, and extensively quarried, in the northern part of the island.

SOIL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. The soil is generally fertile, but too costly to be devoted to agricultural purposes. Gardens, of considerable extent, are cultivated, in the upper part of the island.

The island was originally well wooded, but most of the timber is now cut off. Oak, pine, hemlock and chestnut, were the principal forest trees.

PURSUITS. Manufacturing is the pursuit of a majority of the inhabitants of the county. The articles manufactured are nu

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