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ceeded in passing the enemy, with very trifling loss. The intense heat, however, proved fatal to a number.
Washington then ordered the troops to occupy the heights of Harlaem,
-a strong position. On the morning of the 16th, several parties of the enemy appeared, on the plains, in front of the American camp. Lieutenant Colonel Knowlton's rangers, who had been skirmishing with an advanced party, came in and reported, that a body of the enemy were under cover of a small eminence, at a little distance.
Willing to raise the spirits of our men, Washington detached Colonel Knowlton with his rangers, (selected, mainly, from the Connecticut regiments,) and Major Leitch, with three companies of choice Virginian troops, to attack them in the rear, while a feigned attack should be made in front.
The action was successful, and greatly inspirited our troops, but the two brave leaders, Knowlton and Leitch, fell early in. the conflict. Our loss was four or five killed, and forty wounded; that of the British more than twenty killed, and seventyeight wounded.
DESCRIPTION OF THE CITY. Streets, squares, &c. The city covers the whole island. The portion which is densely built, lies south of Twenty-third street, being about three miles in length, and varying in breadth, from half a mile, to two and a quarter miles. In this territory, there are over 350 streets, and on the island more than 480.
There are a number of public squares, but not so many as the dense population requires. The principal are; 1st, the Battery, a crescent shaped park, containing about eleven acres, with gravelled walks, and grass plats, well shaded with trees. It affords a fine view of the shipping. Castle Clinton, connected with it by a bridge, has been transformed into a garden and amphitheatre, capable of containing 10,000 persons.
2d. The Bowling Green is a small ellipse, enclosed by an iron fence, having a fine public fountain, which is made to fall over a rude pile of rocks.
3d. The Park is a triangular area, of about eleven acres, laid out with walks, planted with trees, and surrounded by a massive iron fence. It contains a number of public buildings. In the southern angle, is a magnificent fountain, playing within a basin 100 feet in diameter.
4th. Washington Square, or the Parade Ground, contains not quite ten acres. It is neatly laid out and finely shaded.
5th. Union Place is an elliptical area, of considerable extent, at the northern termination of Broadway, adorned with trees and a fine fountain.
Tompkins Square, and Bellevue, in the eastern part of the city, are places of considerable resort. The latter contains the new almshouse.
Hudson Square, or St. John's Park, belonging to Trinity church, is a beautiful park of four acres, highly ornamented, and has a fountain. In the upper part of the city, several squares are reserved, but not yet regulated.
PUBLIC BUILDINGS. Many of these are among the finest models of architecture in the country.
'The City Hall, already referred to, located in the Park, is a magnificent structure, and shows to great advantage. It is 216 feet long, and 105 wide.
Its architecture is Grecian, the successive stories being Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite. The front and ends are of white marble, and the rear of brown free
From the centre rises a lofty cupola, which overlooks the whole city, where a watchman is stationed, to give the alarm of fire. It contains elegant * rooms for the Governor, the Common Council, and the Superior Court, besides numerous offices. Its cost exceeded half a million of dollars.
The Merchant's Exchange, in Wall street, is one of the most imposing and costly structures, on the American continent. It is built of blue Quincy granite, and is absolutely incombustible. Its length is 200 feet, width 144, and height seventy-seven feet, to the top of the cornice, and 124, to the top of the dome.
On the Wall street front is a recessed portico of eighteen massive columns, each of a single block of granite, thirty-eight feet high, four feet four inches in diameter, and weighing about forty-three tons. The exchange or rotunda in the centre, is capable of holding 3,000 persons, being, including the recesses, 100 feet in diameter, and eighty-seven feet high to the top of the dome. The dome rests on eight Corinthian columns, of polished Italian marble, each forty-one feet high, and four feet eight inches in diameter. The cost of the building is estimated at $1,800,000.
The Custom House, extending from Wall to Pine streets, is a magnificent Doric building, of white marble, after the model of the Parthenon, at Athens.
Brick, granite and marble, are its only materials. It has a portico on each front, of eight Doric columns, five feet eight inches in diameter, and thirty-two feet high. The great business hall, is a circular room, surmounted by a dome, that is supported by sixteen Corinthian pillars, each thirty feet high. The cost of the building, including the ground, was $1,175,000. The number of officers employed here, is 354.
The Hall of Justice, on Centre street, is a massive structure, of Hallowell granite, in the Egyptian style of architecture, of which it is an admirable specimen.
Its gloomy and heavy aspect, however, have acquired for it the title of “the Egyptian tombs." Beside rooms for the Police, and other courts of the city, it includes the House of Detention, or prison, containing 148 cells.
CHURCHES. Trinity church, completed in 1846, is one of the most costly and magnificent churches in America. It is constructed of brown sandstone, in the perpendicular Gothic style. Its spire is 283 feet in height, and is of stone throughout.
The length of the building is 192 feet, and its breadth eightyfour.
Grace church, on Broadway, two and a half miles north of Trinity, is a Gothic structure, of rare beauty, erected in 1845.
St. John's church, on Varick street, is one of the finest proportioned churches in the city. It cost $200,000, and has a steeple 220 feet in height.
St. Thomas' church, in Broadway, the church of the Ascension, and the church of the Transfiguration, in the upper part of the city, are also fine edifices. The Dutch Reformed church on Washington square, and that in Lafayette place, are good specimens of church architecture, the former in the Gothic, and the latter in the Grecian style.
The Scotch Presbyterian church, in Grand street, is a handsome edifice of the Ionic order, with a portico of six massive columns. It cost $114,000.
The Rutger's street church, and the Duane street church, are both well proportioned, and imposing buildings. The Beekman street church has a lofty and elegant steeple. The Roman Catholic church, in Barclay street, is a substantial granite structure.
The Roman Catholic Cathedral, in Prince street, is a very large edifice of sandstone. The French Protestant church, in Franklin street, is built of white marble. It is of the Ionic order. The first Baptist church, in Broome street, is a fine Gothic edifice, with a very imposing interior.
The Chapel of the New York University, (usually occupied on the Sabbath, as a place of worship,) is one of the most perfect specimens of Gothic architecture, ever erected in this country.
HOTELS. The Astor House is an immense granite building, with three fronts, one on Broadway, of 201 feet, another on Barclay street, of 154 feet, and the third on Vesey street, of 146feet, and cost about $800,000. It contains 303 rooms. The United States Hotel is a fine marble building, seven stories high, containing 225 rooms, and cost $350,000.
The Franklin House, Howard's Hotel, Judson's, Rathbone's, the City, Croton, Carlton, the Pearl street House, and many others, are extensive and elegant buildings, furnishing ample accommodation, for the thousands who visit the city, for business, or pleasure.
RAILROADS, &c. Three lines of Railroads connect directly with New York city: viz. the Harlaem railroad, now progressing rapidly towards Albany ; the Long Island Railroad, extending from Brooklyn to Greenport, and the New Jersey, extending to Philadelphia, and forming a part of the great chain connecting with Wilmington, North Carolina. This road has several branches; one to Morristown, and another to Patterson, New Jersey.
Besides these, there are three others, connecting, by steamboats, with the city, and at no great distance from it. These are the New York and Erie railroad, commencing at Piermont; the Camden and Amboy, commencing at Amboy, New Jersey, and the Housatonic, at Bridgeport, Conn.
Lines of steamboats, also, ply between this city and Albany, Troy, Newburgh, Poughkeepsie, Hudson, Catskill, and other places on the Hudson river: Norwalk, New Haven, Hartford, Norwich, Stonington and Providence, Newark, New Brunswick, Elizabethtown, &c. as well as to the several small villages on Long Island, and Staten Island.
Steamers als) leave for Englan:l, every month, and lines of packets, for London, Liverpool, Havre, New Orleans, Mobile, and Havana, every week.
WATER WORKS. The Croton Water Works deserve to be considered as one of the niost magnificent enterprises of modern times. The water is brought from the Croton river, a stream in Westchester county.
A dam 250 feet long, seventy feet wide at bottom, and seven at top, and forty feet high, has been constructed, creating a pond five miles long. From this dam, the aqueduct proceeds, through hills and over valleys, to the Harlaem river, which it crosses on a massive stone bridge, 1450 feet long, erected at a cost of $900,000; thence it crosses several streets, and follows the tenth Avenue down, from 151st street to 107th street ; here crossing a square, it follows the 9th Avenue, to 88th street, where it curves and enters the receiving reservoir, in 85th street.
The aqueduct is a hollow cylinder of brick, laid in hydraulic cement. The receiving reservoir is thirty-eight miles from the Croton dam. It covers thirty-five acres, and will contain 150 millions of gallons. From this reservoir the water is conducted in iron pipes, along the 5th Avenue, to the distributing reservoir, on Murray Hill, in Fortieth street.
This reservoir covers four acres, is constructed of stone and cement, is fortythree feet high from the street, and contains twenty millions of gallons. From it, the water is distributed over the city, in iron pipes, laid so deep under ground, as to be secure from the frost. The supply of water is ample, both for the use of the inhabitants, and for fires. There are 1400 fire hydrants, and 600 free hydrants. No city in the world is bet'er supplied, with pure and wholesome water, than New York.
Public INSTITUTIONS OF THE CITY. The American Institute was incorporated in 1929, for the encouragement of agriculture, manufactures, commerce and the arts.
It has a suite of rooms in the second story of the New City Hall, where it has a library, models for machinery, &c. It holds an annual fair, every autumn, which is visited by not less than
20,000 persons. The Mechanics’ Institute has for its object, the instruction of mechanics and others, in science, and the arts.
The Institute has established annual courses of popular lectures, and has a library, reading room, museum, and collection of chemical and philosophical appar
A male and a female school have been established, under the superintend
ence of its board, the former in 1838, the latter in 1839 ; both of which, have been eminently successful.
The American Art Union is an incorporated association, for the promotion of the fine arts. Its rooms are at 322 Broadway. The Chamber of Commerce was established for the regulation of trade, &c. in 1768.
SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. The most important of these are the Lyceum of Natural History, founded in 1918, for the advancement of knowledge in Zoology, Botany, Mineralogy, Geology, and Conchology;
It has a large library, and extensive and valuable collections, in every department of natural history, which are all arranged for gratuitous exhibition, at its rooms No. 659, Broadway.
The New York Historical Society, occupying rooms in the University building; its library is a very valuable one, of over 12,000 volumes, besides a collection of coins and medals.
The Ethnological Society, founded in 1842, for investigations in history, languages, geography, &c.;
The New York Medical Society comprising the great body of the educated physicians of the city ; its object is improvement in medical science.
The National Academy of Design, established for the benefit of living artists. They annually exhibit a large collection of paintings.
LIBRARIES. The New York Society Library was established in 1754. It has a fine building on Broadway, and a library of 40,000 volumes.
The Mercantile Library Association has a fine suite of rooms in Clinton Hall, a library of more than 21,000 volumes, and an elegant reading room.
The Apprentices Library at 32 Crosby street, contains 12,000 well selected volumes.
The New York Law Institute Library was established in 1828, and has a valuable library of about 3500 volumes of select law books.
BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. Hospitals. There are two hospitals in the city. The New York Hospital, founded by subscription, in 1769, is a noble institution. It has extensive buildings and grounds, and good accommodations for 250 patients. It has ten visiting, and as many consulting physicians.
The City Hospital, at Bellevue, is supported by the Municipal government of the city. It has accommodations for between 200 and 300 inmates, and is under the management of a physician, and several assistants.
The City Dispensary affords aid to about 20,000 indigent patients annually. The Northern and Eastern Dispensaries ad