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factured. The latter finds its way to market by the Delaware river.

Commerce. The Delaware and Hudson canal furnishes an easy mode of transportation for the produce of the eastern section of the county. The Delaware river is navigable in the spring, and immense quantities of lumber are rafted down it.

Mines. There are lead mines near Wurtzborough, in the town of Mamakating.

STAPLES. Oats, corn, butter, beef, pork, lumber and leather.

SCHOOLS. In 1846, there were in the county, 118 district school-houses, in which 6328 children were instructed at an expense for tuition, of $8793. The schools were in session an average period of eight months each. The district libraries contained 10,379 volumes.

There were also eight select schools, with 178 scholars, and one academy with thirteen pupils.

RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS. Methodists, Presbyterians, Dutch Reformed, Baptiste, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, and Friends. Total, number of churches. twenty-eight; of clergy. men, twenty-three.

History. In 1777, or 1778, several persons having been killed by the Indians in Rochester, Ulster county, the commander of the garrison at Honkhill, in Wawarsing, who had two or three hundred troops under his command, determined to intercept the Indians on their return, and punish them for their barbarities. He accordingly called for volunteers, and Lieutenant John Grahams offered his services. They were accepted, and with a lieutenant's guard, consisting of twenty men, he made his way to a place since called Grahamsville, in the town of Nevisink.

Unpracticed in the arts of Indian warfare, they were no match for their wily foes. The Indians decoyed them from their position, induced them to waste their fire upon a single Indian, and then shot them down, and scalped them. But three of the number escaped to carry to the garrison the intelligence of the loss of their comrades.

The town of Mamakating belonged to the Minisink patent, and was settled by the Dutch at an early period. The remainder of the county belonged to the Hardenburgh patent, and was not occupied till near the commencement of the present century. The emigrants, with the exception of those who located at Mamakating, were mostly from the eastern states. The county was named in honor of General Sullivan, of revolutionary memory.

VILLAGE3. MONTICELLO, in the town of Thompson, was founded in 1804, by Messrs. S. F.and J. P.Jones, and made the county seat at the organization of the county in 1809. Population, 700.

Blojmingsburgh is a pleasant village, in the town of Mamakating. It is in the midst of a fine agricultural country. It has an academy. Population, 600.

Wurtzborough, in the same town, is a flourishing village, named after the projector of the Delaware and Hudson canal. Near the village is a lead mine of considerable importance. Population, 500.

Liberty, Fallsburgh, and Cochecton, in the towns of the same names, are villages of considerable importance.

XLV. SCHENECTADY COUNTY.
Square miles, 186.

Population, 16,630.
Organized, 1809.

Valuation, 1845, $2,739,421.

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TOWNS. 1. Schenectady, 1634.

4. Neskayuna, 1809. 2. Princeton, 1798.

5. Glenville, 1820. 3. Duanesburgh, 1801.

6. Rotterdam, 1820. Rivers. AA. Schoharie kill. F. Mohawk river. a. Norman's kill Lakes.

e. Maria, Cities and Villages. SCHENECTADY. Duanesburgh. Rotterdam.

BOUNDARIES. North hy Montgomery and Saratoga; East by Saratoga; South by Albany and Schoharie; and West by Scho harie, counties.

SURFACE. The surface of Schenectady county is agreeably diversified with hills, plains and valleys. Flint hill extends through a part of the southern section, and a spur of the Kayaderosseras range passes through the town of Glenville, nearly to Schenectady. On the banks of the rivers are extensive flats.

RIVERS. The Mohawk, Schoharie kill and Norman's kill, are the principal streams.

Lakes. Lake Maria is a small body of water in Duanesburgh.

CANALS. The Erie canal crosses the Mohawk near the eastern line of the county, and passes along the south west bank of that river.

RAILROADS. It has four lines of railroads, the Mohawk and Hudson, Troy, Saratoga and Utica railroads, all centering in the city of Schenectady.

CLIMATE. The climate of this county is mild and salubrious, but subject to considerable extremes of temperature.

GEOLOGY AND MINERALS. The Hudson river group, consisting of grits and shales, or slaty rocks, is the prevailing surface rock of this county. The Utica slate makes its appearance in the neighborhood of Glenville. The whole county is overlaid by clay and gravel, to the depth of from fisty to one hundred feet.

Bog iron ore occurs near the line of Albany county. There are several localities of calcareous spar, one of which resembles arragonite. Quartz crystals and common jasper are also found in the county.

SOIL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. The soil is various. The extensive alluvial tracts along the Mohawk and other streams, are exceedingly fertile. The hills and plains are either a light sandy or clay loam, less fertile, and sometimes barren.

Pine and oak are the principal forest trees.

Pursuits. Agriculture is the leading pursuit of the inhabitants. Wheat and barley are extensively raised. The rearing of cattle occupies some attention.

Manufacturers are quite limited. Flour, cotton goods, iron and leather are the principal articles.

Commerce. By means of its canal and railroads this county enjoys ample facilities for the transportation of its produce.

STAPLE PRODUCTIONS. Oats, potatoes, corn, barley, rye, buckwheat, wheat, butter and cheese.

Schools. This county had in 1846, seventy-five common schools, with 3614 pupils. They were taught an average period of eight months, at an expense of $4960. The district libraries numbered 7115 volumes.

There were two select schools, with twenty-two scholars; an academy with 108 pupils, and a college, with eleven professors and 242 students.

Religious DENOMINATIONS. Dutch Reformed, Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists, Episcopalians, Universalists, Roman Catholics and Friends. The whole number of churches is twenty four, of clergymen, thirty-four.

History. This county was one of the first settled in the state. Previous to the year 1620 several Dutch traders established themselves here, to traffic with the Indians for surs.

The first grant of lands was made in 1661, to Arendt Van Corlaer and other 3, on condition that they purchased the soil from the natives. The deed was obtained in 1672, and signed by four Mohawk chiefs. It comprised a part of the present city of Schenectady.

In November, 1665, Governor Nichols granted to Mr. Alexander Lindsay Glen, a Scotch gentleman of ancient and noble descent, a tract lying on the Mohawk, and comprising most of the present town of Glenville. Mr. Glen resided for a number of years in Albany and Schenectady, and in 1690 removed to his patent, where, in 1713, he erected a country seat, which he named Scotia, and which is still standing.

According to tradition, Neskayuna was settled in 1640. A patent for land in this town was granted to Harnion Vedder, in 1664.

On the eighth of February, 1690, the village of Schenectady, then containing sixty-three houses and a church, was burned, and sixty-three of its inhabitants murdered, twenty-seven carried captive, and others perished, from the severity of the season, in the attempt to escape.

The marauders who thus rushed upon the sleeping and defenceless inhabitants, like wolves upon the sheep fold, were a party of 200 Frenchmen and about fifty Indians, from Canada, who had nearly perished from hunger and cold in their murderous expedition.

Having plundered and destroyed the village, they commenced their return, but were pursued by the Albany militia and the Indians friendly to the English, and twenty-five of their number killed.

In 1748, the Canadian Indians made another hostile incursion into the county, and killed a Mr. Daniel Toll, who had gone about three miles from Schenectady, in search of some stray horses. On receiving intelligence of his murder, about sixty young men, from Schenectady, started in quest of the enemy. They were soon surprised by a party of Indians in ambush, and more than half their number were killed. The remainder succeeded in reaching a house near by, where they kept the enemy at bay, till the Schenectady militia came to their aid, when the Indians fled and returned to Canada. Thirty-two young men, of the best families of Schenectady, fell in this affray.

The county was, with few exceptions, settled by the Dutch, and remained a part of Albany county until 1809.

CITIES AND VILLAGES. SCHENECTADY city, the seat of justice for the county, is situated on the south branch of the Mohawk river, fifteen miles northwest of Albany. As has been already stated, it was founded at a very early peri d.

Previous to the construction of the Erie canal, it was a place of very considerable business, as goods intended for the western trade were shipped upon the Mohawk at this place. After the completion of the canal, most of this trade was transferred to Albany; but the numerous railroads which now center here, have given it a new impulse, and its business and population have materially increased within a few years past.

The city has some manufactories—the principal are flour, paper, cotton goods, iron, leather, tobacco, malt liquors, &c. Population 6555.

Union College, which is located here, was founded in 1795, and received its name from the fact that its founders were members of different religious denominations. It has a corps of eleven professors, and three principal edifices, two of brick and one of stone. Its apparatus is very complete, and its library large and valuable. It is amply endowed, and has property to the amount of $450,000. Attached to the college building is a tract of land, 250 acres in extent, a part of which is laid out in walks and pleasure grounds. Its situation is highly picturesque.

Rotterdam is a small manufacturing village, in the town of the same name.

Duanesburgh is a village of some importance.

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