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Religious DENOMINATIONS. Dutch Reformed, Methodists, Presbyterians, Baptists, Universalists, Episcopalians, Unitarians, and Friends. There are in the county forty-three churches, and forty-six clergymen of all denominations.

History. The English Episcopalians commenced missions among the Mohawks in this county as early as 1702. The first settlements were made in 1713, or about that time, by German emigrants, a portion of the same band who settled Schoharie county, and by other persons from Albany and Schenectady counties.

It had been the home of the Mohawks, whose three castles were all, it is believed, within the limits of this county. In January, 1693, the French, whose hatred to the Iroquois was inveterate, made a descent upon these castles, and captured them all.

The Indians at Schenectady sent to Albany for assistance to pursue the enemy. Colonel Peter Schuyler, the friend of the Indians, with a body of militia, started for the pursuit, overtook the French, and had a severe skirmish with them. The French lost fifty-nine in killed and wounded. It is related that the Indians ate the bodies of the Frenchmen whom they killed.

Fort Hunter, a somewhat important military post in early times, was erected in 1710, at the junction of the Mohawk and Schoharie rivers, in the town of Florida, by Capt. John Scott. A chapel was erected near the fort which was endowed by Queen Anne, and hence called Queen Anne's chapel. A stone parsonaye was also erected near it, to which was attached a glebe of 300 acres, the gift of the Indians.

The fort having become dilapidated at the time of the Revolution, the chapel was fortified, and called Fort Hunter. It was taken down about the year 1820, to make room for the Erie canal.

The first settlement in the town of Amsterdam was made in 1716, by the widow and children of Philip Groat of Rotterdam, who was drowned in the Mohawk, near Schenectady, on his way thither.

In 1722, colonies had been extended along the Mohawk as far as the German Flats, in the county of Herkimer; but few of the settlers, however, had located far from the river.

The subsequent growth and prosperity of the present county of Montgomery, are due, in a great measure, to the enterprise of Sir William Johnson.*

* This extraordinary man was born in Ireland, in 1714, of highly respectable parentage. His uncle, Admiral Warren, had acquired a litle to a tract of some 15,000 acres, in the present town of Florida, and sent young Johnson over to act as his agent for the disposal of it, about the year 1735.

Soon after arriving in the colony, he was appointed by the British Government,

During the Revolution, this county, (then called Tryon county, and embracing all that part of the state, lying east of a meridian, drawn through the centre of Schoharie county,) suffered severely from the repeated incursions of the tories and Indians, led by Sir John Johnson, the bloodthirsty Walter Butler, and the Mohawk chieftain Brant.

Scarcely a settlement, on either side of the Mohawk, escaped partial or entire destruction; and few families, who had espoused the cause of their country, but were called to mourn over friends and relatives, inhumanly butchered by these savage warriors.

Neither age nor sex were spared; neither beauty, wealth, accomplishments, nor amiability of character, served to shield the unfortunate settlers from the tomahawk and the scalping knise.

The towns of Fort Plain, Canajoharie, Palatine, Glen, and Root suffered most severely; many of those who escaped death, being carried into a long and distressing captivity.

At Stone Arabia, a severe and bloody conflict took place in October, 1780, between Sir John Johnson, and the garrison of Fort Paris, (a stockade fort in Stone Arabia.) General Robert Van Rensselaer, of Claverack, (Columbia county,) was in the rear of the enemy, with a force of nearly 1000 men, and ordered Colonel Brown, the commander of the fort, to attack them in front, while he pressed upon their rear. agent for the Iroquois, or Six Nations. Having acquired their language, and adopted to a considerable extent their dress and habits, he soon obtained great influence over them, and was chosen one of their head sachems. This power he used in such a way as to secure their attachment to the British Government, and at the same time to advance his own personal interests.

During the French wars, he was active as an officer, and in 1757, the troops under his command, at Lake George, having repulsed and defeated the French force under Baron Dieskau, he was knighted by the King, and received a donation of £5000 sterling.

In 1759, General Prideaux being killed at the siege of Fort Niagara, Sir William, who was second in cominand, assumed the direction of the forces, and carried the fortress. In 1760, he led a body of 1000 Indians against Montreal, and was active in an eminent station at the surrender of Canada.

He was twice married. By his first wife, (a German woman.) he had one son and two daughters. His son succeeded to his title as Sir John Johnson. His daughters were married to Colonel Guy Johnson, (a distant relative of the baronet,) and to Colonel Daniel Claus. His second wife was Molly Brant, sister of the celebrated Mohawk chieftain, by whom he had several children.

His first residence was in the town of Amsterdam, about three miles west of the village. It is a massive stone edifice, and is to this day called Fort Johnson. About ten years before his death, he erected a building, which he named Johnson Hall, within the limits of Fulton county, where he resided the remainder of his life.

Fort Johnson, after this period, was occupied by his son, sir John Johnson.
He also erected houses for his sons-in-law, Colonel Guy Johnson and Colonel
Claus, in the town of Amsterdam.

Sir William Johnson died very suddenly, in July, 1774, not without suspicion of suicide.

His son and successor, as well as his sons-in-law, and indeed his whole family, embraced the side of the British, in the Revolution. Sir John was the scourge of the Mohawk and Schoharie valleys, during that contest. After the Revolution, their estates were confiscated.

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Sir John's force did not amount to more than 500 men, while that of Colonel Brown was about 200, and had General Van Rensselaer fulfilled his part of the duty, the whole British force might have been captured; but through his negligence and cowardice, if not treachery, the brave troops of Colonel Brown were suffered to contend, single handed, with the enemy, till they were nearly all slaughtered, while General Van Rensselaer's troops were within hearing of the action, but were not suffered by him, to afford aid to their suffering brethren, or to pursue the enemy, on their retreat, when, as was afterwards acknowledged by them, they would have surrendered, had they had the opportunity.

A relationship by marriage, which existed between General Van Rensselaer and Sir John Johnson, is supposed to have been the cause of this disgraceful conduct on the part of the former.

Montgomery county received its present name, (in honor of the brave hero of Quebec,) in 1784, soon after which, a large portion of its territory was formed into other counties, and this process of curtailment has continued, till from being the largest, it has become one of the smallest counties in the state.

VILLAGES. Fonda, the county seat, is a small but pleasant village, in the town of Mohawk. It has some manufactures. Population 400.

Amsterdam was incorporated in 1830. It is situated in the town of the same name, on the north bank of the Mohawk, and connected with the little village of Port Jackson, on the Erie canal, by a fine and substantial bridge. It has a flourishing academy, and female seminary, and several manufacturing establishments. Population 1700.

Canajoharie is a thriving village, in the town of the same name, located on the south bank of the Mohawk. It was incorporated in 1829, and has a well conducted academy. Here is an extensive quarry, from whence is obtained an excellent quality of limestone, much used in the construction of locks on the Erie Canal. The village is the proposed terminus of the Catskill and Canajoharie railroad, which is partly finished. Population 1300.

Fort Plain, in the town of Minden, was incorporated in 1834, and is a place of considerable business. Here too, are extensive limestone quarries. Population 1400.

Caughnawuga, in the town of Mohawk, is principally worthy of notice for its stone church, now converted into an academy. This venerable building was erected in 1763, by voluntary contribution.

Square miles, 807.
Organized, 1772.
Population, 40,554.
Valuation, 1845, $5,991,847.

TOWNS.

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1. Argyle, 1788. 2. Cambridge, 1788. 3. Easton, 1788. 4. Fort Ann, 1788. 5. Granville, 1788. 6. Hampton, 1788. 7. Hebron, 1788. 8. Kingsbury, 1758. 9. Salem, 1788. 10. Whitehall, 1788. 11. Hartford, 1788. 12. Greenwich, 1803, 13. Putnam, 1806. 14. White Creek, 1815. 15. Jackson, 1815. 16. Fort Edward, 1818. 17. Dresden, 1822. Mountains. U. Taghkanic range. Y. Peterborough range,

1. French, or Luzerne mountains. Rivers, &c. C. Hudson river. a.

Wood creek. b. Pawlet river. c. Poultney, or Fair Haven riv. er. d. Batten kill. f. Black creek. g. White creek. k.

Hoosick river. i. Moses kill. Falls. Baker's falls. Great falls. Lakes. W. Lake Champlain.

X. Lake George. j. Big Pond.
Forts. Fort Edward. Fort Ann.
Battle Fields. Kingsbury. Fort

Ann. Whitehall.
Villages. SalỆM, SANDY Hill,

Fort Edward, Whitehall, Union
village, White Creek.

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BOUNDARIES. North by Essex county and the state of Vermont; East by Vermont; South by Rensselaer county ; West by Saratoga and Warren counties, and Lake George.

SURFACE. Three distinct ranges of mountains are found in this county ; viz. the Taghkanic, extending along its eastern boundary, with an average width of about five miles; the Peterborough, with a variable height, running from north to south, through the centre of the county, broken through by the Hoosick, Pawlet, and Poultney rivers, and the Batten kill, and maintaining a breadth of from six to eight miles; spurs of this ridge extend toward the river in Greenwich and Easton; and lastly, the Palmertown range, here taking the name of French, or Luzerne mountains, and occupying the narrow peninsula which separates Lake George from Lake Champlain.

These ranges, interspersed with occasional valleys, render the face of the county diversified a id picturesque.

Rivers, &c. The county is abundantly watered. Beside the Hudson, the principal streams are, the Hoosick, Pawlet, and Poultney, or Fair Haven rivers, Batten kill, Wood creek, Moses kill, White and Owl creeks.

Falls. Baker's falls, on the Hudson, have an almost perpendicular descent of fifty feet, at the village of Sandy Hill. Great fal on the Batten kill, have a total descent of sixty feet, in the towns of Easton and Greenwich.

LAKES. Lakes George and Champlain form portions of the boundary of this county. Long Lake, in Argyle, is three or four miles in length.

Canals. The Champlain canal crosses the Hudson at Greenwich, and connects with Lake Champlain at Whitehall, furnishing 32 miles of navigation in this county.

CLIMATE. Cold, but healthful. The spring opens some two weeks later than in Orange, Dutchess, and the lower counties on the Hudson.

GEOLOGY AND MINERALS. The northern part of the county is primitive, and the underlying rock chiefly granite. On the shores f the lakes there is an admixture, and apparent confusion of all the formations, probably the result of some convulsion of nature. In the southern part of the county, the rocks are principally transition, intermixed with occasional patches of primitive. Limestone, graywacke, and slate, alternate upon the surface in this section.

Magnetic and hematitic iron ore, marl, lime, marble, 'water lime, graphite, lamellar pyroxene, massive feldspar, and epidote, are the principal minerals of the county

SOIL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. The soil is generally good, and produces fine crops of wheat, but is better adapted to grazing than the culture of grain. The principal timber is oak, hickory, chestnut, maple, butternut, pine, and hemlock.

Pursuits. The people are, for the most part, engaged in agricultural pursuits. Oats, corn, flax, and potatoes are largely

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